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Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica, Gmelin 1791) Population Dynamics On Public Reefs In The Great Wicomico River, Virginia, Usa, Melissa Southworth, Juliana M. Harding, James A. Wesson, Roger L. Mann 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Oyster (Crassostrea Virginica, Gmelin 1791) Population Dynamics On Public Reefs In The Great Wicomico River, Virginia, Usa, Melissa Southworth, Juliana M. Harding, James A. Wesson, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

We describe oyster population trends in the Great Wicomico River, VA, from 2000 through 2009 using quantitative fishery independent survey data collected using a stratified random design. The seven public reefs examined cover a total of 2.8 X 10(5) m(2) and vary in individual size from 1.36 X 10(4) to 7.16 X 10(4) m(2). The river is functionally divided by a sand spit into upriver and downriver regions. Oyster densities on the upriver reefs were typically an order of magnitude higher than densities on the downriver reefs within the same time period. Throughout the system, the highest observed densities were …


Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, YW Luo, M. A.M. Friedrichs, SC Doney, MJ Church, HW Ducklow 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Oceanic Heterotrophic Bacterial Nutrition By Semilabile Dom As Revealed By Data Assimilative Modeling, Yw Luo, M. A.M. Friedrichs, Sc Doney, Mj Church, Hw Ducklow

VIMS Articles

Previous studies have focused on the role of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) (defined as turnover time of similar to 1 d) in supporting heterotrophic bacterial production, but have mostly neglected semilabile DOM (defined as turnover time of similar to 100 to 1000 d) as a potential substrate for heterotrophic bacterial growth. To test the hypothesis that semilabile DOM supports substantial amounts of heterotrophic bacterial production in the open ocean, we constructed a 1-dimensional epipelagic ecosystem model and applied it to 3 open ocean sites: the Arabian Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Station ALOHA in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The …


2010 Piscataqua Region Comprehensive Conservation And Management Plan (Ccmp), Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership 2010 University of New Hampshire

2010 Piscataqua Region Comprehensive Conservation And Management Plan (Ccmp), Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership

PREP Reports & Publications

In the fall of 2010, the Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership (PREP) completed an 18-month effort to understand current and future environmental issues affecting the Region’s estuaries, to establish realistic goals and objectives for the next 10 years, and to create effective action plans to systematically achieve the shared environmental goals of a broad base of Regional stakeholders.

With input from more than 150 individuals, representing 82 organizations, PREP compiled the 2010 Piscataqua Region Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP) that lays the foundation for work over the next decade to protect and restore the Region’s estuaries and associated watersheds


East Kingston Buffer Outreach, Ctap Program, Julie LaBranche 2010 Rockingham Planning Commission

East Kingston Buffer Outreach, Ctap Program, Julie Labranche

PREP Reports & Publications

Rockingham Planning Commission worked with the East Kingston Conservation Commission to identify buffer areas on the Pheasant Run conservation property, install buffer boundary markers and interpretive signage for entrances, buffers and wetlands on the Pheasant Run conservation property, develop and distribute brochures about the Pheasant Run conservation property, develop an outreach program about buffers at the East Kingston library, and develop a newspaper about protecting wetlands and water resources, including water quality protection measures, buffer planting and maintenance, functions and values of buffers, and wildlife and aquatic habitat.


A Citizen's Guide To Protecting East Kingston's Water Resources, Julie LaBranche 2010 Rockingham Planning Commission

A Citizen's Guide To Protecting East Kingston's Water Resources, Julie Labranche

PREP Reports & Publications

East Kingston is fortunate to still have much of the rural charm that makes living in New Hampshire so special. The ability to take relaxing walks through beautiful natural areas just minutes from your back door is one of the reasons residents love this town. Many of these open natural areas in town are on conservation land and one small parcel is getting extra attention by the East Kingston Conservation Commission to make it even more accessible to residents.


Snail Grazing Facilitates Growth Of A Bloom-Forming Alga, Michele Guidone, Carol S. Thornber, Emily Field 2010 Sacred Heart University

Snail Grazing Facilitates Growth Of A Bloom-Forming Alga, Michele Guidone, Carol S. Thornber, Emily Field

Biology Faculty Publications

Herbivory often has a negative effect on plants. However, there is a growing number of examples, primarily in terrestrial ecosystems, where herbivory causes an increase in plant size, growth rate, and/or reproductive output. In marine ecosystems, the positive effects of herbivores on macroalgae are not as well studied, although limited evidence exists for herbivore-induced increases in macroalgal growth rates via 2 mechanisms: nutrient addition via grazer defecation, and epiphyte removal. In this study, we examined the effects of grazing by the mud snail Ilyanassa obsoleta on Ulva lactuca, the dominant bloom-forming macroalga in many New England estuaries. We found …


Growth, Reproductive Condition, And Digestive Tubule Atrophy Of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas In Gamakman Bay Off The Southern Coast Of Korea, DH Kang, Fu-Lin E. Chu, HS Yang, CH Lee, CH Lee, HB Koh, KS Choi 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Growth, Reproductive Condition, And Digestive Tubule Atrophy Of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea Gigas In Gamakman Bay Off The Southern Coast Of Korea, Dh Kang, Fu-Lin E. Chu, Hs Yang, Ch Lee, Ch Lee, Hb Koh, Ks Choi

VIMS Articles

Spat of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were collected from Gamakman Bay, Korea, and raised in a spat hardening facility located in the low intertidal zone of the bay for a "hardening/stunting" period of 10 mo. Seasonal changes in growth, reproductive condition, and digestive tubule atrophy (DTA) of these "hardened/stunted" oysters were monitored for more than a year after transplanting to a suspended longline system in a grow-out area in the bay. After transplantation, the hardened/stunted oysters showed a logarithmic increase in shell size for the first 4 mo, from June to October, and growth remained stable from late fall to …


Evolutionary Characters, Phenotypes And Ontologies: Curating Data From The Systematic Biology Literature, Wasila M. Dahdul, Eric J. Hilton 2010 et al

Evolutionary Characters, Phenotypes And Ontologies: Curating Data From The Systematic Biology Literature, Wasila M. Dahdul, Eric J. Hilton

VIMS Articles

Background: The wealth of phenotypic descriptions documented in the published articles, monographs, and dissertations of phylogenetic systematics is traditionally reported in a free-text format, and it is therefore largely inaccessible for linkage to biological databases for genetics, development, and phenotypes, and difficult to manage for large-scale integrative work. The Phenoscape project aims to represent these complex and detailed descriptions with rich and formal semantics that are amenable to computation and integration with phenotype data from other fields of biology. This entails reconceptualizing the traditional free-text characters into the computable Entity-Quality (EQ) formalism using ontologies. Methodology/Principal Findings: We used ontologies and …


Dynamics And Distribution Of Natural And Human-Caused Hypoxia, N. N. Rabalais, R. J. Diaz, L.A. Levin, R.E. Turner, D. Gilbert, J. Zhang 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Dynamics And Distribution Of Natural And Human-Caused Hypoxia, N. N. Rabalais, R. J. Diaz, L.A. Levin, R.E. Turner, D. Gilbert, J. Zhang

VIMS Articles

Water masses can become undersaturated with oxygen when natural processes alone or in combination with anthropogenic processes produce enough organic carbon that is aerobically decomposed faster than the rate of oxygen re-aeration. The dominant natural processes usually involved are photosynthetic carbon production and microbial respiration. The re-supply rate is indirectly related to its isolation from the surface layer. Hypoxic water masses (< 2 mg L-1, or approximately 30% saturation) can form, therefore, under 'natural' conditions, and are more likely to occur in marine systems when the water residence time is extended, water exchange and ventilation are minimal, stratification occurs, and where carbon production and export to the bottom layer are relatively high. Hypoxia has occurred through geological time and naturally occurs in oxygen minimum zones, deep basins, eastern boundary upwelling systems, and fjords. Hypoxia development and continuation in many areas of the world's coastal ocean is accelerated by human activities, especially where nutrient loading increased in the Anthropocene. This higher loading set in motion a cascading set of events related to eutrophication. The formation of hypoxic areas has been exacerbated by any combination of interactions that increase primary production and accumulation of organic carbon leading to increased respiratory demand for oxygen below a seasonal or permanent pycnocline. Nutrient loading is likely to increase further as population growth and resource intensification rises, especially with increased dependency on crops using fertilizers, burning of fossil fuels, urbanization, and waste water generation. It is likely that the occurrence and persistence of hypoxia will be even more widespread and have more impacts than presently observed. Global climate change will further complicate the causative factors in both natural and human-caused hypoxia. The likelihood of strengthened stratification alone, from increased surface water temperature as the global climate warms, is sufficient to worsen hypoxia where it currently exists and facilitate its formation in additional waters. Increased precipitation that increases freshwater discharge and flux of nutrients will result in increased primary production in the receiving waters up to a point. The interplay of increased nutrients and stratification where they occur will aggravate and accelerate hypoxia. Changes in wind fields may expand oxygen minimum zones onto more continental shelf areas. On the other hand, not all regions will experience increased precipitation, some oceanic water temperatures may decrease as currents shift, and frequency and severity of tropical storms may increase and temporarily disrupt hypoxia more often. The consequences of global warming and climate change are effectively uncontrollable at least in the near term. On the other hand, the consequences of eutrophication-induced hypoxia can be reversed if long-term, broad-scale, and persistent efforts to reduce substantial nutrient loads are developed and implemented. In the face of globally expanding hypoxia, there is a need for water and resource managers to act now to reduce nutrient loads to maintain, at least, the current status.


Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa de Melo, Kimberly S. Reece 2010 et al

Molecular Identification, Phylogeny And Geographic Distribution Of Brazilian Mangrove Oysters (Crassostrea), Aline Grasielle Costa De Melo, Kimberly S. Reece

VIMS Articles

Oysters (Ostreidae) manifest a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, whereby morphology is of limited value for species identification and taxonomy. By using molecular data, the aim was to genetically characterize the species of Crassostrea occurring along the Brazilian coast, and phylogenetically relate these to other Crassostrea from different parts of the world. Sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene (COI), revealed a total of three species of Crassostrea at 16 locations along the Brazilian coast. C. gasar was found from Curuca (Para state) to Santos (Sao Paulo state), and C. rhizophorae from Fortim (Ceara state) to Florianopolis …


Bycatch Reduction Device Conserves Diamondback Terrapin Without Affecting Catch Of Blue Crab, Megan A. Rook, RN Lipcius, Bret M. Bronner, Randolph Chambers 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Bycatch Reduction Device Conserves Diamondback Terrapin Without Affecting Catch Of Blue Crab, Megan A. Rook, Rn Lipcius, Bret M. Bronner, Randolph Chambers

VIMS Articles

Bycatch mortality of non-target species in fisheries is a major threat to the conservation and restoration of marine and estuarine species. Attempts to reduce bycatch by fitting fishing gear with excluder devices have typically been met with resistance due to reductions in catch of target species. We examined the possibility that conservation and fishery goals could be met simultaneously. In lower Chesapeake Bay, we tested a mechanism for reducing bycatch of diamondback terrapin Malaclemys terrapin in blue-crab traps without affecting crab catch. Over 23 sampling dates during summer 2008, we compared terrapin captures at 2 shallow-water sites typical of recreational …


Determination Of Total Dissolved Cobalt In Uv-Irradiated Seawater Using Flow Injection With Chemiluminescence Detection, Rachel U. Shelley, Bernhard Zachhuber, Peter N. Sedwick, Paul J. Worsfold, Maeve C. Lohan 2010 Old Dominion University

Determination Of Total Dissolved Cobalt In Uv-Irradiated Seawater Using Flow Injection With Chemiluminescence Detection, Rachel U. Shelley, Bernhard Zachhuber, Peter N. Sedwick, Paul J. Worsfold, Maeve C. Lohan

OES Faculty Publications

A sensitive flow-injection method with chemiluminescence detection (FI-CL) for the determination of dissolved cobalt in open ocean samples, suitable for shipboard use has been developed. To date, FI methods for dissolved cobalt have been used only in coastal and estuarine waters. Therefore, significant modifications to existing methods were required, including (1) the use of a commercially available iminodiacetate (IDA) resin (Toyopearl AF-chelate 650M) in place of resin immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline for online preconcentration and matrix removal, (2) the introduction of acidified ammonium acetate (pH 4) as a column-conditioning step before sample loading and rinse steps, and most importantly, (3) UV irradiation …


Buoyancy Regulation In Phaeocystis Globosa Scherffel Colonies, Xiaodong Wang, Kam W. Tang 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Buoyancy Regulation In Phaeocystis Globosa Scherffel Colonies, Xiaodong Wang, Kam W. Tang

VIMS Articles

Buoyancy of Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel (Prymnesiophyceae) colonies was investigated by measuring the vertical distribution of colonies in quiescent water where convection had been removed. Over 60% of the colonies exhibited negative buoyancy regardless of light condition or growth phase. Positively and neutrally buoyant colonies lost their buoyancy in the dark, but regained buoyancy upon return to the light. Colonies with closer cell packing; i.e., more cells per unit colonial surface area, had greater capability to remain buoyant. Our results suggest that colony buoyancy was not uniform within a P. globosa population, and that biological regulation of colony buoyancy required light …


Interspecific Variation In Palatability Suggests Cospecialization Of Antipredator Defenses In Sea Hares, Kimberly K. Takagi, Nadia N. Ono, William G. Wright 2010 Chapman University

Interspecific Variation In Palatability Suggests Cospecialization Of Antipredator Defenses In Sea Hares, Kimberly K. Takagi, Nadia N. Ono, William G. Wright

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Prey species often deploy different kinds of antipredator defenses, which can interact with each other in ways that are not yet completely understood. Much research into these interactions has utilized gastropod mollusks, usually focusing (in part) on the protective utility of the gastropod shell. This makes the evolutionary reduction of the shell in the opisthobranch gastropods (marine slugs) particularly interesting. This loss of protective function of the shell is associated with the evolution of alternative defenses. Particularly well studied are chemical defenses, especially those using secondary metabolites derived from food resources. As a first step toward understanding interspecific variation in …


Benthic Ecology From Space: Optics And Net Primary Production In Seagrass And Benthic Algae Across The Great Bahama Bank, Heidi M. Dierssen, Richard C. Zimmerman, Lisa A. Drake, David J. Burdige 2010 Old Dominion University

Benthic Ecology From Space: Optics And Net Primary Production In Seagrass And Benthic Algae Across The Great Bahama Bank, Heidi M. Dierssen, Richard C. Zimmerman, Lisa A. Drake, David J. Burdige

OES Faculty Publications

Development of repeatable and quantitative tools are necessary for determining the abundance and distribution of different types of benthic habitats, detecting changes to these ecosystems, and determining their role in the global carbon cycle. Here we used ocean color remote sensing techniques to map different major groups of primary producers and estimate net primary productivity (NPP) across Great Bahama Bank (GBB). Field investigations on the northern portion of the GBB in 2004 revealed 3 dominant types of benthic primary producers: seagrass, benthic macroalgae, and microalgae attached to sediment. Laboratory measurements of NPP ranged from barely net autotrophic for grapestone sediment …


Impacts Of The Spotted Spiny Lobster (Panulirus Guttatus) On The Long-Spined Sea Urchin (Diadema Antillarum) And Patch Reef Communities In The Florida Keys, Meredith D. Kintzing 2010 Old Dominion University

Impacts Of The Spotted Spiny Lobster (Panulirus Guttatus) On The Long-Spined Sea Urchin (Diadema Antillarum) And Patch Reef Communities In The Florida Keys, Meredith D. Kintzing

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Caribbean coral reefs have undergone a phase shift from a system dominated by corals to one where algae are pervasive. This shift was precipitated by the loss of herbivores, including the mass mortality of the long spined sea urchin (Diadema antillarum), coupled with disease and the recruitment failure of hermatypic corals. Diadema populations have recovered in some areas of the Caribbean, but are still below historical levels in the Florida Keys, likely due to low larval supply coupled with predation on juveniles. Lobsters are sea urchin predators in other systems and the spotted spiny lobster (Panulirus guttatus …


Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay, January 2009-December 2009 : Annual Progress Report, Leonard S. Machut, Mary C. Fabrizio 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay, January 2009-December 2009 : Annual Progress Report, Leonard S. Machut, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

The 2009 striped bass juvenile abundance index is 8.42 and is not significantly different from the historic average of 7.54. Additional methods of calculating the regional index support this conclusion. Catches in the York River were nearly identical to its historic average. Although the James River catches were higher and the Rappahannock River catches were lower than historic averages, they were not significantly so. Striped bass catches at auxiliary stations provide greater spatial coverage of the nursery grounds and suggest that juvenile striped bass were broadly distributed throughout the sampling area in 2009.


The Status Of Virginia's Public Oyster Resource 2009, Melissa Southworth, Juliana Harding, Roger L. Mann 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

The Status Of Virginia's Public Oyster Resource 2009, Melissa Southworth, Juliana Harding, Roger L. Mann

Reports

This report summarizes data collected during 2009 in the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay. The report is composed of two parts, part one, oyster recruitment (shell string) in Virginia and part two, dredge survey of selected oyster bars in Virginia.


Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Research Experiences For Undergraduates Program : Final Research Papers 2010, Virginia Institute of Marine Science 2010 William & Mary

Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Research Experiences For Undergraduates Program : Final Research Papers 2010, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

  • Effects of by-catch reduction devices (BRDs) on commercial crab catch / Will Bennett --
  • A study of habitat type and its effects on juvenile blue crabs / Robert Isdell --
  • Macrobenthic production and food web structure in shallow tidal freshwater habitats, including beds of Hydrilla verticillata / Courtney Wickel --
  • Studying and comparing Chesapeake Bay 3-D hydrodynamic models / Leslie Bland --
  • Effects of shoreline development and upland usage on multiple trophic levels in Chesapeake Bay / Elizabeth Gomez --
  • Responses of tidal freshwater plants to increases in salinity / L. Zoe Almeida --
  • Trace metal cycling in an algal …


Potential Effects Of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds On Bivalve Populations In Chesapeake Bay: A Review Of Current Knowledge And Assessment Of Research Needs, Mark Luckenbach, Peter deFur, M. Lisa Kellogg, Peter Van Veld 2010 Virginia Institute of Marine

Potential Effects Of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds On Bivalve Populations In Chesapeake Bay: A Review Of Current Knowledge And Assessment Of Research Needs, Mark Luckenbach, Peter Defur, M. Lisa Kellogg, Peter Van Veld

Reports

Numerous compounds in the environment interfere with normal endocrine function in humans and other animals. These compounds, which include heavy metals, a wide variety of anthropogenic organic compounds, steroids and steroid-mimicking compounds, are collectively termed endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Over the past 20 years, research on the impacts of EDC exposure has identified a range of effects on growth, development, and reproduction in humans and wildlife.


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