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Social Psychology

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Freedom, Covi-19, And Resistance To Public Health Orders, Benjamin Rosenberg Apr 2021

Freedom, Covi-19, And Resistance To Public Health Orders, Benjamin Rosenberg

Psychology | Faculty Scholarship

As we look back on one year since the first Covid-19 lockdowns went into effect in the United States, several truths about this ever-changing virus have emerged. For one, well-fitting, multi-layered face masks significantly reduce people’s likelihood of spreading or catching Covid-19 (e.g., Leung et al., 2020), and the vaccines similarly reduce the risk of spread and infection (Thompson et al., 2021). Second, things that were, at best, at the outskirts of people’s attention have become commonplace over the past year: hand sanitizer, social distancing, mask wearing, vaccinations. The related third truth is that over the past ...


Information Prioritization: A Comparison Between Utility Maximizers And Probability Matchers, Yusuf Ismaeel Jan 2021

Information Prioritization: A Comparison Between Utility Maximizers And Probability Matchers, Yusuf Ismaeel

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis examines the differences between probability matchers and utility maximizers in their preferences for information sources in a lab environment. In this paper, we consider the best source of information to be the most connected one. We conducted several linear probability model type regressions along with logit regressions. Furthermore, we also attempted to control and fix any potential misclassifications in classifying the cognitive strategy by using instrumental variables. The results show that utility maximizers will almost always choose the most informed node. Probability matchers, on the other hand, do not exhibit such a behavior as the probability matching strategy ...


Issues Facing Community-Based Social Workers When Providing Female Offenders With Reunification Services, Karen N. Vertti Jan 2021

Issues Facing Community-Based Social Workers When Providing Female Offenders With Reunification Services, Karen N. Vertti

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

AbstractThe goal with this action research project was to understand how community-based social workers (CBSWs) could address female offenders’ and their children’s needs while striving to reintegrate them into the community of Central Los Angeles County, California. Postrelease female offenders with children suffer from a variety of issues related to housing, employment, and personal childhood trauma. The trauma exacerbates the risk of revictimization and recidivism. CBSWs play a pivotal role in helping female offenders overcome barriers to successful reentry and reunify with their children. This study incorporated Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory which provided a systems lens to this ...


Is It Just A Dream? How Attributions For Successful And Unsuccessful Social Mobility Attempts Maintain The Myth Of The American Dream, Erin Shanahan Jan 2021

Is It Just A Dream? How Attributions For Successful And Unsuccessful Social Mobility Attempts Maintain The Myth Of The American Dream, Erin Shanahan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Despite rising inequality making upward social mobility difficult, faith in the American Dream persists. Why is this the case? In six studies (five pre-registered), we demonstrate that in scenarios where hard work and ability are held constant, people praise the hard work and talent of individuals who successfully move up the social ladder while derogating these same characteristics among individuals who do not; a pattern of attributions which is likely to reinforce the American Dream. Further, conservatives explain mobility failure particularly in terms of personal shortcomings whereas liberals look to systemic disadvantages, attributions that in turn predicted lowered and heightened ...


Dual Attitude Model Of Opinion Diffusion: Experiments With Epistemically Motivated Agents, Riyang Phang, Lin Qiu, Angela K. Y. Leung Nov 2020

Dual Attitude Model Of Opinion Diffusion: Experiments With Epistemically Motivated Agents, Riyang Phang, Lin Qiu, Angela K. Y. Leung

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Opinion diffusion is often simulated in agentbased models to reveal the perpetuation of norms and beliefs. This paper presents a dual attitude model where agents’ interaction, information search, and opinion formation are influenced by the need for cognitive closure (NFCC). Two experiments simulated topic advocacy with either high- or lowNFCC agents. Experiment one initiated societies with unbiased distribution of NFCC levels between advocates of two competing topics, while experiment two initiated biased distributions of NFCC levels between the topics. Results in the unbiased condition showed that the popularity of the majority topic increases over time in high NFCC societies while ...


From Hobbes To Habermas: The Anti-Cultural Turn In Western Political Thought, Ralph Gert Schoellhammer Jan 2020

From Hobbes To Habermas: The Anti-Cultural Turn In Western Political Thought, Ralph Gert Schoellhammer

Theses and Dissertations--Political Science

The theme of this dissertation is the anti-cultural turn of Western Political Thought that has emerged out of Enlightenment thinking and was first turned into a comprehensive political idea by Thomas Hobbes.

Beginning with an overview of psychological research into the phenomenon of culture I put forward the argument that human beings are by nature social and individualistic, but that they oscillate between their ability to put group-interests before individual interests and vice versa. Culture is the main mechanism that influences which interest we give priority. This mechanism work through emotional attachments that create intuitions about what is morally right ...


Veteran Reintegration, Joan Lee Tolliver Jan 2020

Veteran Reintegration, Joan Lee Tolliver

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Veterans are a unique population and share a common experience: reintegration. The reintegration period can be a challenging experience, and affects things such as mental health and overall adjustment to civilian life. In order to examine reintegration more closely, interviews conducted by the Wright State’s Veterans Voices Project were used to complete this study. A checklist was used and consisted of nine themes identified in the relative literature related to reintegration: intimate relationships, familial relationships, children, education, employment, physical health, mental health, coping, and identity. Of the nine categories, employment was discussed most often (59.5%). Mental health was ...


Social Psychology, Griffin N. Thayer Oct 2019

Social Psychology, Griffin N. Thayer

Open Educational Resources

A syllabus designed with OER concepts in mind to teach social psychology.


The Relationship Between The Accessibility Of Political Attitudes And Voting Behavior, Alison I. Young Apr 2019

The Relationship Between The Accessibility Of Political Attitudes And Voting Behavior, Alison I. Young

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Eighty-five Olivet students (57 women) participated for extra credit in a study focused on the relationship between the accessibility of one's attitudes toward political parties (Democrats vs. Republicans) and political decisions (e.g., likelihood to vote for a given candidate). Participants viewed a series of Democrat-related (e.g., left-leaning, liberal) and Republican-related (e.g., right-leaning, conservative) terms piloted for political orientation. For each, they were asked to indicate as quickly and accurately as possible whether they liked or disliked it. The speed of their response served as a measure of attitude accessibility. Participants then completed a series of questions ...


The Effects Of Mortality Salience And Autonomy Priming On Worldview Defensiveness, Joseph P. Conti Jan 2019

The Effects Of Mortality Salience And Autonomy Priming On Worldview Defensiveness, Joseph P. Conti

ETD Archive

Terror Management Theory posits that people are motivated to defend against death awareness by maintaining cultural beliefs and behaviors that transcend mortality— sometimes motivating hostile, even militaristic, defenses of one’s culture. In contrast, self-determination theory suggests that autonomous regulation (self-determination) serves as a platform for personal growth and well-being. However, the present thesis suggests that, in addition to fueling growth, self-determination may also help buffer against the awareness of mortality, thus mitigating the impact of death awareness on hostile cultural worldview defense. To test this hypothesis, American participants were randomly assigned to be reminded of mortality or a control ...


Mortality Salience And The Effects Of Autonomy On Death Anxiety, Dylan Earlin Horner Jan 2019

Mortality Salience And The Effects Of Autonomy On Death Anxiety, Dylan Earlin Horner

ETD Archive

The present research built on prior work suggesting that mortality salience (MS) can undermine psychological well-being and explored the previously-untested hypothesis that autonomy can mitigate that effect. Specifically, the study investigated the effects of primed autonomy on measured death anxiety following a reminder of mortality. Participants (n = 119) were randomly assigned to either an MS or control condition and then, following a delay, were primed with the concept of either autonomy or being controlled. Death anxiety was then measured. Results found that MS increased death anxiety among those in the controlled prime condition, but not among those in the autonomous ...


Prejudice, Jonathan M. Gallimore Aug 2018

Prejudice, Jonathan M. Gallimore

PSY 350 PR - Gallimore - Fall 2018

This activity - Prejudice - is designed to expose students' explicit prejudices.

This activity should help students understand that everyone holds prejudices and to launch a discussion about the source of prejudice – especially ways to reduce it. Often, superordinate goals are a great way to bring together disparate groups, so the class does spend time talking about goals that may unite humanity.

This activity uses a worksheet, “Acceptability of Prejudice,” from http://breakingprejudice.org/teaching/group-activities/acceptability-of-prejudice.html The worksheet was adapted by Mary Kite and Elizabeth Tobin from a 2002 article by Crandell, Eshleman, and O’Brien.


Prejudice, Jonathan M. Gallimore Aug 2018

Prejudice, Jonathan M. Gallimore

PSY 101 PR - Gallimore - Fall 2018

This activity - Prejudice - is designed to expose students' explicit prejudices.

This activity should help students understand that everyone holds prejudices and to launch a discussion about the source of prejudice – especially ways to reduce it. Often, superordinate goals are a great way to bring together disparate groups, so the class does spend time talking about goals that may unite humanity.

This activity uses a worksheet, “Acceptability of Prejudice,” from http://breakingprejudice.org/teaching/group-activities/acceptability-of-prejudice.html The worksheet was adapted by Mary Kite and Elizabeth Tobin from a 2002 article by Crandell, Eshleman, and O’Brien.


Social Comparison In Eating Disorder Recovery: A Mixed-Methodological Approach, Jessica Faye Saunders May 2018

Social Comparison In Eating Disorder Recovery: A Mixed-Methodological Approach, Jessica Faye Saunders

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines social comparison tendencies in young women during eating disorder (ED) recovery. Study one drew on a photo-elicitation method (“PhotoVoice”) and semi-structured interviews to examine this relation. Thirty U.S. women, ages 18-35, in self-defined recovery from disordered eating, used photography to capture personally-meaningful social and cultural influences on their recovery. Participants then shared these photographs with the research team and described them in detail. Photographs and interviews were examined for social comparisons using thematic analysis, and two broad categories emerged: recovery-promoting and recovery-hindering comparisons. The presence of both “upward” and “downward” comparisons that both support and hinder ...


Milton Rokeach's Experimental Modification Of Values: Navigating Relevance, Ethics And Politics In Social Psychological Research, Stefan Jadaszewski Apr 2018

Milton Rokeach's Experimental Modification Of Values: Navigating Relevance, Ethics And Politics In Social Psychological Research, Stefan Jadaszewski

Psychology from the Margins

In 1967, social psychologist Milton Rokeach (1918 – 1988) proposed that in order for social psychology to remain relevant to the issues confronting the social sciences and the United States, it must adopt value as its core construct. In addition to influential conceptual advancements, his major contributions to this literature would include the development of the Rokeach Value Survey and the introduction of a method of experimentally inducing changes in values, termed "self-confrontation." Rokeach conceptualized this body of research as operating within an explicitly humanistic, democratic and socially-oriented ethic. As Rokeach's efforts to produce socially-relevant research expanded beyond the traditional ...


The Art Of Peer Pressure: Social Desires As Incentives To Join Students Protests In Jordan, Jordan Hughes Apr 2018

The Art Of Peer Pressure: Social Desires As Incentives To Join Students Protests In Jordan, Jordan Hughes

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Collective action and rational choice theory suggest that social movements suffer from a tragedy of the commons that incentivizes individuals against participation. The last several decades of increased youth-driven protests and demonstrations in the Middle East, however, suggest that these collective action barriers are being consistently overcome. I propose an addition to the rational choice basis of Olson’s collective action theory which incorporates social desires, and specifically peer pressure, as an observable individual incentive. Using a combination of interviews and vignette-style factorial surveys, I test this hypothesis to measure the effect of perceived peer pressure on the intention of ...


Measurement Of The Propensity To Trust Automation, Sarah Ann Jessup Jan 2018

Measurement Of The Propensity To Trust Automation, Sarah Ann Jessup

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Few studies have examined how propensity to trust in automation influences trust behaviors, those which indicate users are relying on automation. Of the published studies, there are inconsistencies in how propensity to trust automation is conceptualized and thus measured. Research on attitudes and intentions has discerned that reliability and validity of measures can be increased by using more direct and specific language, which reduces ambiguity and increases the ability to predict behavior. This study examined how traditional measures of propensity to trust automation could be adapted to predict whether automation is deemed as trustworthy (perceived trustworthiness) and whether people behave ...


The Relationship Between Social Status Motivation And The Detection Of Trustworthy And Affiliative Cues In Faces, Christopher J. Lustgraaf May 2017

The Relationship Between Social Status Motivation And The Detection Of Trustworthy And Affiliative Cues In Faces, Christopher J. Lustgraaf

Dissertations

A prominent feature of human (and non-human primate) social group structure involves the establishment and maintenance of a social hierarchy; that is, social groups are arranged hierarchically, based on individuals’ level of status, and conspecifics who more effectively ascend this status hierarchy accrue more reproductive and resource benefits (Hawley, 1999). Thus, for any individual, other group members could be either a threat to one’s status, or an ally to assist status goals, and accurate identification of these various social targets would have adaptive utility in status maintenance or status hierarchy ascension. The current study tested the hypotheses that activation ...


Homefulness: The Cultural Safety Net In The Hashemite Kingdom Of Jordan, Joshua Ahearn Apr 2017

Homefulness: The Cultural Safety Net In The Hashemite Kingdom Of Jordan, Joshua Ahearn

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Abstract

This exploratory study aims to answer the basic question of why the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan appears to be without homelessness. A developing nation coping with economic, ecological, and geopolitical instability has somehow managed to create a society where homelessness seems to not exist. The study begins with a review of literature on homelessness and theory in order to conceptualize this complex issue, followed by a review of data on homelessness in developing countries, and an overview of the Islamic thought on poverty. The guiding theory of this research is social collectivism and how Jordan fits into this cooperative ...


Una Exploración Del Proceso De Recuperación Frente A Desastres Y Las Fuentes De Resiliencia En Alimapu, "La Tierra Quemada” / An Exploration Of The Disaster Recovery Process And Sources Of Resilience In Alimapu, "La Tierra Quemada", Alison Stewart Apr 2017

Una Exploración Del Proceso De Recuperación Frente A Desastres Y Las Fuentes De Resiliencia En Alimapu, "La Tierra Quemada” / An Exploration Of The Disaster Recovery Process And Sources Of Resilience In Alimapu, "La Tierra Quemada", Alison Stewart

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The history of Chile has been fraught by natural and socionatural disasters. Nevertheless, research on the mental health effects on the disaster survivors and the mechanisms used to overcome the catastrophes and mend the psychological damage is scarce. Therefore, this descriptive study explored the experiences of those that were affected by the great fire of Valparaíso, Chile in 2014 and the work of those involved in the recuperation process in order to reveal the manner in which resilience is manifested among the communities of disaster sufferers. The sample population was composed of 7 disaster survivors from the communities of Cerro ...


Worlds Ahead?: On The Dialectics Of Cosmopolitanism And Postcapitalism, Bryant William Sculos Feb 2017

Worlds Ahead?: On The Dialectics Of Cosmopolitanism And Postcapitalism, Bryant William Sculos

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation argues that the major theories of global justice (specifically within the cosmopolitan tradition) have missed an important aspect of capitalism in their attempts to deal with the most pernicious effects of the global economic system. This is not merely a left critique of cosmopolitanism (though it is certainly that as well), but its fundamental contribution is that it applies the insights of Frankfurt School Critical Theorist Theodor Adorno’s negative dialectics to offer an internal critique of cosmopolitanism. As it stands, much of the global justice and cosmopolitanism literature takes global capitalism as an unsurpassable and a foundationally ...


A Study Of Media Portrayal Of Schizophrenics To Understand How Stigma Associated With Schizophrenia May Be Reversed, Rainielle M. Cua Jan 2017

A Study Of Media Portrayal Of Schizophrenics To Understand How Stigma Associated With Schizophrenia May Be Reversed, Rainielle M. Cua

Undergraduate Research Posters

The news media are one of the most influential sources of information regarding mental illness. Media coverage on schizophrenia, one of the most stigmatized mental illnesses, tends to be negative, focusing on high risks of violence, failure, and unpredictability. Such perceptions may cause a detrimental impact on the mentally ill and cause them to internalize a stigmatizing stereotype and hinder the public’s understanding of mental illness. I studied how media portrayal in newspaper coverage of schizophrenics has evolved to discover how nonfiction media representation has affected people’s perceptions and attitudes towards schizophrenics and to propose an implementable solution ...


Don't Judge A Book By Its Author: Central And Peripheral Processing In Narrative Persuasion, Kelly Ann Kane Jan 2017

Don't Judge A Book By Its Author: Central And Peripheral Processing In Narrative Persuasion, Kelly Ann Kane

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

According to the Narrative Transportation model of persuasion, narrative persuasion is structurally different from non-narrative persuasion, and therefore not moderated by differences in cognitive elaboration (Green & Brock, 2000). However, narratives also contain aspects of arguments that can be influenced by elaboration—vividness, empathy, and causal structure. This study tested the hypothesis that an Elaboration Likelihood Model paradigm using a narrative message would produce similar results to those observed in rhetorical persuasion. Participants (N = 478) read a narrative arguing against illegal media use which contained manipulations of both peripheral and message-relevant aspects while completing distraction tasks. While highly distracted participants were ...


Educating The Under Empowered For Tolerance Of Satire And Participation In Young Democracies, Judith Puncochar, Don Faust Jul 2016

Educating The Under Empowered For Tolerance Of Satire And Participation In Young Democracies, Judith Puncochar, Don Faust

Conference Presentations

Drawing from experiences in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the United States, a relationship appears to exist between tolerance for satire, freedom of expression, and academic freedom in higher education. Empowering the under empowered for participation in vibrant democracies and rational public discourse seems to coincide with an increasing tolerance for satire. We posit vibrant democracies must contain educational elements essential to empower the under empowered for democratic participation, in particular, to provide new democratic citizens with an understanding of the role of satire to cultivate rational public discourse in new democracies. New Southeast Asian democracies need growing evidence of dynamic strivings ...


Decision Making Theories Of Retaliation, Katlyn S. Farnum May 2016

Decision Making Theories Of Retaliation, Katlyn S. Farnum

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

In 2013, the Supreme Court decided, in University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center v Nassar, that Title VII retaliation claims should be interpreted under the stricter but-for causality instructions. This requires claims of retaliation to show that the plaintiff’s discrimination complaint (or involvement in a discrimination claim) is the direct cause of the adverse action, as compared to a motivating factor that is required under the less strict motivating factor causal instructions. The current research examines the role of regulatory focus (promotion v. prevention), causal instructions, employment action (promotion v. dismissal), and number of claims considered on both juror ...


Retrospective Emotional Interpretation Of Holocaust Victims: Case Studies Of Usc Shoah Foundation Testimonies, Rachel Gaufberg Apr 2016

Retrospective Emotional Interpretation Of Holocaust Victims: Case Studies Of Usc Shoah Foundation Testimonies, Rachel Gaufberg

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

Extensive research has been conducted on the emotional/psychological conditions of survivors post-Holocaust, specifically symptoms of trauma of which many have been grouped and coined into terms such as “survivor syndrome” and “concentration camp syndrome” (USHMM, 2015). In addition, the treatment of such conditions have been studied and implemented. Conversely, significantly less research has been conducted regarding the emotional/psychological experiences of victims during these events, as recollected by victims in the present. Personal narratives of Holocaust survivors shed light on the emotional and psychological implications of the Holocaust’s traumatic events on individuals. In this paper, Holocaust survivors ...


Altruism And Popularity, Eda Egilmez Jan 2016

Altruism And Popularity, Eda Egilmez

Master's Theses

Popularity, as a manifestation of social status, has been widely researched and appears to be determined by members of a social group. Individuals’ either aggressive or prosocial characteristics and environment lead them to one type of popularity. Prosocial behaviors are actions with intention of benefiting others or society as whole with little or no personal gain and may include helping, sharing, cooperating, donating, and other voluntary works. Altruism is a type of prosocial behavior that could affect individuals' popularity. Altruism has been studied in different disciplines with the general definition of cooperative behavior that has a cost to the actor ...


Construction Of An Anti-Mexican American Bias Scale And Its Validation, Leslie N. Martinez Nov 2015

Construction Of An Anti-Mexican American Bias Scale And Its Validation, Leslie N. Martinez

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology

The purpose of the dissertation is to develop a meaningful measure of Anti-Mexican American attitudes and to test that measure for its utility in predicting biased attributions for Mexican Americans. Attention has mainly focused on bias against Blacks, and this has produced important gaps in the understanding of race/ethnic bias that must be addressed. For the past few decades, the number of racial minorities, especially the number of Latinos/Hispanics, has been on the rise. The psychometric properties and validation of the new Anti-Mexican American Attitude Scale (AMAAS) were investigated through study 1 and study 2. The principal components ...


Can Quantitative Assessment Of Moral Identity Be Improved?, David Adrion Baker May 2015

Can Quantitative Assessment Of Moral Identity Be Improved?, David Adrion Baker

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

According to results from Aquino and Reed (study 5, 2002) and Hall and Derryberry (2010), high means and very low standard deviations of the average score for each question for both the internalization and symbolization scales of the Moral Identity Scale (MIS) are common. This study attempts to measure the extent to which a person considers morality to be a central part of his or her self-concept. Because participants may feel pressure to respond in a certain way on the MIS, the role of social desirability to respond favorably is very plausible. The current study, therefore, attempts to reduce socially ...


Between Warrior And Helplessness In The Valley Of Azawa - The Struggle Of The Kel Tamashek In The War Of The Sahel, Patrick James Christian Jan 2015

Between Warrior And Helplessness In The Valley Of Azawa - The Struggle Of The Kel Tamashek In The War Of The Sahel, Patrick James Christian

Department of Conflict Resolution Studies Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is an Investigation into the Tuareg involvement in violent conflict in the Sahara and the Sahel of North Africa from a sociological psychological perspective of unmet human needs. The research begins by establishing the structure and texture of the sociological, psychological, and emotional life patterns of their existence when not involved in violent conflict. This is followed by an examination of the pathology of Tuareg social structures that are engaged in intra and inter communal violence as perpetrators, victims, and bystanders. The first part of the research establishes normal conditions of the sociological life cycle and highlights natural ...