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Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt 2021 Georgia College

Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt

Biology Theses

The Caribbean terrestrial soldier crab, Coenobita clypeatus(Fabricius 1787), coexist and utilize the shells of numerous species of land and marine gastropods. Soldier crabs rely on gastropod shells for protection as the crabs have a soft abdomen, leaving them vulnerable for predation and desiccation, threatening their survival. This creates a strong pressure to obtain well-fitting shells that provide adequate protection against water loss. Cerion of Röding (1798) shells are one of the most commonly used shells among living colonies of C. clypeatuson San Salvador Island. This study is interested in the frequency of shell use by C. clypeatus crabs ...


Sublethal Effects Of Red Imported Fire Ant Envenomation On Hatchlings Of North American Oviparous Snakes, Hannah Warner, Meredith Swartwout 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Sublethal Effects Of Red Imported Fire Ant Envenomation On Hatchlings Of North American Oviparous Snakes, Hannah Warner, Meredith Swartwout

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Invasive species cause major ecological and economic damage. The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA; Solenopsis invicta) has successfully invaded much of the southeastern United States and has caused both widespread economic damage and is suspected to be the driver of enigmatic declines of several oviparous snake species. This study aimed to determine the sublethal effects of RIFA on hatchlings of six species of oviparous snakes (Coluber constrictor, Lampropeltis calligaster, L. holbrooki, Opheodrys aestivus, Pantherophis emoryi, and P. obsoletus) by exposing hatchlings to envenomation by RIFA and then measuring two performance metrics: righting response and swimming speed. We found a slight ...


Does Integrating Crops With Livestock Production Impact Soil Properties And Crop Production?, Lindsey Anderson 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Does Integrating Crops With Livestock Production Impact Soil Properties And Crop Production?, Lindsey Anderson

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Re-integrating crop and livestock production through cover crop (CC) and corn residue grazing could efficiently utilize resources and ensure profitability while improving environmental quality, but how this integration affects soils and crops is not well understood. We conducted two studies to address this. In the first study, we evaluated the impact of cattle (1.3-3.7 head ha-1) grazing an oat (Avena sativa L.) CC on soil and crop yields in two adjacent irrigated no-till corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max L.) fields on silt loam soils in eastern Nebraska. Field I was grazed twice, while Field II ...


Not All Pollinator Gardens Are Created Equally: Determining Factors Pertinent To Improving Pollinator Garden Effectiveness, Travis Watson 2021 East Tennessee State University

Not All Pollinator Gardens Are Created Equally: Determining Factors Pertinent To Improving Pollinator Garden Effectiveness, Travis Watson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Increasing evidence documenting the decline of insect populations, resulting from increasing human disturbances has resulted in efforts to establish pollinator gardens to provide additional resources for insect populations. However, our understanding of biotic and abiotic garden characteristics important for attracting and sustaining pollinator diversity is limited. Here, we evaluated 17 pollinator gardens to evaluate the effect of five biotic and three abiotic garden characteristics on pollinator species richness, abundance, and proportional representation of four pollinator functional groups. Plant species richness positively influenced pollinator richness and negatively influenced flower visitation. Bombus proportional abundance responded to several variables (distance to vegetation, plant ...


Sustainable Winter-Feeding Practices For Meat Goats Within The Southeastern United States, Nikisha Ryan, Nar Gurung, Jeremy Byrant, Frank Abrahamsen, Wendell McElhenney 2021 Tuskegee University

Sustainable Winter-Feeding Practices For Meat Goats Within The Southeastern United States, Nikisha Ryan, Nar Gurung, Jeremy Byrant, Frank Abrahamsen, Wendell Mcelhenney

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Winter feeding systems were evaluated on male Kiko meat goats against the traditional practice of raising goats in the winter months. Forty-Five Kiko bucks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments; Treatment 1, Treatment 2, and Treatment 3 consisted, respectively, of Cosaque Oats, annual Ryegrass, Crimson Clover mix, and 1.0% of BW concentrate supplementation with free choice hay. Forage clippings were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber. Body weights were monitored over the grazing period. Blood samples were collected during the experiment, and animals were slaughtered for the evaluation of carcass traits. Data were ...


Density Of Free-Roaming Cats Related To Feeding Stations On Hayden Island, Olivia Helback, Joe Liebezeit 2021 Portland State University

Density Of Free-Roaming Cats Related To Feeding Stations On Hayden Island, Olivia Helback, Joe Liebezeit

University Honors Theses

Free-roaming cats have a devastating impact on wildlife populations with stray/feral cats being the most problematic. In some areas, community members provide these cats with food, water, and shelter often in conjunction with a trap, neuter, return (TNR) program. Hayden Island located north of Portland, Oregon is home to a managed colony of feral and stray cats. Some island residents provide feeding stations for the cats and actively participate in population management. To determine how feeding stations might affect cat spatial distribution, camera traps were placed at 19 different stations in urban and natural areas on Hayden island. Additional ...


Correlation Between Abundance Of Fossils In Harvester Ant Nest And Proximity Of Fossil Sites, Hayeong Woo 2021 Southern Adventist University

Correlation Between Abundance Of Fossils In Harvester Ant Nest And Proximity Of Fossil Sites, Hayeong Woo

Campus Research Day

Harvester ants have an interesting behavior of bone collecting. Therefore, harvester ant nests that are positioned around the fossil sites contain various fossil fragments. If there is a statistically significant correlation between the abundance of fossil fragments and the distance of the ant nests from the main fossil sites, ant nests can potentially be used to predict the proximity of the main fossil sites.


Impact Of Whitetail Deer Overpopulation With Hunting On The Decline, Matthew J. Lamprinos 2021 Kutztown University

Impact Of Whitetail Deer Overpopulation With Hunting On The Decline, Matthew J. Lamprinos

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

The whitetail deer is a key species for Pennsylvania’s forests, but their ecological balance has been disturbed by unregulated growth and urban sprawl. The deer population in Pennsylvania has exploded since the 1880’s causing a wide range of damage on the ecosystem, and humans. To reduce deer populations to sustainable levels, the Pennsylvania Game Commission relies heavily on hunters to dedicate time in the fall to go out and fill the tags the they issue. Hunter participation all around the world is decreasing for a variety of reasons. Fewer hunters out in the field causes revenue losses for ...


Morph- And Sex-Specific Differences In Corticosterone Of The Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma Mavortium Nebulosum), Megan Zerger 2021 Murray State University

Morph- And Sex-Specific Differences In Corticosterone Of The Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma Mavortium Nebulosum), Megan Zerger

Scholars Week

Life history morph, sex, and body condition are traits that may influence stress within salamander populations because of differences in physiology and environmental conditions. Given widespread declines and the effects chronic stress can have on amphibian health, it is important to understand within-population drivers of stress and how population level variation may influence population viability. Thus, the objective of our study was to assess how corticosterone varies within the Arizona tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium nebulosum) population at the Mexican Cut Nature Preserve. We used a non-invasive skin swabbing method to collect baseline and elevated corticosterone from paedomorph (aquatic morph; N ...


Understanding Relationships Between Stress, Snake Fungal Disease, And Parasitism In Wild Cottonmouth Snake Populations, Emma Fehlker Campbell 2021 Murray State University

Understanding Relationships Between Stress, Snake Fungal Disease, And Parasitism In Wild Cottonmouth Snake Populations, Emma Fehlker Campbell

Scholars Week

Chronically raised stress levels are known to correlate with decreased immune function in vertebrates, possible leading to increased susceptibility to infections including parasitism and Snake Fungal Disease (SFD). Helminth endoparasites and Hemoparasites are frequently found in wild populations but little is known about their physiological effects. Additionally, parasite infection may have interactive effects with diseases including SFD. To our knowledge few studies have assessed potential interactions between SFD and parasites in snakes. Thus, the objective of our study is to assess the individual and interactive effects of Helminth endoparasites, hemoparasites, and snake fungal disease on cottonmouth physiological stress. We are ...


Holocene Records Of Nebraska Mammals, Hugh H. Genoways 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Holocene Records Of Nebraska Mammals, Hugh H. Genoways

Zea E-Books

A survey of the archeological and paleontological literature allowed a compilation of Holocene records of mammals in Nebraska. This survey identified Holocene records from 338 sites in 62 of the 93 Nebraska counties. These counties were located throughout state, but there was a concentration of sites in southwestern Nebraska where there were 27 fossil sites in Frontier County and 22 in Harlan County. Fossils sites were underrepresented in the Sand Hills region. Records of fossil mammals covered the entire Holocene period from 13,000 years ago until AD 1850. A minimum of 57 species (with eight additional species potentially present ...


Phenology Of Antler Casting And Occurrence Of Late-Breeding In Nebraska White-Tailed Deer, Brian C. Peterson, Patrick D. Farrell, Dave Fehlhafer, Miranda C. Reinson, Dustin H. Ranglack 2021 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Phenology Of Antler Casting And Occurrence Of Late-Breeding In Nebraska White-Tailed Deer, Brian C. Peterson, Patrick D. Farrell, Dave Fehlhafer, Miranda C. Reinson, Dustin H. Ranglack

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Nebraska primarily breed in November (stimulated by photoperiod), but this season extends into December and January for unfertilized females and healthy fawns reaching the appropriate breeding weight by winter. Variation in the typical mating period can be attributed to geographic region, skewed sex ratios, and fawns reaching sexual maturity during their first year of birth. During April of 2019, we observed late season breeding by a male white-tailed deer in the central Platte River valley and documented late antler casting for this same late-copulating male. An additional male was observed in April of 2020 still ...


Monitoring For Wolves, Jeff Hansen, Cat Urbigkit 2021 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services Mountain View, Wyoming

Monitoring For Wolves, Jeff Hansen, Cat Urbigkit

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi) once again roam across landscapes where they have been absent for decades (Figure 1). With wolf range expansion comes increased opportunities for conflicts when wolves harass or prey on domestic livestock or other animals. Wolves have relatively high reproductive and dispersal rates but detecting individual animals in low-density populations is difficult without a concerted monitoring effort. In fact, wolf presence in an area often is not known until there is a confirmed livestock depredation. Ranchers and wildlife damage management experts need not wait for livestock depredations to occur before wolves ...


Data Repository For "North American Porcupine Distribution In The Pacific Northwest And Evaluation Of A Non-Invasive Monitoring Technique", Cara L. Appel, Katie M. Moriarty, Sean M. Matthews, David S. Green, Stacy Anderson, Evan King, J Scott Yaeger, Jeremy Brown, Claire Bortot, Tim Bean 2021 Humboldt State University

Data Repository For "North American Porcupine Distribution In The Pacific Northwest And Evaluation Of A Non-Invasive Monitoring Technique", Cara L. Appel, Katie M. Moriarty, Sean M. Matthews, David S. Green, Stacy Anderson, Evan King, J Scott Yaeger, Jeremy Brown, Claire Bortot, Tim Bean

Research Data Sets

North American Porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) have a broad geographic distribution across much of the continent, but recent evidence suggests that their populations may be declining in some areas, including the Pacific Northwest. Estimating baseline historical and contemporary distributions of Porcupines is necessary for initiating monitoring efforts and, if necessary, informing strategic conservation actions. We compiled 1905 occurrence records of Porcupines in Washington, Oregon, and northern California from 1908 to 2018. Using maximum entropy modeling (Maxent), we created historical and contemporary distribution models based on Porcupine records from 1981–2010 and 2012–2018, respectively, to match the temporal scale of available ...


Modeling Action Potential Reversals In Tunicate Hearts, John W. Cain, Luran He, Lindsay D. Waldrop 2020 Harvard University

Modeling Action Potential Reversals In Tunicate Hearts, John W. Cain, Luran He, Lindsay D. Waldrop

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Tunicates are small invertebrates which possess a unique ability to reverse flow in their hearts. Scientists have debated various theories regarding how and why flow reversals occur. Here we explore the electrophysiological basis for reversals by simulating action potential propagation in an idealized model of the tubelike tunicate heart. Using asymptotic formulas for action potential duration and conduction velocity, we propose tunicate-specific parameters for a two-current ionic model of the action potential. Then, using a kinematic model, we derive analytical criteria for reversals to occur. These criteria inform subsequent numerical simulations of action potential propagation in a fiber paced at ...


The Effect Of Holding Time Of Whole Mare Blood On Concentration Of Progesterone, Clarissa Menefee 2020 Stephen F. Austin State University

The Effect Of Holding Time Of Whole Mare Blood On Concentration Of Progesterone, Clarissa Menefee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to evaluate if holding time had an effect on mare whole blood progesterone levels. This research was completed using 12 mares, with blood being collected on multiple cycles to get a total of 28 separate blood collections. At each collection 5 vials of blood were taken for different time treatments of 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours. The 0 hour was centrifuged within 30 mins of collection and the other 4 were refrigerated at 4℃ until the specific time treatment was finished. After they were centrifuged all the samples were stored in the freezer ...


Understanding Free-Roaming Horse Conflicts With Wildlife In The Great Basin, S. Nicole Frey, Eric Thacker, Katlyn Uhart 2020 Utah State University

Understanding Free-Roaming Horse Conflicts With Wildlife In The Great Basin, S. Nicole Frey, Eric Thacker, Katlyn Uhart

All Current Publications

Horses and burros were introduced to North America in the 1600s with European missionaries and explorers. Over time, abandoned and released horses and burros formed herds and by the time European-American settlers began to explore North America in the 1700s, these free-roaming horses and burros had adapted to their habitat and been incorporated into Native American culture. By the mid-1900s, most Americans considered these horses as wild and symbols of freedom and beauty.

In 1971, Congress passed the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act (Public Law 73-482) to provide federal protection for free-roaming horses and burros (also known as ...


Prevalence Of Snake Fungal Disease Caused By Ophidiomyces Ophiodiicola In East Texas, Alan Lizarraga 2020 University of Texas at Tyler

Prevalence Of Snake Fungal Disease Caused By Ophidiomyces Ophiodiicola In East Texas, Alan Lizarraga

Biology Theses

Fungal pathogens and resultant disease are credited with the decline of many species across all branches of the tree of life. Fungal diseases such as Snake Fungal Disease (SFD), primarily caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola (Oo), have been strongly associated with the cause of the decrease/disappearance of many snake populations in North America. To date SFD in the wild has been described as far southwest as central Louisiana. Due to similar conditions and the proximity of East Texas to central Louisiana, a survey of local snake populations provided crucial information about the spread and presence of this emerging ...


The Fear Of Reptiles And How To Change It, Maxwell Lyman 2020 Bowling Green State University

The Fear Of Reptiles And How To Change It, Maxwell Lyman

Honors Projects

Reptile fear is prominent across many cultures. Anti-reptilian attitudes can lead to anti-conservation attitudes towards reptiles. Person-animal interaction has been shown to decrease fear desensitization and increase positive attitudes towards "unpopular" animals. My project demonstrates the effectiveness of live animal presentation in dispelling negative attitudes of reptiles. However, due to the sample size of the project, further research is highly suggested.


Investigation Of Sulfur Cycling In Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Spp. From A South Florida Reef, Shelby K. Cain 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Investigation Of Sulfur Cycling In Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Spp. From A South Florida Reef, Shelby K. Cain

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Symbionts within marine sponges are actively participating in the biogeochemical cycles. Among them, the role of symbiont microbes in the sulfur cycle remains a mystery. This study measured the abundance of microbes within the genus Cinachyrella before and after exposure to hydrogen sulfide. A four-part study was conducted: a) five-hour drop experiments, b) vertical distribution experiments, c) five-hour uptake experiments, and d) long-term exposure experiments. The five-hour drop experiment utilized a microsensor to measure sulfide levels, which was lowered 1.0 mm every thirty minutes for a total of 5 hours. Three trials were performed, each with one sponge and ...


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