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The Effects Of Tubulin Post-Translational Modifications On The Flagellar Motility Of Trypanosoma Brucei, Katherine Wentworth 2022 Clemson University

The Effects Of Tubulin Post-Translational Modifications On The Flagellar Motility Of Trypanosoma Brucei, Katherine Wentworth

All Theses

Trypanosoma brucei is a parasitic kinetoplastid that causes African trypanosomiasis and is transmitted to a mammalian host by the tsetse fly (Glossina spp.). T. brucei relies on its flagellar motility to carry out its morphological changes from the procyclic form (predominant in the fly vector) to the bloodstream form (infectious form in mammals) and navigate the bloodstream of its host. The driving structure within the flagellum is the axoneme, which is composed of microtubules and dynein motor proteins. The tubulin code hypothesis suggests that cells regulate microtubule motor protein activity through post-translational modifications (PTMs) of alpha and beta …


Venomic Characterization Of A Medically Relevant Rear-Fanged Snake, Conophis Lineatus (Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae), From Middle America, Tristan Schramer 2022 Clemson University

Venomic Characterization Of A Medically Relevant Rear-Fanged Snake, Conophis Lineatus (Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae), From Middle America, Tristan Schramer

All Theses

Most traditional research on snake venoms has focused on front-fanged snake families (Viperidae, Elapidae, and Atractaspididae). However, venom is now generally accepted as being a much more broadly possessed trait within snakes, including species traditionally considered harmless. Unfortunately, due to historical inertia and methodological challenges, the toxin repertoires of non-front-fanged snake families (e.g., Colubridae, Dipsadidae, and Natricidae) have been heavily neglected despite the knowledge of numerous species capable of inflicting medically relevant envenomations. Integrating proteomic data for validation, we perform a de novo assembly and analysis of the Duvernoy’s venom gland transcriptome of the Central American Road Guarder (Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae: …


Functional Analysis Of Legionella Pneumophila Effector Protein, Shreya Neupane 2022 Western Kentucky University

Functional Analysis Of Legionella Pneumophila Effector Protein, Shreya Neupane

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterium that causes Legionnaire’s disease (a severe form of pneumonia) in humans. L. pneumophila can cause infection by utilizing its Type IV secretion system, a protein secretion system that transports proteins from the bacterial cytosol into the infected macrophage. Effectors released from the Type Iv secretion system allow L. pneumophila to create a safe environment to survive, replicate and cause infection. One such effector, RavQ, inhibits cell proliferation of mammalian HEK 293T cells and localizes to the cell’s nucleus, leading us to hypothesize that RavQ interferes with cellular activity in the nucleus. To detect its …


Stress And Parity Among Female Vervet Monkeys (Chlorocebus Pygerythrus) At Two Sites In South Africa, Jo Gansemer 2022 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Stress And Parity Among Female Vervet Monkeys (Chlorocebus Pygerythrus) At Two Sites In South Africa, Jo Gansemer

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the hypothesis that in both Soetdoring and !Gariep populations, a femaleSouth African vervet's parity status (nulliparous or parous) affects her physiological stress levels. Vervet monkey ecology and life history are examined to contextualize the relationship between stress and parity. The testing of this hypothesis involves the analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) of samples from nulliparous and multiparous adult females of the two different South African sites. The HCC was statistically analyzed to look for correlations between stress, parity status, and site. No significant relationship between stress and parity status was found. However, significant relationships were found …


Avian Species Distribution Models: Using Location Data To Inform Management Decisions, Marilyn E. Wright 2022 Utah State University

Avian Species Distribution Models: Using Location Data To Inform Management Decisions, Marilyn E. Wright

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Both state and federal wildlife agencies strive to conserve and protect wildlife and their habitats as an important public resource. Applied management decisions often rely on being able to obtain data that can efficiently and effectively enhance the understanding of these systems for informing management actions. Wildlife managers often focus efforts on a small subset of species from an ecosystem, typically called focal species, who can serve as surrogates for understanding the health and function of the system. Models that consider how these focal species interact with the ecosystem are often used to better understand important aspects of their life …


Insecticide Susceptibility And Resistance Detection In Phlebotomus Argentipes Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), Shawna M. Hennings 2022 Utah State University

Insecticide Susceptibility And Resistance Detection In Phlebotomus Argentipes Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), Shawna M. Hennings

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Leishmaniasis is an understudied disease found predominantly in high heat and humidity areas. The disease is transmitted by sandflies which are blood-feeding, biting insects. There is currently no known vaccine for any form of leishmaniasis and treatment imposes a significant economic impact on already poor and marginalized populations, as well as severe, lingering side effects for afflicted individuals. Annually, there are millions of people around the world afflicted with a form of Leishmaniasis that is transmitted by species of sandflies. The primary sandfly population control method for over half a century has been indoor residual spraying using insecticides. The selective …


Immunological Tradeoffs And The Impacts Of Urbanization On The Reproductive Ecology And Physiology Of The Side-Blotched Lizard (Uta Stansburiana), Emily E. Virgin 2022 Utah State University

Immunological Tradeoffs And The Impacts Of Urbanization On The Reproductive Ecology And Physiology Of The Side-Blotched Lizard (Uta Stansburiana), Emily E. Virgin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Investing resources into reproduction can limit energy available to other competing demands, such as fighting off an infection; yet, both processes are necessary for organisms to survive and pass on their genes to the next generation. These strategies often follow patterns associated with lifespan, such that shorter-lived animals are more likely to invest more resources into reproduction over survival, and vice versa in long-lived animals. However, environmental change caused by urbanization can disrupt these relationships, and the within- and transgenerational costs of urbanization on females and offspring are unknown. I address these uncertainties in three research chapters to better understand …


Context And Content Of Teaching Conversations: Exploring How To Promote Sharing Of Innovative Teaching Knowledge Between Science Faculty, A. Kelly Lane, Brittnee Earl, Stephanie Feola, Jennifer E. Lewis, Jacob D. McAlpin, Karl Mertens, Susan E. Shadle, John Skvoretz, John P. Ziker, Marilyne Stains, Brian A. Couch, Luanna B Prevost 2022 University of Minnesota Twin Cities

Context And Content Of Teaching Conversations: Exploring How To Promote Sharing Of Innovative Teaching Knowledge Between Science Faculty, A. Kelly Lane, Brittnee Earl, Stephanie Feola, Jennifer E. Lewis, Jacob D. Mcalpin, Karl Mertens, Susan E. Shadle, John Skvoretz, John P. Ziker, Marilyne Stains, Brian A. Couch, Luanna B Prevost

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Background: Change strategies may leverage interpersonal relationships and conversations to spread teaching innovations among science faculty. Knowledge sharing refers to the process by which individuals transfer information and thereby spread innovative ideas within an organization. We use knowledge sharing as a lens for identifying factors that encourage productive teaching-related conversations between individuals, characterizing the context and content of these discussions, and understanding how peer interactions may shape instructional practices. In this study, we interview 19 science faculty using innovative teaching practices about the teaching-focused conversations they have with different discussion partners. Results: This qualitative study describes characteristics of the relationship …


Survey Of Fleas And Ticks For Rickettsia Rickettsii And Rickettsia Typhi And Surveys Of Humans And Wild Animals For Serological Evidence Of Infection By These Rickettsiae In Rural And Urban Areas Of El Paso, Texas And Other Areas Of Texas, Karen Rocio Valdez 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Survey Of Fleas And Ticks For Rickettsia Rickettsii And Rickettsia Typhi And Surveys Of Humans And Wild Animals For Serological Evidence Of Infection By These Rickettsiae In Rural And Urban Areas Of El Paso, Texas And Other Areas Of Texas, Karen Rocio Valdez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The ecology and epidemiology of Rocky Mountain Spotted fever and typhus fever pathogens are poorly understood along the United Statesâ??Mexico border, especially in the far Southwestern region of Texas. The objective of this dissertation was to understand the prevalence and distribution of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia typhi and associated tick and flea species and the prevalence of these Rickettsiae in domestic and feral mammals in urban and rural areas of the El Paso community and other areas of Texas. Also, the goal was to determine if humans are being infected by R. rickettsii and R. typhi in the El Paso …


In Vitro Characterization Of Novel Compounds With Anti-Cancer Activity, Edgar Alonso Borrego Puerta 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

In Vitro Characterization Of Novel Compounds With Anti-Cancer Activity, Edgar Alonso Borrego Puerta

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Two libraries of chemical compounds were analyzed for their cytotoxic activity against cancer and non-cancerous cell lines. In chapter 1, fourteen novel piperidones were tested on a panel of different cell lines to identify their cytotoxic activity. These compounds were found to have cytotoxic activity toward cancer cells with a cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) in the micromolar range. Furthermore, these fourteen compounds have selectivity preferentially towards cancer cells. Based on selectivity, and cytotoxicity, four compounds were selected for further characterization in the HL-60 cell line. The four compounds elicit apoptosis as measured by the externalization of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS), …


Exploring The Anticancer Mechanism Of Thienopyrazole Derivative Tpz-1 In Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Jessica Dyanne Hess 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Exploring The Anticancer Mechanism Of Thienopyrazole Derivative Tpz-1 In Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Jessica Dyanne Hess

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Anticancer drug discovery is a time and resource-consuming process for which exceedingly reliable and efficient modern approaches are needed. Phenotypic drug screenings can generate highly potent and innovative drug candidates; however, deconvolution of the drugâ??s target often presents significant barriers to drug development. To overcome this hurdle, we have originally combined in vitro and in silico analyses to uncover the molecular mechanism(s) driving the anticancer activity of the uniquely structured small molecule drug candidate, Tpz-1. Our study revealed that Tpz-1 is a multitargeted agent which induces the programmed death of HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia cells primarily through disruption of microtubule …


Autoantibody Against Tumor-Associated Antigens As Diagnostic Biomarkers In Hispanic Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Yangcheng Ma 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Autoantibody Against Tumor-Associated Antigens As Diagnostic Biomarkers In Hispanic Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Yangcheng Ma

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Liver cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies, in which hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) takes up more than 80% of liver cancer cases. Early diagnosis and treatment are practical approaches to impede HCC progression. Identifying and classifying autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have long been interested in cancer diagnosis, especially for HCC. Circulating anti-TAA autoantibodies amplify the antigen expression and are more stable in blood, guaranteeing anti-TAA autoantibodies as valid diagnostic biomarkers in clinical application. Nonetheless, very few studies had focused on the Hispanic HCC group, which might retain distinct etiological risk factors compared to other ethnicities. The high incidence …


Biology And Epidemiology Of Dengue Viruses In The El Paso And The Surrounding Usa And Mexico Border Communities, Pedro Miguel Palermo Infante 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Biology And Epidemiology Of Dengue Viruses In The El Paso And The Surrounding Usa And Mexico Border Communities, Pedro Miguel Palermo Infante

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Dengue is considered one of the most important human arboviral diseases worldwide. Dengue cases have increased in the last three decades in the Americas, especially along the United States (US)- Mexico (MX) border region, where the main vector of dengue, Aedes aegypti mosquito, is widely distributed. Explosive outbreaks of dengue in northern Mexico have been associated with imported and local transmission of dengue in the US border communities, especially in the Southeast Texas area, also known as Rio Grande Valley. Due to the unknown if dengue virus (DENV) is present in other areas in the US border located west of …


Two Novel Piperidone Compounds Display Antiproliferative Effects On Human Prostate And Lymphoma Cancer Cell Lines And In Vitro Investigation Of Thiophenecarboxylate Anti-Cancer Activity, Risa Mia Swain 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Two Novel Piperidone Compounds Display Antiproliferative Effects On Human Prostate And Lymphoma Cancer Cell Lines And In Vitro Investigation Of Thiophenecarboxylate Anti-Cancer Activity, Risa Mia Swain

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Tumor interactions predominantly dominate cancer progression and its tumor microenvironment. Such interactions include, tumors generating signals that cause dysfunction and death to immune cells [1]. Inflammatory and immune cells present to eliminate cancer cells fail and lose their overall function [1]. These cells lose the overall ability to aid and are co-opted to promote tumor growth. Ultimately, the result is escaping from the hosts' immune system and developing a complex mechanism that evades immune cells and the inability to undergo apoptosis. It is imperative to develop a better understanding of the complex machinery cancer develops. There are current therapies that …


Landscape Genomics Of The Tussock Cottongrass (Eriophorum Vaginatum) And The Dwarf Birch (Betula Nana) In North Central Alaska, Elizabeth Stunz 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Landscape Genomics Of The Tussock Cottongrass (Eriophorum Vaginatum) And The Dwarf Birch (Betula Nana) In North Central Alaska, Elizabeth Stunz

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Global climate change has resulted in geographic range shifts of flora and fauna at a global scale. Extreme environments, like the Arctic, are seeing some of the most pronounced changes. This region covers 14% of the Earthâ??s land area, and while many arctic species are widespread, understanding ecotypic variation at the genomic level will be important for elucidating how range shifts will affect ecological processes. Increase in shrub cover is a major effect of ongoing climate change in arctic tundra ecosystems. The relative increases in abundance and cover of shrub species such as birch, willow, and alder (Betula, Salix, and …


Survey For Usage Of And Interest In Personalized Nutrition As A Possible Health Approach, Kimberly Garrett 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Survey For Usage Of And Interest In Personalized Nutrition As A Possible Health Approach, Kimberly Garrett

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Dietary factors can lead to chronic diseases and impact certain health factors such as sleep and mood. Personalized nutrition is based on an individual’s phenotype and genotype to meet specific dietary needs. This approach could be an intervention to benefit an individual’s health. This study surveyed a population to analyze the population’s view on and usage of personalized nutrition. The use of personalized nutrition was minimal, but there was interest within the population. In addition, a relationship between health and mood was found. However, the sample size was a limiting factor for this study. Future directions could include studying why …


Spatial Models Can Improve The Experimental Design Of Field-Based Transplant Gardens By Preventing Bias Due To Neighborhood Crowding, Andrii Zaiats, Juan M. Raquena-Mullor, Matthew J. Germino, Jennifer S. Forbey, Bryce A. Richardson, T. Trevor Caughlin 2022 Boise State University

Spatial Models Can Improve The Experimental Design Of Field-Based Transplant Gardens By Preventing Bias Due To Neighborhood Crowding, Andrii Zaiats, Juan M. Raquena-Mullor, Matthew J. Germino, Jennifer S. Forbey, Bryce A. Richardson, T. Trevor Caughlin

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Field-based transplant gardens, including common and reciprocal garden experiments, are a powerful tool for studying genetic variation and gene-by-environment interactions. These experiments assume that individuals within the garden represent independent replicates growing in a homogenous environment. Plant neighborhood interactions are pervasive across plant populations and could violate assumptions of transplant garden experiments. We demonstrate how spatially explicit models for plant–plant interactions can provide novel insights on genotypes' performance in field-transplant garden designs. We used individual-based models, based on data from a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) common garden, to simulate the impact of spatial plant–plant interactions on between-group differences in plant …


Micrornas Contribute To The Host Response To Coxiella Burnetii, Madhur Sachan, Katelynn Brann, Daniel E. Voth, Rahul Raghavan 2022 Portland State University

Micrornas Contribute To The Host Response To Coxiella Burnetii, Madhur Sachan, Katelynn Brann, Daniel E. Voth, Rahul Raghavan

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are critical to gene regulation in eukaryotes. They are involved in modulating a variety of physiological processes, including the host response to intracellular infections. Little is known about miRNA functions during infection by Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of human Q fever. This bacterial pathogen establishes a large replicative vacuole within macrophages by manipulating host processes such as apoptosis and autophagy. We investigated miRNA expression in C. burnetii-infected macrophages and identified several miRNAs that were down- or up-regulated during infection. We further explored the functions of miR-143-3p, an miRNA whose …


Global Patterns Of Diversity And Metabolism Of Microbial Communities In Deep‑Sea Hydrothermal Vent Deposits, Zhichao Zhou, Emily St. John, Karthik Anantharaman, Anna-Louise Reysenbach 2022 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Global Patterns Of Diversity And Metabolism Of Microbial Communities In Deep‑Sea Hydrothermal Vent Deposits, Zhichao Zhou, Emily St. John, Karthik Anantharaman, Anna-Louise Reysenbach

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

When deep-sea hydrothermal fluids mix with cold oxygenated fluids, minerals precipitate out of solution and form hydrothermal deposits. These actively venting deep-sea hydrothermal deposits support a rich diversity of thermophilic microorganisms which are involved in a range of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolisms. Global patterns of thermophilic microbial diversity in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems have illustrated the strong connectivity between geological processes and microbial colonization, but little is known about the genomic diversity and physiological potential of these novel taxa. Here we explore this genomic diversity in 42 metagenomes from four deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields and a deep-sea volcano collected …


Cruise, A Tool For The Detection Of Iterons In Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded Dna Viruses, Adam Jones, George W. Kasun, Joel Stover, Kenneth M. Stedman, Ignacio de la Higuera 2022 Portland State University

Cruise, A Tool For The Detection Of Iterons In Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded Dna Viruses, Adam Jones, George W. Kasun, Joel Stover, Kenneth M. Stedman, Ignacio De La Higuera

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Iterons are short, repeated DNA sequences that are important for the replication of circular single-stranded DNA viruses. No tools that can reliably predict iterons are currently available. The CRUcivirus Iteron SEarch (CRUISE) tool is a computational tool that identifies iteron candidates near stem-loop structures in viral genomes.


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