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How Development And Survival Combine To Determine The Thermal Sensitivity Of Insects, Mariana Abarca, Anna L. Parker, Elise A. Larsen, James Umbanhowar, Chandra Earl, Robert Guralnick, Joel Kingsolver, Leslie Ries 2024 Smith College

How Development And Survival Combine To Determine The Thermal Sensitivity Of Insects, Mariana Abarca, Anna L. Parker, Elise A. Larsen, James Umbanhowar, Chandra Earl, Robert Guralnick, Joel Kingsolver, Leslie Ries

Biological Sciences: Faculty Publications

Thermal performance curves (TPCs) depict variation in vital rates in response to temperature and have been an important tool to understand ecological and evolutionary constraints on the thermal sensitivity of ectotherms. TPCs allow for the calculation of indicators of thermal tolerance, such as minimum, optimum, and maximum temperatures that allow for a given metabolic function. However, these indicators are computed using only responses from surviving individuals, which can lead to underestimation of deleterious effects of thermal stress, particularly at high temperatures. Here, we advocate for an integrative frame- work for assessing thermal sensitivity, which combines both vital rates and survival …


Formulation Of Preservation Solutions For Model Generation With In Vivo Tissue Morphology, Holly Pickett 2024 Purdue University

Formulation Of Preservation Solutions For Model Generation With In Vivo Tissue Morphology, Holly Pickett

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Various Polyphenols On Associative Memory Loss And Dementia In A Drosophila Melanogaster Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Anagha Gowda 2024 Spring Valley High School, Columbia, SC

The Effect Of Various Polyphenols On Associative Memory Loss And Dementia In A Drosophila Melanogaster Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Anagha Gowda

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), a prominent neurodegenerative disease (NDD), is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States; however, little is known about prevention. As a result, polyphenols (plant-based compounds) and other natural substances have been studied for their therapeutic potential in improving cognition and memory in AD cases. While the impacts of each polyphenol (phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes, and lignans) contain fundamental similarities, each varies slightly in its impacts on the brain.The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of polyphenol subgroups on associative memory in AD, tested by building an olfactory association, through the use …


The Comparative Impact Of Acesulfame-Potassium, Stevia Extract, And Monk Fruit On The Lifespan Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Beverly Holton 2024 Spring Valley High School, Columbia, SC

The Comparative Impact Of Acesulfame-Potassium, Stevia Extract, And Monk Fruit On The Lifespan Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Beverly Holton

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), non-caloric sweetening devices, have been widely commercialized to reduce sugar consumption. This intent has associated NNS with health benefits, though reports have correlated the consumption of these substitutes with noncommunicable diseases. The interaction between NNS and distinct physiological processes has been examined, though research into the broader implications of these interactions, toward longevity, for instance, is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of three recently FDA-approved NNS - acesulfame-Potassium (ace-K), stevia, and monk fruit - on the survival of Drosophila melanogaster, a model species for longevity research, to discern the possible impacts …


The Effect Of Rosmarinus Officinalis And Trachyspermum Ammi On The Growth Of Eruca Vesicaria Ssp. Sativa In Hydroponics Versus Natural Soil, Emna Guedhami 2024 Spring Valley High School, Columbia, SC

The Effect Of Rosmarinus Officinalis And Trachyspermum Ammi On The Growth Of Eruca Vesicaria Ssp. Sativa In Hydroponics Versus Natural Soil, Emna Guedhami

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Despite technology being developed to address the food shortages due to increasing population, current methods of cultivating crops are not sufficient. Scientists are addressing this issue by researching biostimulants that stimulate plant growth without harming the environment and researching the use of hydroponics, a way of growing crops without soil. The purpose of this study was to combine the use of essential oils and growing methods (hydroponics and soil) and measure its impact on the height of E. sativa. It was hypothesized that if E. sativa was grown hydroponically with added Rosmarinus officinalis (REO) and Trachyspermum ammi (TEO) over time, …


The Effect Of Crystalline Phase On The Toxicity Of Tio2 Nanoparticles To Chlorella, Jisoo Lee 2024 Spring Valley High School, Columbia, SC

The Effect Of Crystalline Phase On The Toxicity Of Tio2 Nanoparticles To Chlorella, Jisoo Lee

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Nanoparticles (NPs), or particles with dimensions that go below 100 nanometers, can be released into the environment in various ways, such as through cosmetic products like sunscreen. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a commonly used nanoparticle in sunscreen, and it has the potential to be harmful to various aquatic organisms including algae. The purpose of this study was to examine how the crystalline phase of TiO2 NPs (brookite or rutile) influenced their toxicity to the microalgae species Chlorella. It was hypothesized that brookite phase TiO2 NPs would inhibit the growth of Chlorella more than rutile phase TiO …


The Combined And Individual Effects Of Azadirachta Indica L. Oil And Nahco3 On The Inhibition Of F. Oxysporum, Neya Murugesan 2024 Spring Valley High School, Columbia, SC

The Combined And Individual Effects Of Azadirachta Indica L. Oil And Nahco3 On The Inhibition Of F. Oxysporum, Neya Murugesan

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

F. oxysporum is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt. This disease is known to penetrate the roots of plants and wilt the vascular system. The most common method for control is through the use of synthetic fungicides, which are known to cause adverse effects on the environment and human health. Thus, it is necessary that more methods of biocontrol be explored. Current literature shows that various salts and essential oils are effective for the biocontrol of F. oxysporum. However, the two types of substances have not yet been tested together, causing a gap in current research. Due to the antifungal …


The Effect Of The Addition Of Carrot Seed Oil And Raspberry Seed Oil On The Uv Intensity Of A Sunscreen, Isra Siddique 2024 Spring Valley High School, Columbia, SC

The Effect Of The Addition Of Carrot Seed Oil And Raspberry Seed Oil On The Uv Intensity Of A Sunscreen, Isra Siddique

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

With continuous developments in research indicating the potential health risks of chemical sunscreen filters, the novel approach of incorporating natural oils with UV light blocking properties has been explored. Natural oils extracted from fruit and vegetables have been proven to possess photoprotective properties, but their effectiveness in combination with synthetic sunscreen filters has not been as thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the addition of carrot and raspberry seed oil to an SPF 30 sunscreen would decrease the UV intensity of UVB light passing through the sunscreen and oil mixture. It was hypothesized that if …


The Effect Of Exposure To Lentinula Edodes And Flammulina Velutipes On The Biodegradation Of Crystallized Polylactic Acid, Iraine Taine 2024 Spring Valley High School, Columbia, SC

The Effect Of Exposure To Lentinula Edodes And Flammulina Velutipes On The Biodegradation Of Crystallized Polylactic Acid, Iraine Taine

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Crystallized polylactic acid (CPLA) is a prevalent bioplastic which, despite being biodegradable, is extremely resistant to decomposition in natural environments. As a result, CPLA waste contamination is rapidly becoming a prevalent issue. Lentinula edodes and Flammulina velutipes are two widespread white-rot fungi whose capabilities for bioplastic degradation have not been examined. This study aimed to determine a natural approach for reducing plastic waste by evaluating the ability of L. edodes and F. velutipes to degrade CPLA bioplastic. It was hypothesized that CPLA samples would decrease in mass when individually treated with L. edodes and F. velutipes due to their similarities …


Table Of Contents, 2024 University of South Carolina

Table Of Contents

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Genome-Wide Profiling Of Novel Conserved Zea Mays Micrornas Along With Their Key Biological, Molecular And Cellular Targets And Validation Using An Rt-Pcr Platform, Abdul Baqi, Sami Ullah, Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Zafar Saleem, Ghulam Mustafa Khan, Asad Ullah 2024 Colleges, Higher and Technical Education Department, Balochistan, Quetta-Pakistan

Genome-Wide Profiling Of Novel Conserved Zea Mays Micrornas Along With Their Key Biological, Molecular And Cellular Targets And Validation Using An Rt-Pcr Platform, Abdul Baqi, Sami Ullah, Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Zafar Saleem, Ghulam Mustafa Khan, Asad Ullah

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are typically non-coding RNAs that start off as endogenous molecules and regulate post-transcriptional levels of gene expression by mRNA degradation or translational repression. They are 18–26 nucleotides long, evolutionarily conserved and essential for predicting novel miRNAs in a variety of plants. Maize (Zea mays) is a significant food and forage crop in the globe today. In the present study, many maize miRNAs have been found to be associated with both plant development and responses to stress. In this study, 66 unique conserved maize miRNAs from 65 different miRNA families were predicted using several genomics-based methods …


The Role Of Cu (0-0.03) And Zn (0.02) Substitution On The Structural, Optical And Magnetic Properties Of Mgo Nanoparticles, S. Naseem Shah, Atif Dawar, Yasmeen Bibi, Abid Ali, M. Asif Siddiqui 2024 Department of Physics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan,

The Role Of Cu (0-0.03) And Zn (0.02) Substitution On The Structural, Optical And Magnetic Properties Of Mgo Nanoparticles, S. Naseem Shah, Atif Dawar, Yasmeen Bibi, Abid Ali, M. Asif Siddiqui

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The co-precipitation method was employed to prepared Cu (0-0.03) and Zn (0.02) dual doped MgO nanoparticles. The secondary phases of CuO and Cu2O were observed along with the cubical phase of MgO. The doping induced effect was noticed for the crystallite size variations (14.39-19.89 nm). The morphological transformation from spherical to rice-like shape were observed. The estimated values of optical bandgap (4.66-4.45 eV) were well correlated with the crystallite size and dopant concentrations. The ferromagnetic ordering was observed at room temperature and the enchantment in the coercivity (142.27 Oe) with Zn (0.02) doping was noticed. Such type of …


Attitudes Of South-Central Kentucky Residents Towards Coyotes And Their Management, Andrew T. McQueen, Stephen Sumithran PhD 2024 Eastern Kentucky University

Attitudes Of South-Central Kentucky Residents Towards Coyotes And Their Management, Andrew T. Mcqueen, Stephen Sumithran Phd

Posters-at-the-Capitol

The existence of the coyote in the eastern U.S. is a recent development and the public’s perception of coyotes has been widely studied in urban areas. However, perceptions in rural areas, especially rural Appalachia, have been largely unstudied. It is necessary for wildlife managers to understand the public’s perceptions of coyotes and coyote management when creating management plans. We conducted a public survey in South-central Kentucky to determine perceptions toward coyotes and coyote management methods. The survey contained questions about demographics (age, gender, county of residence, landownership, etc.), perceptions (fears, opinions), knowledge (true/false questions), and preferred management practices (hunting, trapping, …


Development And Evaluation Of A Mitochondrial Dna Marker For The Detection Of Rattus Rattus And Rattus Norvegicus Fecal Contamination, A'aden Redhead 2024 Georgia College and State University

Development And Evaluation Of A Mitochondrial Dna Marker For The Detection Of Rattus Rattus And Rattus Norvegicus Fecal Contamination, A'Aden Redhead

Graduate Research Showcase

No abstract provided.


Seeing Eye To Eye? Comparing Faculty And Student Perceptions Of Biomolecular Visualization Assessments, Josh T. Beckham, Daniel R. Dries, Bonnie L. Hall, Rarchel M. Mitton-Fry, Shelly Engelman, Charmita Burch, Roderico Acevedo, Pamela S. Mertz, Didem Vardar-Ulu, Swati Agrawal, Kristin M. Fox, Shane Austin, Margaret A. Franzen, Henry V. Jakubowski, Walter R. P. Novak, Rebecca Roberts, Alberto I. Roca, Kristen Procko 2024 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Seeing Eye To Eye? Comparing Faculty And Student Perceptions Of Biomolecular Visualization Assessments, Josh T. Beckham, Daniel R. Dries, Bonnie L. Hall, Rarchel M. Mitton-Fry, Shelly Engelman, Charmita Burch, Roderico Acevedo, Pamela S. Mertz, Didem Vardar-Ulu, Swati Agrawal, Kristin M. Fox, Shane Austin, Margaret A. Franzen, Henry V. Jakubowski, Walter R. P. Novak, Rebecca Roberts, Alberto I. Roca, Kristen Procko

Chemistry Faculty Publications

While visual literacy has been identified as a foundational skill in life science education, there are many challenges in teaching and assessing biomolecular visualization skills. Among these are the lack of consensus about what constitutes competence and limited understanding of student and instructor perceptions of visual literacy tasks. In this study, we administered a set of biomolecular visualization assessments, developed as part of the BioMolViz project, to both students and instructors at multiple institutions and compared their perceptions of task difficulty. We then analyzed our findings using a mixed-methods approach. Quantitative analysis was used to answer the following research questions: …


Treatment Of Oil Refinery Wastewater Polluted By Heavy Metal Ions Via Adsorption Technique Using Non-Valuable Media: Cadmium Ions And Buckthorn Leaves As A Study Case, Salem Jawad Alhamd, Mohammed Nsaif Abbas, Mehrdad Manteghian, Thekra Atta Ibrahim, Karar Dawood Salman Jarmondi 2024 Department of Petroleum Engineering, College of Engineering, Kerbala University, Kerbala, Iraq

Treatment Of Oil Refinery Wastewater Polluted By Heavy Metal Ions Via Adsorption Technique Using Non-Valuable Media: Cadmium Ions And Buckthorn Leaves As A Study Case, Salem Jawad Alhamd, Mohammed Nsaif Abbas, Mehrdad Manteghian, Thekra Atta Ibrahim, Karar Dawood Salman Jarmondi

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

This study focuses on the removal of cadmium ions generated by oil refinery wastewater, employing an agricultural by-product. Buckthorn leaves, sourced from Baghdad and Diyala provinces, underwent preparation, including washing, drying, crushing, and sieving before being utilized in experiments. Batch experiments were conducted using simulated solutions to assess the impact of six key adsorption design parameters: pH, cadmium concentration, agitation speed, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and temperature. The highest adsorption efficiency, reaching 94.4367%, was directly correlated with contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH value, and agitation speed, and inversely related to other variables. Morphological studies on the treated adsorbent, indicated structural …


Complex Dynamics Of Coral Gene Expression Responses To Low Ph Across Species, Veronica Z. Radice, Ana Martinez, Adina Paytan, Donald C. Potts, Daniel J. Barshis 2024 Old Dominion University

Complex Dynamics Of Coral Gene Expression Responses To Low Ph Across Species, Veronica Z. Radice, Ana Martinez, Adina Paytan, Donald C. Potts, Daniel J. Barshis

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Coral capacity to tolerate low pH affects coral community composition and, ultimately, reef ecosystem function. Low pH submarine discharges (‘Ojo’; Yucatán, México) represent a natural laboratory to study plasticity and acclimatization to low pH in relation to ocean acidification. A previous >2‐year coral transplant experiment to ambient and low pH common garden sites revealed differential survivorship across species and sites, providing a framework to compare mechanistic responses to differential pH exposures. Here, we examined gene expression responses of transplants of three species of reef‐building corals (Porites astreoides, Porites porites and Siderastrea siderea) and their algal endosymbiont communities …


Three Fundamental Challenges To The Advancement Of Stemflow Research And Its Integration Into Natural Science, John T. Van Stan II, Juan Pinos 2024 Cleveland State University

Three Fundamental Challenges To The Advancement Of Stemflow Research And Its Integration Into Natural Science, John T. Van Stan Ii, Juan Pinos

Biological, Geological, and Environmental Faculty Publications

Plant canopies divert a portion of precipitation to the base of their stems through "stemflow", a phenomenon that influences the canopy water balance, soil microbial ecology, and intrasystem nutrient cycling. However, a comprehensive integration of stemflow into theoretical and numerical models in natural science remains limited. This perspective examines three unresolved, fundamental questions hindering this integration, spanning the canopy to the soil. First, the precise source area within the canopy that generates stemflow is undefined. Thus, we asked, "whence stemflow?" Current common assumptions equate it to the entire tree canopy, a potentially misleading simplification that could affect our interpretation of …


Entomologists Require Ethical Guidance For Compassionate Management Of Delusional Parasitosis Cases, Kathleen Murphy-Hollies, Michael Skvarla, Robin M. Verble 2024 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Entomologists Require Ethical Guidance For Compassionate Management Of Delusional Parasitosis Cases, Kathleen Murphy-Hollies, Michael Skvarla, Robin M. Verble

Biological Sciences Faculty Research & Creative Works

No abstract provided.


Quantifying The Ecological Effects Of Salix Fragilis On Riparian Habitat In Kittitas County, Washington, Landon Shaffer 2024 Central Washington University

Quantifying The Ecological Effects Of Salix Fragilis On Riparian Habitat In Kittitas County, Washington, Landon Shaffer

All Master's Theses

Invasive species threaten plant community structure and function globally. Riparian areas, the zone near streams where water influences vegetation, are especially sensitive to invasive species colonization, suffering large-scale shifts in community composition. Salix fragilis (crack willow) is a nonnative riparian species abundant in the lower elevation tributaries of central Washington. Some speculate whether this willow should be listed as invasive in Washington, despite a lack of regional supporting evidence. I studied riparian communities dominated by either S. fragilis or native species in the Kittitas Valley and measured biodiversity, quantified differences in solar attenuation, and compared leaf decomposition rates to learn …


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