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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Puerto Rico School Administrators’ Authentic Leadership And Turnover Intent Moderated By Supervisor Support, Cristal Vazquez Davila Jan 2021

Puerto Rico School Administrators’ Authentic Leadership And Turnover Intent Moderated By Supervisor Support, Cristal Vazquez Davila

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The turnover rates of Puerto Rican high school teachers continue to increase and have an adverse effect not only on the quality of education but also on the budget of Puerto Rico’s Department of Education (PRDE). By examining the factors of perceived supervisor support and authentic leadership influencing teachers’ turnover intentions, steps can be taken to reduce the turnover rates. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between school administrators’ authenticity and the turnover intentions of a sample of high school teachers employed by the PRDE. The framework was based on social exchange theory, authentic leadership ...


Factors Predicting Counselor Education And Supervision Doctoral Student Career Choices, Lisa Corbin Jan 2021

Factors Predicting Counselor Education And Supervision Doctoral Student Career Choices, Lisa Corbin

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Despite the increased need for counselor educators, less than half of graduates of counselor education and supervision (CES) programs enter into faculty positions after graduation. There is also a significant lack of diversity among counselor educators. Some researchers found that the quality of a mentoring relationship influences the mentee’s self-efficacy and career choice. The purpose of this quantitative survey research study was to explore the perceived quality of the participant’s mentoring relationship as measured by the Mentorship in Clinical Training Scale (MiCTS) and whether that score predicted the participant’s career choice or a change in career choice ...


Impact Of Gender Of The Offender On Perceptions And Criminal Sentencing Of Child Sexual Abuse Cases In Puerto Rico, Sigrid Enid Vázquez-Tirado Jan 2021

Impact Of Gender Of The Offender On Perceptions And Criminal Sentencing Of Child Sexual Abuse Cases In Puerto Rico, Sigrid Enid Vázquez-Tirado

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The gender of the adult offender may influence perceptions and criminal sentencing of child sexual abuse (CSA) cases in Puerto Rico. Extralegal factors such as culture and stereotypes may impact how CSA crimes are perceived and handled. The traumagenic dynamic model and the focal concerns theory of sentencing provided the theoretical frameworks for the study. Data were gathered by convenience sampling. To measure perceptions and sentencing decisions, 525 participants were asked to read a hypothetical case of CSA by a teacher with a minor student. Point-biserial correlational analyses were used to assess the influence of the independent variable (sex of ...


Perceptions Of Influence Of The Wage Gap On Immigrant Ghanaian Women’S Career Aspirations, Daniel Otoo Kwasi Djan Jan 2020

Perceptions Of Influence Of The Wage Gap On Immigrant Ghanaian Women’S Career Aspirations, Daniel Otoo Kwasi Djan

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Wage inequality and gender-based career advancement barriers have plagued immigrant women in the United States since world war II. The Equal Pay Act was enacted to address wage inequalities but did little to fix the concerns of the wage gap and promotional barriers for women in the United States. This generic qualitative study addressed a research gap about perceptions of influence of the wage gap on immigrant women’s career aspirations to address the documented problem of income disparity. The theoretical framework guiding the study consisted of feminist and conflict theories . The main research question concerns immigrant Ghanaian women’s ...


Gay-Affirmative Social Work Practice With Homeless Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Youth, Aissa Deloatch-Williams Jan 2020

Gay-Affirmative Social Work Practice With Homeless Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Youth, Aissa Deloatch-Williams

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth are overrepresented in the homeless population and experience higher rates of discrimination and unfair treatment when accessing services and shelter. Research indicates that homeless LGBT youth remain homeless for longer periods of time than their heterosexual peers because of bias and stigmas associated with their gender identity and sexual orientation. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine if social workers in the city of New Haven, Connecticut, used an affirmative model of intervention when working with homeless LGBT youth. Maslow’s self-affirmation theory served as the conceptual framework for this study. The ...


Law Enforcement Stress, Gender, And Work Performance, Angelia L. Harger Jan 2020

Law Enforcement Stress, Gender, And Work Performance, Angelia L. Harger

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Police officers experience continuous periods of work-related stressors throughout their

careers, affecting job performance, sleep, and family life. However, there is limited qualitative research in the area of police officer gender and stress, in law enforcement. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study, guided by resilience theory, was to examine how gender and stress influence work performance, sleep, and family life in police officers. Six male and 4 female patrol officers were individually interviewed to gather information related to (a) their experiences regarding stress, (b) signs and symptoms of stress, (c) how gender affects stress, and (d) their coping ...


Culture And Hiv/Aids-Related Psychological Distress, Ndayiziveyi Constance Scott Jan 2020

Culture And Hiv/Aids-Related Psychological Distress, Ndayiziveyi Constance Scott

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The over-representation of HIV infections among Black populations relative to the mainstream population continues to be documented in Canada. Previous research has implicated cultural factors in the transmission of HIV in addition to linking HIV/AIDS to psychological distress. Some studies established a link between awareness of increased HIV/AIDS risk and vulnerability to distress, and others indicated cultural differences in the experiences of cognitive dissonance as a function of cultural variations in beliefs and practices. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine cultural variables associated with cognitive dissonance (dependent variable) arousal as a function of cultural sexual ...


Gender Differences And Neurocognitive Function In Cocaine And Methamphetamine Addiction, Gwendolyn F. Royal-Smith Jan 2020

Gender Differences And Neurocognitive Function In Cocaine And Methamphetamine Addiction, Gwendolyn F. Royal-Smith

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Abstract

Cocaine and methamphetamine-addicted women are more likely to suffer from personal life

traumas that lead to persistent and committed drug abuse. In addition to social-psychological

problems associated with drug abuse are neuropsychological processes involving specific regions

of the brain responsible for working memory, decision-making, and impulse control. Classical

and operant conditioning theories of learning provide a paradigm foundation for this quantitative,

correlational study that utilized archival data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).

I analyzed a randomly selected sample of 186 adults who voluntarily participated in an eight

week treatment program for cocaine and methamphetamine (MA) addiction ...


The Prediction And Relationship Between Age, Ethnicity, Gender, And Quality Of Life Using Self-Efficacy Scores Among Stroke Survivors, Sabrina Angela Thornton Jan 2019

The Prediction And Relationship Between Age, Ethnicity, Gender, And Quality Of Life Using Self-Efficacy Scores Among Stroke Survivors, Sabrina Angela Thornton

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Stroke is a serious illness that requires urgent attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether age, ethnicity, gender, and quality of life predict self-efficacy scores in stroke survivors. The theoretical foundation of the study was the social cognitive theory of perceived self-efficacy that was developed by Bandura. There were 4 specific research questions investigated. A correlational research design was used to sample 115 stroke survivors from several Arkansas rehabilitation facilities who completed a pilot study, demographic form, QOL rating scale, and the Daily Living Self-Efficacy Scale (DLSES). Stepwise multiple regression analysis was applied to identify the independent ...


Progress On The Economic Empowerment Of Female Entrepreneurs In Kenya's 30% Preferential Public Procurement Policy, Rukaya Mohammed Jan 2019

Progress On The Economic Empowerment Of Female Entrepreneurs In Kenya's 30% Preferential Public Procurement Policy, Rukaya Mohammed

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In Kenya, a 2013 presidential directive reserved 30% of government procurement opportunities for enterprises owned by women, youth, and persons with disabilities to promote economic empowerment; however, as of 2016, female entrepreneurs continued to be outpaced by their male counterparts. The lack of policy evaluation from the female entrepreneur perspective limits the ability to assess progress and identify obstacles. Through purposeful sampling and semistructured interviews, this qualitative phenomenological study obtained the perceptions of the implementation and impact of Access to Government Procurement Opportunities (AGPO) on economic empowerment from the perspective of 20 female entrepreneurs in Kenya previously awarded procurement contracts ...


Transgender And Gender Nonconforming Persons' Experiences With Counseling Assessments, Macie Stead Jan 2019

Transgender And Gender Nonconforming Persons' Experiences With Counseling Assessments, Macie Stead

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Counselors sometimes use counseling assessments with transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) persons without understanding the experiences individuals have with those assessments. The American Counseling Association and the World Professional Association of Transgender Health identified that attention is needed with the practice of counseling assessments to ensure that helpful, ethical, and culturally sensitive services are available. The purpose of this study was to explore TGNC adults' experiences with counseling assessments. Gadamer's hermeneutics provided a framework to examine qualitative data as truth and validate the individuals' experiences with counseling assessments. Participants included 12 TGNC persons 18 years or older who had ...


Female Leaders: Paths To Leadership In The Florida State Legislature, Heather Conaway Roberson Jan 2019

Female Leaders: Paths To Leadership In The Florida State Legislature, Heather Conaway Roberson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The issues women face and the policies that benefit women can be neglected by policy makers without women serving in the state legislature, yet little is understood about how influencing factors, characteristics and experiences shape political aspirations among women at the state level. Using feminist identity theory and feminist standpoint theory as the foundation, the purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore how female leaders develop their nascent political ambition and engage in the path to public office. Data were collected through interviews with 8 women who held office in a state legislature from 2012 through 2017. Interview data ...


The Effect Of Community Evaluators On The Selection Of Entry-Level Police Officers, Eric Hutchison Jan 2019

The Effect Of Community Evaluators On The Selection Of Entry-Level Police Officers, Eric Hutchison

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

As a method of building relationships with the public, some police forces have integrated community members into the candidate assessment and selection process. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to determine the effect of integrating community evaluators as a new method in the assessment and selection process for police officers in a city police force. Media richness theory and general mental ability were used as a framework, and archival data from a large Midwest department of public safety were collected by filing two public records requests. Data from 2,510 police candidates were included. Quantitative data analysis was ...


Nature Of Stressors On Female Law Enforcement Academy Recruits, Sandra Patricia Dillard Jan 2019

Nature Of Stressors On Female Law Enforcement Academy Recruits, Sandra Patricia Dillard

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

A problem in law enforcement academy training is that female recruits endure more stressors than male recruits endure. This can lead to fewer females opting for careers as law enforcement officers. The purpose of this study was to explore the unique stressors on female recruits when they are held to the same standards as males. The feminist theory was used as the theoretical framework for this study to depict how stress is perceived for the female. The first research question examined how outside stressors affected female trainees. The second research question examined how job-€related stressors affected female trainees. In- ...


Quantitative Assessment Of Psycho-Social Factors Associated With Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement, Dianne Bentley Jan 2018

Quantitative Assessment Of Psycho-Social Factors Associated With Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement, Dianne Bentley

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Alcohol use disorders are a major health problem in the United States; approximately 7.4% of the population meets the criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. However, Reed, Levin, and Evans (2012) reported a lack in research regarding alcoholism's risk factors and how these influence Alcoholics Anonymous involvement. Though there is evidence for several risk factors, researchers have found mixed results regarding gender and impulsivity. Social learning theory was the theoretical foundation of this study and guided the exploration and interpretation of these risk factors. Therefore, the purpose of this quantitative, nonexperimental study was to understand the relationship that ...


Predictors Of Gambling-Related Problems In Adult Internet Gamblers, Barbaradee Foote Jan 2018

Predictors Of Gambling-Related Problems In Adult Internet Gamblers, Barbaradee Foote

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The use of the Internet to gamble has become increasingly prevalent in recent years.

Although researchers have suggested that adult Internet gamblers are at high risk for

developing a gambling disorder, few studies, overall, have been conducted on the effects

of Internet gambling. Furthermore, conflicting research exists regarding what moderates

gambling-related problems. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if

age, gender, and emotions prior to the gambling experience are related predictors of

Internet problem gambling severity. A retrospective design was used. The pathways

model was used to support the belief that emotions felt before an Internet gambling ...


Frequency Of Cell Phone Texting And Social Competency In Adolescents, Anita Marie Phillips Jan 2018

Frequency Of Cell Phone Texting And Social Competency In Adolescents, Anita Marie Phillips

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

There is no current research on the relationship between texting frequency, social competency development, and the moderating effect of gender in adolescents. A quantitative study involving a moderation design using multiple regression assisted in determining the relationship between cell phone texting and gender and whether or not the interaction of these variables predicted social competency development. The theoretical base that grounded this study was the taxonomic model of social competence, which identified the importance of examining social awareness abilities such as communication, an essential component for the development of social competency. The study included 74 participants. The participants were parents ...


Neurodevelopmental Basis Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Based On Age And Gender, Sursatie Chetram Jan 2018

Neurodevelopmental Basis Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Based On Age And Gender, Sursatie Chetram

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication, socialization, and restricted/repetitive behaviors. In 2012, one out of every 55 children (1 in 42 boys and 1 in 189 girls) have been diagnosed with ASD in the United States. Only 30-40% of ASD has a known etiology (e.g., genetic predisposition) and the other 60-70% is unknown. Prior to this study, there was no known literature on age and gender differences related to neuro-developmental functioning of ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine how the differences in age and gender of people with ASD were ...


Work-Life Balance, Work-Study Interface, Gender, Stress, And Satisfaction Of Online Students, Viya Kumari Ayadurai Jan 2018

Work-Life Balance, Work-Study Interface, Gender, Stress, And Satisfaction Of Online Students, Viya Kumari Ayadurai

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

There is a likelihood of stress in working students' struggles to manage work, family, studies, and personal life, yet little is known about differences in stress levels between male and female online students. Previous studies suggested that more men than women balanced work and family owing to women's asymmetrical family responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of gender on the relationships of work-life balance and work-study interface of working online students and their perceived stress and satisfaction with life. In this quantitative study, the theoretical framework included social role theory and spillover theory ...


Rumination And Self-Medication Among Women With Posttraumatic Stress And Alcohol Use Disorders, Deeann Dawn Lizarraga Jan 2017

Rumination And Self-Medication Among Women With Posttraumatic Stress And Alcohol Use Disorders, Deeann Dawn Lizarraga

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often develop alcohol use disorders (AUD) resulting from the use of alcohol to self-medicate from negative affect. Research supports the relationship between comorbid PTSD and AUD, and studies with women additionally identify the role of rumination, or excessive thinking about distress and its causes, as a precipitating aspect leading to self-medication. Female-based data is sparse, however, regarding specific thought patterns and factors which trigger the need to self-medicate with alcohol. Numerous researchers have studied the relationship between stress, anxiety, and alcohol use, although, there exists a need for qualitative studies providing thick, rich information ...


A Phenomenological Study Of Cross Gender Mentoring Among U.S. Army Officers, Scott Randolph Johnson Jan 2017

A Phenomenological Study Of Cross Gender Mentoring Among U.S. Army Officers, Scott Randolph Johnson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Leader mentoring in the military has not been well researched, especially that involving cross-gender pairings. A phenomenological study was conducted to gain insight into the perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of military officers regarding their decision to engage in mentoring, to include with members of the opposite gender. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 male and 20 female U.S. Army senior commissioned officers to collect information regarding mentoring selection perspectives and decisions and to examine emerging themes, concepts, and patterns, using NVivo 11 Pro Plus. Negative themes that emerged among both male and female participants concerned adverse perceptions of members ...


Gender Differences In Discussion Strategies Of Asynchronous Online Undergraduate Psychology Major Students, Shawna Marie Burtis Jan 2017

Gender Differences In Discussion Strategies Of Asynchronous Online Undergraduate Psychology Major Students, Shawna Marie Burtis

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Numerous studies have focused on gender differences in communication in various learning settings and have found that men and women typically communicate in different ways; however, no studies have directly investigated undergraduate psychology major students. Based on symbolic convergence theory, a survey design was in this quantitative study to examine gender differences in online discussion strategies among undergraduate psychology student majors at online universities. Focusing on 4 asynchronous online discussion strategies, the research questions addressed gender differences in discussion strategies while controlling for students' previous experience with online learning and level of study in their current program. A convenience sample ...


Stress Management Training, Gender, Level Of Stress, And Coping In Police Officers, Samantha Leigh Fields Salain Jan 2017

Stress Management Training, Gender, Level Of Stress, And Coping In Police Officers, Samantha Leigh Fields Salain

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Stress has lasting and sometimes fatal effects on the law enforcement community, which can compromise the well-being of police officers. To date, there is little research on factors that influence the level of stress in police officers. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to investigate the relationship of gender, used coping mechanisms, and levels of organizational and operational stress among police officers who have and have not received stress management training. Bandura's social learning theory and Lazarus and Folkman's theory of cognitive appraisal provided the theoretical foundation. Cross-sectional survey data from a convenience sample of 134 ...


Ptsd With Substance Use Disorders Female Versus Male Veterans: An Archival Study, Geri Cribbs Jan 2017

Ptsd With Substance Use Disorders Female Versus Male Veterans: An Archival Study, Geri Cribbs

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The present study examined men and women veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD). Women in the general public have been found to be at greater risk for a diagnosis of PTSD with life-long symptoms. Current literature involving military men and women veterans is at odds over which gender is more likely to have both PTSD and SUD. This study assessed the variables of gender and diagnosis. It also studied whether the age of female veterans affects their likelihood of having both PTSD and SUD. Archival data were gathered from the Veterans Administration (VA) for ...


Gender And Self-Care Behaviors In The Burnout Of Mental Health Professionals, Kafy-Ann Martin-Johnson Jan 2016

Gender And Self-Care Behaviors In The Burnout Of Mental Health Professionals, Kafy-Ann Martin-Johnson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Difficulties experienced at work can cause feelings of burnout that become prolonged and intensified without acts of self-care. The intense nature of mental health workers' jobs may make them, more vulnerable to burnout than other professionals. Because mental health professionals' mental and emotional wellness can significantly affect their work, adequate self-care is critical to both their well-being and that of their clients. Previous researchers have investigated the self-care behaviors of mental health professionals, but little was known about how gender affected the use of these behaviors in burnout prevention among mental health professionals. The purpose of this quantitative study was ...


Phenomenological Study Of Career Advancement Experiences Of Ethnic Female Migrant, Evelyn Oghogho Brisibe Jan 2016

Phenomenological Study Of Career Advancement Experiences Of Ethnic Female Migrant, Evelyn Oghogho Brisibe

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

In the 2006 census, Statistics Canada recorded that 23% of immigrant women aged 15 and over had a university degree at the bachelor's level or above. These women could help sustain an organization's competitive advantage and respond to labor shortages posed by an aging population. This phenomenological study highlighted self-initiated migration journey and career advancement experiences of migrant women. Through LinkedIn and referrals from non-profit organizations, a sample of 20 women was recruited. All women had migrated to Canada between the ages 32 to 50, all had 5 to 10 years of residence in Canada and all had ...


Faculty Career-Enhancing Training Opportunity Effects On Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction, And Organizational Commitment, Laura Pateri Bryant Jan 2016

Faculty Career-Enhancing Training Opportunity Effects On Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction, And Organizational Commitment, Laura Pateri Bryant

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Research has shown that organizations outside of academia that provide career-enhancing training opportunities have employees with greater levels of perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment than do organizations without such training. Increasingly, colleges and universities are looking to attract and retain the most talented individuals; providing opportunities for growth through career-enhancing training opportunities may be one way to do so. This study examined whether or not faculty at institutions providing career-enhancing training opportunities showed a similar positive relationship between perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment as have employees at organizations outside of academia; this study also ...


The Impact Of Religiosity And Gender On Attitudes Toward Juvenile Sex Offenders, Angela Marie Barteau Jan 2016

The Impact Of Religiosity And Gender On Attitudes Toward Juvenile Sex Offenders, Angela Marie Barteau

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Personal characteristics of mental health professionals can impact their attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) and affect treatment. The correlation between mental health professionals' religiosity and their attitudes has not been examined, and there is limited research about the correlation between professionals' gender and attitudes. The purpose of this study was to examine how mental health professionals' religiosity and gender related to their attitudes toward JSO treatment. Labeling theory provided the theoretical foundation for this study. This theory posits that individuals label certain populations, such as sex offenders, as deviant and this labeling perpetuates a cycle of criminal behavior. Using ...


Racism Vs. Social Capital: A Case Study Of Two Majority Black Communities, Bruce W. Strouble Jan 2015

Racism Vs. Social Capital: A Case Study Of Two Majority Black Communities, Bruce W. Strouble

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Several researchers have identified social capital as a means to improve the social sustainability of communities. While there have been many studies investigating the benefits of social capital in homogeneous White communities, few have examined it in Black homogeneous communities. Also, there has been limited research on the influence of racism on social capital in African American communities. In this dissertation a comparative case study was used within a critical race theory framework. The purpose was to explore the role of racial oppression in shaping social capital in majority African American communities. Data were collected from 2 majority Black communities ...


Gender, Instructional Method, And Graduate Social Science Students' Motivation And Learning Strategies, Mae Lynn Spahr Jan 2015

Gender, Instructional Method, And Graduate Social Science Students' Motivation And Learning Strategies, Mae Lynn Spahr

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of the current study was to learn how gender and learning method affect motivation and learning strategies in psychology, counseling, and social work graduate students. The variables of gender, learning method, motivation, and learning strategies are used by the self-regulation model to learning and the theory of independent learning to measure a student's academic success. Increasing the knowledge of these variables will be of interest to academic institutions and to the field of educational psychology because little is known about their interaction. The study's design was factorial quasi-experimental; it used a cross sectional survey consisting of ...