Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Behavioral Neurobiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

855 Full-Text Articles 1,262 Authors 242,760 Downloads 111 Institutions

All Articles in Behavioral Neurobiology

Faceted Search

855 full-text articles. Page 1 of 33.

The Role Of Placental Genes On Intellectual Disability And Developmental Delay, Maedot A. Yidenk 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Role Of Placental Genes On Intellectual Disability And Developmental Delay, Maedot A. Yidenk

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The complex interaction between gene expressions and environmental factors plays a key role in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including neurodevelopmental disorders (Lenroot & Giedd, 2008). This study aimed to evaluate first, the magnitude of association between placental gene Methyl-CpG Binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) and intellectual disability (ID) in the offspring and second, the synergy between placental gene Forkhead box protein 1(FOXP1) and developmental delay (DD) in the offspring. We focused on assessing two specific paradigms, i) placental gene expressions of MeCP2 among children that have ID vs. children without ID; and ii) placental gene expression of FOXP1 among children that have DD vs. children without DD. We measured the presence and severity of ID using Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) derived from the Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence IV (WPPSI-IV) as well as the presence and severity of DD using a composite score from Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Bayley-III) and examined gene expressions of MeCP2 and FOXP1 in the placenta. Previous studies found concrete evidence that both MeCP2 and FOXP1 are implicated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as ID and DD (Chahrour et al., 2008; Meerschaut et al., 2017). We proposed to test whether hyper expressions of those two genes (MeCP2 and FOXP1) in placenta will be associated with children that have higher intellectual and developmental scores. We further examined the influence of prenatal stress, as measured ...


Early Emotion Regulation In The Children Of Superstorm Sandy, Jessica L. Buthmann 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Early Emotion Regulation In The Children Of Superstorm Sandy, Jessica L. Buthmann

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Rising prevalence of childhood psychopathology mandate investigation into the antecedents of symptom onset. Growing evidence shows prenatal maternal stress experienced in utero is a strong contributor to offspring neurodevelopmental deficits, including emotion dysregulation, a core feature of many types of psychopathology. This dissertation summarizes a body of work studying children prenatally exposed to maternal stress related to a natural disaster, Superstorm Sandy (i.e., storm stress). This work includes six experiments conducted in the framework of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. The DOHaD hypothesis posits that developmental disruptions, like storm stress exposure, during a critical period ...


Targeting Ampa Receptor Modulation During Early Life Adversity: A Mediator For Threat Associated Memories, Roseanna M. Zanca 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Targeting Ampa Receptor Modulation During Early Life Adversity: A Mediator For Threat Associated Memories, Roseanna M. Zanca

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Early life adversity (ELA) is the exposure to a single or to multiple traumatic events before the age of 18 that go beyond the child’s coping. These adverse events are often exacerbated during adolescence particularly when cognitive performance is compromised. Adolescents who experienced ELA may show symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while not vividly recalling the early life trauma. These individuals show atypical connectivity between prefrontal-amygdala and hippocampus, all of which is associated with an increased risk of experiencing a traumatic event again later in life. While clinical research has increasingly stressed the importance in addressing the long-lasting ...


The Effect Of Anticipatory Anxiety On Fear Extinction Learning, Daniela C. Echeverria 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Effect Of Anticipatory Anxiety On Fear Extinction Learning, Daniela C. Echeverria

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Adaptive regulation of fear is dependent on successful fear extinction learning; therefore, investigating factors that both enhance and diminish fear extinction learning is a critical line of research. In the present study, we induce mild anticipatory anxiety during fear extinction learning in an attempt to modulate how participants extinguish fear memory. In the experiment, we apply a classic three-day fear learning protocol to both control participants (N = 20) and an experimental group (N = 20) with fear acquisition, fear extinction, and fear recovery phases; each phase is separated by a period of 24 hours and we use a skin conductance response ...


Psychological Impact Of Novel Coronavirus Covid-19 Across The Globe-A Review, Sadaf Shaheen, Iram Asim, Rida Zainab, Humaira Yasmeen 2021 Department of Microbiology, Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan

Psychological Impact Of Novel Coronavirus Covid-19 Across The Globe-A Review, Sadaf Shaheen, Iram Asim, Rida Zainab, Humaira Yasmeen

Journal of Bioresource Management

The recent outbreaks of novel coronavirus disease have unprecedent impact on mental health of patients, front-line healthcare workers and local population. However, the impact is not fully documented. This review explores stress-driven factors, stress-vulnerable groups and stress management interventions. Repetitive exposure to mass media and inappropriate health protective measures has heightened stress responses. Fear of not getting recovered from COVID-19 and disaffection has profound impact of infected individuals and their families. They may experience fear, anxiety, anger, sleep deprives and anorexia which may weakens their immune system thus making them vulnerable to COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored potential gaps ...


Rhythm Of The Night: Brain Activity And Performance On A Sustained Attention Task Is Modulated By Circadian Typology And Time Of Day, Carly R. Cooper 2021 University of South Dakota

Rhythm Of The Night: Brain Activity And Performance On A Sustained Attention Task Is Modulated By Circadian Typology And Time Of Day, Carly R. Cooper

Honors Thesis

The human circadian system plays an important role in biological and psychological processes in both health and disease. Circadian typology refers to individual differences in circadian rhythm and is categorized into three general chronotypes: morning, evening, and neither. Research suggests that an individual’s diurnal preference may be associated with differences in cognitive abilities, personality traits, and incidence of psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we utilized a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and an electroencephalogram (EEG) in a desynchrony protocol. Morning-type and evening-type participants completed a SART task on two separate occasions during which brain activity was recorded ...


An Eeg Source-Space Analysis Of The Neural Correlates Underlying Self-Regulation, Stephanie M. Long 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Eeg Source-Space Analysis Of The Neural Correlates Underlying Self-Regulation, Stephanie M. Long

Theses and Dissertations

Self-regulation is the cognitive process of controlling our thoughts and behaviors to be aligned with our goals. This process is used in many different contexts and has been associated with contributions from several brain regions. This research aimed to investigate differences in four prefrontal areas of the brain while participants applied four different self-regulation strategies. We recorded EEG while participants (N = 132) performed three tasks which engaged each of the four self-regulation strategies: the AX-CPT task engaged proactive and reactive control, the Go/Nogo task engaged inhibitory control, and the hybrid Flanker Global/Local task engaged the resolution of response ...


Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Psychedelics Can Save: The Scientific And Social Case For Rescheduling Psychedelic Compounds, Galen M. Fader

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Development And Evaluation Of Novel Da Transport Inhibitors And Their Effects On Effort-Related Motivation: A Review, Mukund Desibhatla 2021 University of Connecticut

The Development And Evaluation Of Novel Da Transport Inhibitors And Their Effects On Effort-Related Motivation: A Review, Mukund Desibhatla

Honors Scholar Theses

Depression is a debilitating disorder that can cause motivational deficits such as psychomotor retardation, anergia, apathy, and fatigue. Recent research indicates that these motivational deficits, and potential pathways of therapeutic intervention, can be studied in animal models involving rats and mice. Treatments with the VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine (TBZ) and cytokine interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) can create a low-effort bias and impair effort-related motivation (Nunes et al. 2013, 2014). A number of high-affinity DA transport inhibitors such as d-amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine can restore extracellular DA, albeit with the cost of undesirable effects such as high abuse liability. These observations have led researchers ...


The Neurobiological Relationship Between Childhood Maltreatment And Major Depressive Disorder (Mdd), Morgan Clinton 2021 Pepperdine University

The Neurobiological Relationship Between Childhood Maltreatment And Major Depressive Disorder (Mdd), Morgan Clinton

Global Tides

Childhood maltreatment compromises healthy development, impacts neurobiology, and is associated with lasting alterations to emotional perception, processing, and regulation. Most significantly, childhood maltreatment increases the risk for later development of emotional disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD). The stress associated with both childhood maltreatment and MDD can lead to lasting alterations to the fronto-limbic circuitry. Using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, researchers have observed hippocampal atrophy and amygdala hyperresponsiveness in participants who’ve experienced both childhood maltreatment and MDD. Furthermore, researchers have also observed increased connectivity between the hippocampus and amygdala in victims of childhood maltreatment. Because childhood ...


Landmark-Guided T-Maze Learning In The Wolf Spider Tigrosa Helluo, Tiffany Guth 2021 Susquehanna University

Landmark-Guided T-Maze Learning In The Wolf Spider Tigrosa Helluo, Tiffany Guth

Senior Scholars Day

Wolf spiders can learn spatial navigation through simple maze tasks. It remains unclear if spatial learning is acquired through idiothetic information (i.e. self-referential movement cues) or if they use allothetic cues (e.g. external landmarks) to navigate. Spiders may also use specific types of landmarks to navigate known as reference frames. A reference frame is an environmental shape or boundary that provides a framework for spatial localization. Using a modified water T-maze, we recorded the ability of adult female Tigrosa helluo wolf spiders to correctly navigate toward a target reward. We measured variation in spatial learning of the target ...


Npy Expression Of Low-Birth Weight Offspring In Nutrient-Restricted Utero, Janine Levandowski, Holly Young 2021 Susquehanna University

Npy Expression Of Low-Birth Weight Offspring In Nutrient-Restricted Utero, Janine Levandowski, Holly Young

Senior Scholars Day

No abstract provided.


B12: The T Cell Co-Receptor Cd5 Alters Mouse Behavior And Gut Microbiome Composition, Kyle Reaveley 2021 Brigham Young University

B12: The T Cell Co-Receptor Cd5 Alters Mouse Behavior And Gut Microbiome Composition, Kyle Reaveley

Annual Research Symposium

No abstract provided.


Autism Treatments: Beyond Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy, Sarah Samosiuk 2021 Grand Valley State University

Autism Treatments: Beyond Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy, Sarah Samosiuk

Honors Projects

This literature review dicusses the efficacy of mindfulness as a potential treatment option for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It differs from other treatment options as it works to reduce the symptoms of ASD by reducing the stress and anxiety that cause the symptoms. I discuss the neuroscience behind the autistic mind and give a multitude of studies showing the power of mindfulness. Researchers have only scratched the surface of the possibilities that mindfulness could achieve in this field and hopefully this movement can gain traction so that this kind of help is available to all of those who ...


Anhedonia And Its Intervention In Depressive Adults: New Developments Based On Research Domain Criteria (Rdoc) In Mental Illnesses, J. Mao, J. Yuan 2021 Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China

Anhedonia And Its Intervention In Depressive Adults: New Developments Based On Research Domain Criteria (Rdoc) In Mental Illnesses, J. Mao, J. Yuan

Stress and Brain

Anhedonia, as one of the core symptoms of depression, is of great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of depression. Traditionally, anhedonia has been referred to as "loss of pleasure" , while the recent research emphasizes that anhedonia is a complex and multidimensional construct based on reward processing impairment. Exploring different manifestations of anhedonia and developing the corresponding interventions have become indispensable in the current research of depression. Based on the positive valence system of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), this paper firstly demonstrates that the anhedonia of depressive adults are mainly characterized by the impairments in anticipatory pleasure, incentive motivation ...


Exposure To Single Prolonged Stress Fails To Induce Anxiety-Like Behavior In Mice, W-J. You, Y. He, W-Z. Liu, Yu-Ge Zhu, Ping Hu, Bing-Xing Pan, Wen-Hua Zhang 2021 Laboratory of Fear and Anxiety Disorders, Institute of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China

Exposure To Single Prolonged Stress Fails To Induce Anxiety-Like Behavior In Mice, W-J. You, Y. He, W-Z. Liu, Yu-Ge Zhu, Ping Hu, Bing-Xing Pan, Wen-Hua Zhang

Stress and Brain

Single prolonged stress (SPS) is a well-established and most frequently used rat model to induce post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms, which helps to understand the neurobiological mechanisms as well as developing novel therapeutic strategies for PTSD. However, whether such stress model works efficiently in mice remains unknown. In the present study, we established a mouse SPS (mSPS) model by exposing C57BL/6J mice to a series of multimodal stressors on a single day, then the anxiety-like behavior was measured by open-field test, elevated plus maze test, dark-light box, and novelty-suppressed feeding test. Our results showed that mSPS had no ...


Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady 2021 Dublin City Schools

Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight four segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention. 4- A review of interventions available to assist clients in navigating a lifestyle away from pornography.


Cognitive Changes Caused By Lps-Induced Neuroinflammation, Nancy De La Torre 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Cognitive Changes Caused By Lps-Induced Neuroinflammation, Nancy De La Torre

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The brain performs cognitive processes finely orchestrated by timely precise action of neurons. Neurons functioning at their highest standard communicate with each other through perfectly functioning synapses. Microglia, as part of the immune system assist synaptic processing and have the ability to affect cognition. Indeed, microglia play a role in cognition. To investigate the link between microglia and cognition we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to pharmacologically activate microglia. LPS, normally present in the environment on the wall of Gram-negative bacteria is a pharmacological agent used to cause microglia activation in mice. LPS is a typical model to study changes induced by ...


Influence Of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Iodoamphetamine (Doi) On Ethanol Preference And Consumption In C57bl/6 Male Mice, Alaina M. Jaster, Sam Gottlieb, Michael Miles, Javier González-Maeso 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Influence Of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Iodoamphetamine (Doi) On Ethanol Preference And Consumption In C57bl/6 Male Mice, Alaina M. Jaster, Sam Gottlieb, Michael Miles, Javier González-Maeso

Graduate Research Posters

Substance use disorders (SUD) account for a large number of mental health diagnosis in the United States and around the world. Approximately 13.6 million adults 26 or older and 5.1 million young adults (ages 18-24) battled with a SUD in 2017. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) alone effects nearly 6% of the adult population within the United States. This creates a substantial burden on the individual, with alcohol being the third-leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Few treatments for AUD exist, with no new FDA-approved therapeutic treatments within the last 15 years. Additionally, the limited treatments ...


Opioid Use Disorder: The Timeline For Medication Assisted Therapy, Alexander Cristofori 2021 Arcadia University

Opioid Use Disorder: The Timeline For Medication Assisted Therapy, Alexander Cristofori

Capstone Showcase

Opioid Use Disorder is patterns of opioid use leading to withdrawal, giving up important life events in order to use opioids, and excessive time spent using opioids, to name a few diagnostic criteria. The clinical progression of the disorder involves periods of acute exacerbation and remission that are cyclic in nature. Treatment is most effective when it includes both pharmacological and psychosocial modalities, referred to as medication assisted therapy (MAT). Three drugs used commonly in MAT-based treatment for OUD from oldest to newest include Methadone, Buprenorphine-naloxone, and Naltrexone. Treatment program models that prioritize total abstinence from the addictive substance attached ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress