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The Effect Of Diazepam On Early Neural Stem Cells Proliferative Activity And Hippocampal-Dependent Memory After Traumatic Brain Injury, Van Khanh Le Doan 2021 Portland State University

The Effect Of Diazepam On Early Neural Stem Cells Proliferative Activity And Hippocampal-Dependent Memory After Traumatic Brain Injury, Van Khanh Le Doan

University Honors Theses

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces an upregulation of neurogenesis in the brain specifically in the hippocampus, an area pertaining to learning and memory formation. Although this upregulated response is intuitively thought to be restorative, previous studies show that the nascent neurons generated after TBI exhibit abnormalities, such as aberrant morphologies and early migrations, which could suggest to be maladaptive. The GABA-A agonist diazepam has been shown to inhibit this upregulation in neurogenesis and normalizes dendrites after TBI. To determine whether this modulation of neurogenesis is ultimately beneficial or detrimental to cognitive recovery, diazepam was administered to C57BI/6J wild-type mice ...


Interplay Between Shift Work, Psychological Distress, Sleep Quality, And Cognitive Performance, Rea Therese Alonzo 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Interplay Between Shift Work, Psychological Distress, Sleep Quality, And Cognitive Performance, Rea Therese Alonzo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Shift work schedules are designed to maintain a continuous operation of goods and services. However, engaging in shift work may impact cognitive functioning. This thesis assessed the relationship between shift work and cognitive performance. Using cross-sectional data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging, multiple linear regression models were used to investigate the association between shift work and cognitive performance, as well as the moderating effects of psychological distress and sleep quality. Differences by sex and retirement status were also investigated. Shift work was significantly associated with poor performance for executive functioning but not for declarative memory. Poorer cognitive performance ...


Effects Of Working Memory Load On Ensemble Versus Individual Object Processing, Clark Moore 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Effects Of Working Memory Load On Ensemble Versus Individual Object Processing, Clark Moore

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Ensemble perception is the ability of the visual system to summarize object groups by their statistical properties. At a fundamental level, past studies show clearly that ensembles are perceived, and statistical information is sent to working memory such that a subject may report on the averages (Ariely, 2001; Brady and Alvarez, 2011). Studies show that subjects are capable of reporting ensemble statistics for large groups of objects with high accuracy, inferring that this process bypasses the capacity limitations of attention and working memory (Chong and Treisman, 2003; Baijal et al., 2013; Huang, 2015; Epstein and Emmanouil, 2017, 2021). However, few ...


Using Fnirs To Identify Brain Regions Involved In Emotional Face Processing In Infants At High Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Christian Martinez 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Using Fnirs To Identify Brain Regions Involved In Emotional Face Processing In Infants At High Risk For Autism Spectrum Disorder, Christian Martinez

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Faces provide an abundance of salient information, and within a few hours of being born, infants already show preferential attention to faces and face-like stimuli. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder consisting of social communication and interaction difficulties, and individuals with ASD show differences in the behavioral and neural processing of faces. Prospective studies with infants at high risk for ASD (HRA; by virtue of an older sibling with ASD) have begun to look at whether responses to faces could be an early marker of later ASD. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), the current study measured oxygenated hemoglobin ...


The Effect Of Anticipatory Anxiety On Fear Extinction Learning, Daniela C. Echeverria 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Effect Of Anticipatory Anxiety On Fear Extinction Learning, Daniela C. Echeverria

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Adaptive regulation of fear is dependent on successful fear extinction learning; therefore, investigating factors that both enhance and diminish fear extinction learning is a critical line of research. In the present study, we induce mild anticipatory anxiety during fear extinction learning in an attempt to modulate how participants extinguish fear memory. In the experiment, we apply a classic three-day fear learning protocol to both control participants (N = 20) and an experimental group (N = 20) with fear acquisition, fear extinction, and fear recovery phases; each phase is separated by a period of 24 hours and we use a skin conductance response ...


Functional Connectivity Changes In The Default Mode Network In Moderate-To-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Emily J. Haight 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Functional Connectivity Changes In The Default Mode Network In Moderate-To-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Emily J. Haight

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients are known to have altered functional connectivity (FC), which has cognitive and behavioral significance and bears clinical implications. Previous literature has discovered a hyperconnectivity response to TBI, most notably in the default mode network (DMN). However, the exact pattern of changes in resting FC during the first year of recovery is unknown. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate longitudinal connectivity patterns in the DMN of 28 moderate-to-severe TBI patients as compared to 33 demographically matched healthy controls (HC). FC was assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months post-injury for patients using the ...


Learning To Feel Safe: A Translational Study Of The Influence Of Safety Learning On Anxiety-Related Overgeneralized Fear, Hyein Cho 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Learning To Feel Safe: A Translational Study Of The Influence Of Safety Learning On Anxiety-Related Overgeneralized Fear, Hyein Cho

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health diagnoses, affecting about a third of the population in their lifetime. However, approximately a third of individuals with anxiety do not respond to current treatment approaches, highlighting the need to identify additional potential therapeutic mechanisms. Safety learning is one such mechanism, but methodological challenges and a dearth of research have prevented the field from advancing the understanding of the role of safety learning in the etiology and remediation of anxiety disorders. Animal research, using single-cued safety learning paradigms, has yielded promising early findings, demonstrating that safety learning directly reduces anxiety-related behaviors ...


Exploring Tactile Art-Making With Deafblind Students And Their Families: An Opportunity For Creative Play, Alice Rodgers 2021 Lesley University

Exploring Tactile Art-Making With Deafblind Students And Their Families: An Opportunity For Creative Play, Alice Rodgers

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The impact of a deafblind diagnosis on an individual’s mental health and the well-being of the family involved can be profound. However, current research and available literature for the mental health treatment and therapy practices of deafblind persons and their families is limited (Kyzar et al., 2016; “WFDB Global Report 2018,” n.d.). This thesis used the Leeds Family Psychology and Therapy Service principles (Leeds FPTS) and the Expressive Therapies Continuum with established deafblind teaching strategies to facilitate an original arts-based community project entitled: “Things We Like.” This project provided an opportunity for deafblind students (ages three to 22 ...


Vitamin B12 Deficiency Does Not Stimulate Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Ceanorhabditis Elegans Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Opeyemi F. Showemimo 2021 East Tennessee State University

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Does Not Stimulate Amyloid-Beta Toxicity In A Ceanorhabditis Elegans Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Opeyemi F. Showemimo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is symptomized by amyloid-beta plaques in the brain and accounts for more than 65 percent of dementia cases. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency can result in similar cognitive impairment and roughly 15% of the elderly are vitamin B12 deficient. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in the accumulation of toxic methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a strong risk factor for AD. To test if vitamin B12 deficiency stimulates amyloid-beta toxicity, Caenorhabditis elegans expressing amyloid-beta in muscle were fed either vitamin B12-deficient OP50-1 or vitamin B12-rich HT115(DE3) E. coli bacteria. Increased amyloid-beta toxicity was found in worms fed ...


Using Deep Learning For Children Brain Image Analysis, Rafael Toche Pizano 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Using Deep Learning For Children Brain Image Analysis, Rafael Toche Pizano

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Analyzing the correlation between brain volumetric/morphometry features and cognition/behavior in children is important in the field of pediatrics as identifying such relationships can help identify children who may be at risk for illnesses. Understanding these relationships can not only help identify children who may be at risk of illnesses, but it can also help evaluate strategies that promote brain development in children. Currently, one way to do this is to use traditional statistical methods such as a correlation analysis, but such an approach does not make it easy to generalize and predict how brain volumetric/morphometry will impact ...


How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected Physical Activity, Sleep And Mental Health In University Students, Faculty And Staff And To Examine The Relationship Between These Variables, Zachary Parisi 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected Physical Activity, Sleep And Mental Health In University Students, Faculty And Staff And To Examine The Relationship Between These Variables, Zachary Parisi

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Background: Increased physical activity has been shown to be beneficial in decreasing stress. This project will expand on this knowledge while also studying college students, a demographic that has been less studied. This study will also examine the impact of COVID-19 on these variables. COVID-19 changed many peoples’ activities of daily life, and possibly physically activity levels, due to public health measures such as lockdowns and remote learning. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected physical activity, sleep, and mental health in university students, faculty and staff and to examine the relationship ...


An Eeg Source-Space Analysis Of The Neural Correlates Underlying Self-Regulation, Stephanie M. Long 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Eeg Source-Space Analysis Of The Neural Correlates Underlying Self-Regulation, Stephanie M. Long

Theses and Dissertations

Self-regulation is the cognitive process of controlling our thoughts and behaviors to be aligned with our goals. This process is used in many different contexts and has been associated with contributions from several brain regions. This research aimed to investigate differences in four prefrontal areas of the brain while participants applied four different self-regulation strategies. We recorded EEG while participants (N = 132) performed three tasks which engaged each of the four self-regulation strategies: the AX-CPT task engaged proactive and reactive control, the Go/Nogo task engaged inhibitory control, and the hybrid Flanker Global/Local task engaged the resolution of response ...


Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


A Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 2b Proof-Of-Concept Clinical Trial In Early Alzheimer’S Disease With Lecanemab, An Anti-Aβ Protofibril Antibody, Chad J. Swanson, Yong Zhang, Shobha Dhadda, Jinping Wang, June Kaplow, Robert Y.K. Lai, Lars Lannfelt, Heather Bradley, Martin Rabe, Akihiko Koyama, Larisa Reyderman, Donald A. Berry, Scott Berry, Robert Gordon, Lynn D. Kramer, Jeffrey L. Cummings 2021 Eisai Inc.

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase 2b Proof-Of-Concept Clinical Trial In Early Alzheimer’S Disease With Lecanemab, An Anti-Aβ Protofibril Antibody, Chad J. Swanson, Yong Zhang, Shobha Dhadda, Jinping Wang, June Kaplow, Robert Y.K. Lai, Lars Lannfelt, Heather Bradley, Martin Rabe, Akihiko Koyama, Larisa Reyderman, Donald A. Berry, Scott Berry, Robert Gordon, Lynn D. Kramer, Jeffrey L. Cummings

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: Lecanemab (BAN2401), an IgG1 monoclonal antibody, preferentially targets soluble aggregated amyloid beta (Aβ), with activity across oligomers, protofibrils, and insoluble fibrils. BAN2401-G000-201, a randomized double-blind clinical trial, utilized a Bayesian design with response-adaptive randomization to assess 3 doses across 2 regimens of lecanemab versus placebo in early Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild AD dementia. Methods: BAN2401-G000-201 aimed to establish the effective dose 90% (ED90), defined as the simplest dose that achieves ≥90% of the maximum treatment effect. The primary endpoint was Bayesian analysis of 12-month clinical change on the Alzheimer ...


Mental Fatigue: Examining Cognitive Performance And Driving Behavior In Young Adults, Abigail F. Helm 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Mental Fatigue: Examining Cognitive Performance And Driving Behavior In Young Adults, Abigail F. Helm

Doctoral Dissertations

Mental fatigue causes an increase in task-based EEG theta and alpha power and a decrease in performance (for a review, see Tran et al., 2020). However, little is known about the emergence of mental fatigue in resting state EEG recordings and whether the progression of mental fatigue over time is influenced by individual differences. The current dissertation examined the utility of resting state EEG as a measure of mental fatigue by testing whether EEG power changed in young adults over the course of a cognitively demanding battery of tasks. The current dissertation also tested how this measure of mental fatigue ...


The Influence Of The Gut Microbiota And Alzheimer’S Disease, Mackenzie E. Gibbs 2021 Coastal Carolina University

The Influence Of The Gut Microbiota And Alzheimer’S Disease, Mackenzie E. Gibbs

Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease that effects the neurons in the brain and can lead to cognitive impairment and death. The main aspects of Alzheimer’s research focus on genetic factors contributing to the disease, but the microbiota gut-brain-axis may be playing a potential role in Alzheimer’s development. The human body has an abundant microbiota to help our bodies carry out daily needs, but the amount of microbiota present has to be kept in a tolerance range by the immune system. If there is an increase in the amount of gut microbiota present in the human body ...


Anhedonia And Its Intervention In Depressive Adults: New Developments Based On Research Domain Criteria (Rdoc) In Mental Illnesses, J. Mao, J. Yuan 2021 Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China

Anhedonia And Its Intervention In Depressive Adults: New Developments Based On Research Domain Criteria (Rdoc) In Mental Illnesses, J. Mao, J. Yuan

Stress and Brain

Anhedonia, as one of the core symptoms of depression, is of great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of depression. Traditionally, anhedonia has been referred to as "loss of pleasure" , while the recent research emphasizes that anhedonia is a complex and multidimensional construct based on reward processing impairment. Exploring different manifestations of anhedonia and developing the corresponding interventions have become indispensable in the current research of depression. Based on the positive valence system of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), this paper firstly demonstrates that the anhedonia of depressive adults are mainly characterized by the impairments in anticipatory pleasure, incentive motivation ...


Exposure To Single Prolonged Stress Fails To Induce Anxiety-Like Behavior In Mice, W-J. You, Y. He, W-Z. Liu, Yu-Ge Zhu, Ping Hu, Bing-Xing Pan, Wen-Hua Zhang 2021 Laboratory of Fear and Anxiety Disorders, Institute of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China

Exposure To Single Prolonged Stress Fails To Induce Anxiety-Like Behavior In Mice, W-J. You, Y. He, W-Z. Liu, Yu-Ge Zhu, Ping Hu, Bing-Xing Pan, Wen-Hua Zhang

Stress and Brain

Single prolonged stress (SPS) is a well-established and most frequently used rat model to induce post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms, which helps to understand the neurobiological mechanisms as well as developing novel therapeutic strategies for PTSD. However, whether such stress model works efficiently in mice remains unknown. In the present study, we established a mouse SPS (mSPS) model by exposing C57BL/6J mice to a series of multimodal stressors on a single day, then the anxiety-like behavior was measured by open-field test, elevated plus maze test, dark-light box, and novelty-suppressed feeding test. Our results showed that mSPS had no ...


Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady 2021 Dublin City Schools

Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight four segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention. 4- A review of interventions available to assist clients in navigating a lifestyle away from pornography.


Is Motor Excitability Modulated By Isochronous Rhythms?, Syed Z. Raza 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Is Motor Excitability Modulated By Isochronous Rhythms?, Syed Z. Raza

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Humans perceive and synchronize to regularity in auditory temporal sequences. Auditory regularity activates motor areas, but how the timing of motor responses relates to the regularity is unclear. Thus, we examined whether motor excitability, an index of motor activity, fluctuated to an isochronous sequence and characterized the timing of these fluctuations. Participants heard isochronous tones followed by a short silence, during which they imagined the tones continuing. Using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we indexed excitability throughout the sequence. Cosine models were fit to constructed excitability timecourses to quantify periodicity of the excitability fluctuations. Motor excitability did not fluctuate ...


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