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Guano Among Bat Species From Two Regions Shows Influence Of Geography And Diet On Bacterial Community, Rahma Ahmed, Thomas McElroy, Shannon Whitney, Lydia Moore 2022 Kennesaw State Universtiy

Guano Among Bat Species From Two Regions Shows Influence Of Geography And Diet On Bacterial Community, Rahma Ahmed, Thomas Mcelroy, Shannon Whitney, Lydia Moore

Symposium of Student Scholars

Studies of bat guano have shown that the diversity and structure of associated microbial communities can be related to factors such as host phylogeny, life history and reproductive stage, geography, and diet. Many insectivorous bat species in the southeastern U.S. have generalist diets that may shift seasonally to take advantage of abundant prey species or maximize caloric intake. Seasonal shifts in prey availability or consumption should be reflected in a guano microbiome change. We also expected to detect distinct guano microbiomes within species. Within species, distinct microbial communities related to geography, and finally life history and reproductive stage. We compared …


Insect Availability And Parental Care Behavior In A Common Bird, Cole Bourque 2022 Kennesaw State University

Insect Availability And Parental Care Behavior In A Common Bird, Cole Bourque

Symposium of Student Scholars

Populations of aerially insectivorous birds are declining throughout North America. Urbanization may indirectly contribute to this decline through its negative effects on populations of insects, an important food source in insectivores' diets, where low insect availability may be especially challenging for birds during breeding. How fluctuations in insect populations impact various species at higher trophic levels is an important area of current study for future conservation biology. Here, we examine whether nestling provisioning, brooding and guarding behaviors in a breeding bird—the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)—may be altered depending on the relative insect availability in the environment. We found …


Characterization Of Caenorhabditis Elegans F07a5.4, Human Ortholog Of Olfactomedin 1, Sade K. Thomas, Karunambigai Kalichamy, Martin Hudson 2022 Kennesaw State University

Characterization Of Caenorhabditis Elegans F07a5.4, Human Ortholog Of Olfactomedin 1, Sade K. Thomas, Karunambigai Kalichamy, Martin Hudson

Symposium of Student Scholars

Accurate control of nervous system development is critical for normal brain patterning, and defects in this process can lead to neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorder. The transcription factor neurogenin is necessary for the development of neural subtypes and is deeply conserved across species. However, the transcriptional targets of neurogenin are poorly understood, creating an imperative for further study. We have used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to better understand ngn-1/neurogenin function. Previous work from our lab revealed that ngn-1 plays a role in nerve ring architecture, and neural cell fate specification. In addition, …


Preliminary Analysis Of The Effects Of Non-Target Supplemental Feeding On Camera Trap Captures Of Small Mammals In Central Georgia, Raena McCown, Travis Cunningham, Alfred J. Mead 2022 University of Georgia

Preliminary Analysis Of The Effects Of Non-Target Supplemental Feeding On Camera Trap Captures Of Small Mammals In Central Georgia, Raena Mccown, Travis Cunningham, Alfred J. Mead

Georgia Journal of Science

Supplemental bird feeding is a widespread hobby throughout western culture. Although it brings joy to many people, bird feeding has been shown to have potentially negative effects on local bird populations and small mammalian species. To study the differences in local occurrence of native small mammalian species around bird feeders and in more distant settings, six camera traps were placed in a rural residential area in Putnam County, Georgia. Three cameras were placed facing bird feeders and three placed a minimum of 60 m away from the feeders. Species presence was recorded three days a week from 12:00 am Monday …


Urban Green Roofs Can Support A Diversity Of Parasitoid Wasps, Aramee C. Diethelm, Susan Masta 2022 Portland State University

Urban Green Roofs Can Support A Diversity Of Parasitoid Wasps, Aramee C. Diethelm, Susan Masta

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Green roofs are often installed atop buildings to provide ecological services such as mitigating storm water runoff and cooling air within urban heat islands. We found that green roofs in Portland, Oregon, also can support biodiversity, including a diverse assemblage of parasitoid wasps, with 20 morphospecies from 10 families present on the four roofs we surveyed. The roofs with greater plant diversity and structural complexity harbored comparatively more parasitoid morphospecies than the structurally simpler Sedum-dominated roofs. The oldest green roof supported much greater diversity than the younger roofs, including a comparably planted roof three times its size. Parasitoid wasps from …


Caribbean Reef-Building Coral-Symbiodiniaceae Network: Identifying Symbioses Critical For System Stability In A Changing Climate, Shaman Patel 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Caribbean Reef-Building Coral-Symbiodiniaceae Network: Identifying Symbioses Critical For System Stability In A Changing Climate, Shaman Patel

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Increasing global ocean temperatures and frequency of marine heatwaves pose dire consequences for coral reefs. High temperatures often lead to disruptions in coral symbiosis resulting in coral bleaching, increasing the mortality of corals. However, corals can potentially avoid bleaching peril by associating with thermally tolerant symbionts. Here we provide a tool for understanding symbiosis network stability of Caribbean reef-building corals. We created a network of Caribbean hermatypic corals and their associated Symbiodiniaceae phylotypes. A bleaching model was applied to this network to test for resilience and robustness (R50) to thermal stress. It was also layered with trait data for coral …


Late Quaternary Biotic Homogenization Of North American Mammalian Faunas, Danielle Fraser, Amelia Villaseñor, Anikó B. Tóth, Meghan A. Balk, Jussi T. Eronen, W. Andrew Barr, A. K. Behrensmeyer, Matt Davis, Andrew Du, J. Tyler Faith, Gary R. Graves, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Advait M. Jukar, Cindy V. Looy, Brian J. McGill, Joshua H. Miller, Silvia Pineda-Munoz, Richard Potts, Alex B. Shupinski, Laura C. Soul, S. Kathleen Lyons 2022 Museé canadien de la nature

Late Quaternary Biotic Homogenization Of North American Mammalian Faunas, Danielle Fraser, Amelia Villaseñor, Anikó B. Tóth, Meghan A. Balk, Jussi T. Eronen, W. Andrew Barr, A. K. Behrensmeyer, Matt Davis, Andrew Du, J. Tyler Faith, Gary R. Graves, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Advait M. Jukar, Cindy V. Looy, Brian J. Mcgill, Joshua H. Miller, Silvia Pineda-Munoz, Richard Potts, Alex B. Shupinski, Laura C. Soul, S. Kathleen Lyons

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Biotic homogenization—increasing similarity of species composition among ecological communities—has been linked to anthropogenic processes operating over the last century. Fossil evidence, however, suggests that humans have had impacts on ecosystems for millennia. We quantify biotic homogenization of North American mammalian assemblages during the late Pleistocene through Holocene (~30,000 ybp to recent), a timespan encompassing increased evidence of humans on the landscape (~20,000–14,000 ybp). From ~10,000 ybp to recent, assemblages became significantly more homogenous (>100% increase in Jaccard similarity), a pattern that cannot be explained by changes in fossil record sampling. Homogenization was most pronounced among mammals larger than 1 …


Egestion Rates Of Microplastic Fibres In Fish Scaled To In Situ Concentration And Fish Density, Loren Hou, Rachel McNeish, Timothy Hoellein 2022 Loyola University Chicago

Egestion Rates Of Microplastic Fibres In Fish Scaled To In Situ Concentration And Fish Density, Loren Hou, Rachel Mcneish, Timothy Hoellein

Biology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Microplastics (particles <5 >mm) are commonly found in aquatic organisms across taxonomic groups and ecosystems. However, the egestion rate of microplastics from aquatic organisms and how egestion rates compare to other rates of microplastic movement in the environment are sparsely documented.We fed microplastic fibres to round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus), an abundant, invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We conducted two trials where round gobies were fed microplastic-containing food either a single time (1 day) or every day over 7 days.There was no difference in microplastic egestion rates from the 1 day or 7 day feeding trials, suggesting no impact of …


Mitochondrial Functions Are Major Targets Of Isocyanide Activity In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Morgan A. Siemek 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mitochondrial Functions Are Major Targets Of Isocyanide Activity In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Morgan A. Siemek

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

The isocyanide functional group is important in the synthesis of many organic compounds and is found in natural products produced by plants, bacteria, marine invertebrates, and fungi. The antimicrobial activities of isocyanide compounds have been documented for almost 70 years, however, the biochemical targets and mechanisms of action remain poorly defined. We report antimicrobial activity of 4-para-nitrophenyl-isocyanide (p-NPIC) against a model fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. To identify the cellular and molecular targets of p-NPIC, we screened the non-essential single gene-deletion collection of S. cerevisiae. We aimed …


Sequence-Based Bioinformatics Approaches To Predict Virus-Host Relationships In Archaea And Eukaryotes, Yingshan Li 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Sequence-Based Bioinformatics Approaches To Predict Virus-Host Relationships In Archaea And Eukaryotes, Yingshan Li

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Viral metagenomics is independent of lab culturing and capable of investigating viromes of virtually any given environmental niches. While numerous sequences of viral genomes have been assembled from metagenomic studies over the past years, the natural hosts for the majority of these viral contigs have not been determined. Different computational approaches have been developed to predict hosts of bacteria phages. Nevertheless, little progress has been made in the virus-host prediction, especially for viruses that infect eukaryotes and archaea. In this study, by analyzing all documented viruses with known eukaryotic and archaeal hosts, we assessed the predictive power of four computational …


How Low Can You Go? Expanding Oyster Tidal Niche With Predator Induction, Carter Lin 2022 University of South Alabama

How Low Can You Go? Expanding Oyster Tidal Niche With Predator Induction, Carter Lin

Theses and Dissertations

An oyster’s realized niche is constrained by different stressors based on tidal elevation, such as desiccation or benthic predators. These factors constrain survival and set the boundary for their realized niche. Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) also harden their shells in response to predation risk which reduces their mortality. We performed an empirical study to investigate if this defense mechanism could be manipulated to expand their realized niche. We raised oysters in the presence of blue crab predators (Callinectes sapidus) or in controls sans predators, then monitored their survival at different tidal elevations. Oyster survival was significantly higher in the highest …


Callery Pear Allelopathy Study, Michaela J. Woods, Jonathan T. Bauer, Dena Schaeffer, Ryan W. McEwan 2022 University of Dayton

Callery Pear Allelopathy Study, Michaela J. Woods, Jonathan T. Bauer, Dena Schaeffer, Ryan W. Mcewan

Five Rivers MetroParks Collaboration Data Archive

No abstract provided.


Environmental Sensitivity Of Maternal And Offspring Phenotype In The Green Anole (Anolis Carolinensis) Lizard, Jamie Marks 2022 University of New Orleans

Environmental Sensitivity Of Maternal And Offspring Phenotype In The Green Anole (Anolis Carolinensis) Lizard, Jamie Marks

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Animals dynamically invest their acquired energetic resources into fitness-related traits, and life-history trade-offs occur when limited resources are invested in a given trait at the expense of another. The phenotypic effects of life history trade-offs are well documented, but the mechanisms facilitating these trade-offs are poorly understood. One such mechanism is the insulin/insulin-like signaling (IIS) network, and specifically its two primary hormones: insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). IGF1 is well-characterized but IGF2 is severely understudied, though it is present in nearly all amniotes and sometimes expressed at higher levels than IGF1 in adulthood. I …


Applied Studies Of Raptor Sensory Ecology Are Rare, Christopher J.W. McClure, Simon Potier, Jesse R. Barber 2022 Peregrine Fund

Applied Studies Of Raptor Sensory Ecology Are Rare, Christopher J.W. Mcclure, Simon Potier, Jesse R. Barber

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Light and noise often act as pollutants, but can also be used as tools for managing wildlife (e.g., sensory deterrents). Given that raptors are among the most threatened groups of birds, we expected there to be a moderate amount of applied research on their sensory ecology. We searched Web of Science and Google Scholar to quantify and classify the research that has been conducted on the applied sensory ecology of raptors. Of 32 studies assessing the effects of sensory pollution on raptors, we found that 10 studies examined effects of light pollution and 24 studies examined effects of noise pollution. …


Investigations Into Prg-2 And Its Involvement In Developing Gallus Gallus Retinal Neurons, Jeffrey Parham 2022 Winthrop University

Investigations Into Prg-2 And Its Involvement In Developing Gallus Gallus Retinal Neurons, Jeffrey Parham

Graduate Theses

I am interested in the development of the nervous system, especially since during development nerves grow and extend, but in adults, they do not regenerate if damaged. We are specifically interested in the molecules that guide nerves to the correct target during their development. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive molecule that has been shown to play a role in neural development. LPA, through repeated studies, has been shown to stop neurons from growing by causing a physical change in a neuron’s growth cone (a structure used for navigation and growth). Recently, a novel set of genes, called PRGs, have …


(R1522) Modelling The Influence Of Desertic Aerosols On The Transmission Dynamics Of Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroup A, Francis Signing, Berge Tsanou, Samuel Bowong 2022 University of Dschang; Sorbonne University

(R1522) Modelling The Influence Of Desertic Aerosols On The Transmission Dynamics Of Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroup A, Francis Signing, Berge Tsanou, Samuel Bowong

Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)

This paper assesses the role of desert aerosols and vaccine on the transmission dynamics of Neisseria Meningitis serogroup A (NmA). It is biologically well-documented that the inhalation of aerosol dust and its presence in the nasal cavity weakens the nasopharyngeal mucosa by damaging the mucosal barrier and inhibiting the mucosal immune defenses of susceptible and vaccinated individuals. We address the latter by proposing and analyzing a mathematical model for the dynamics of NmA that specifically accounts for the fast progression of susceptible and vaccinated individuals to the invasive stage of the disease. We compute the basic reproduction number and use …


(R1980) Effect Of Climate Change On Brain Tumor, Pardeep Kumar, Sarita Jha, Rajiv Aggarwal, Govind Kumar Jha 2022 University of Delhi

(R1980) Effect Of Climate Change On Brain Tumor, Pardeep Kumar, Sarita Jha, Rajiv Aggarwal, Govind Kumar Jha

Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)

In this paper, we introduce a new dynamical model addressing the variation in climate condition due the presence of microorganisms. We also introduce a new dynamical model of cancer growth which includes three interactive cell populations with drug free environment, namely tumor cells, healthy host cells, and immune effector cells. In this, we considered the super growth of tumor cells. For the choice of certain parameters, both of the systems exhibit chaotic behavior. The aim of this work is to design the controller to control the chaos and to provide sufficient conditions which achieve synchronization of two non-identical systems, which …


Bugs, Bullets And Birds: Factors Affecting The Health And Survival Of Ferruginous Hawk Nestlings In The Intermountain West, Ellis A. Juhlin 2022 Utah State University

Bugs, Bullets And Birds: Factors Affecting The Health And Survival Of Ferruginous Hawk Nestlings In The Intermountain West, Ellis A. Juhlin

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ferruginous Hawks are a bird of prey species that nest in sagebrush steppe and grassland habitat. These birds are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation from urbanization, rural development, oil and natural gas extraction, habitat treatment projects, and wildfires, and experiencing widespread population declines across their breeding range. Because of this, Ferruginous Hawks (FEHAs) have been deemed a Species of Greatest Conservation Need by state management agencies in Utah, Idaho, Wyoming and Nevada. The health and survival of Ferruginous Hawk (FEHA) nestlings is crucial to long-term population viability. Understanding the threats these birds are facing as nestlings can provide valuable …


Alcohol, Stress, And Sex In The Bed Nucleus Of The Stria Terminalis, Nicholas Burski 2022 East Tennessee State University

Alcohol, Stress, And Sex In The Bed Nucleus Of The Stria Terminalis, Nicholas Burski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) costs the U.S. billions of dollars each year and is a leading cause of preventable death. AUD leads to many health complications, and those who suffer from AUD will often have stress and anxiety disorder comorbidities. To better understand this connection between AUD and stress and anxiety disorders, restraint stress (RS) and chronic-intermittent ethanol exposure (CIE) procedures were used on rats to analyze neuroinflammation via ELISA in the infralimbic and prelimbic cortices, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Levels of proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, were found to be elevated across different tests …


Potential Fitness Trade-Offs Of Elevated Esterase Activity Associated With Insecticide Resistance In The Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus, Timothy Schulte 2022 California State University, San Bernardino

Potential Fitness Trade-Offs Of Elevated Esterase Activity Associated With Insecticide Resistance In The Mosquito Culex Quinquefasciatus, Timothy Schulte

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

One of the current major issues in the control of vector-borne disease is resistance to insecticides. Resistance to one or more insecticides has appeared in over 580 different arthropod species. Widespread resistance has led to the field of Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM). The goal of IRM is to develop insecticide-use strategies that prevent or slow down the evolution of resistance. Computer models have shown that more effective IRM strategies rely on the assumption that resistance carries a fitness cost in the absence of insecticide use.

In the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus resistance to certain organophosphate insecticides is caused by an increased …


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