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Fundamentalism

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Understanding Myanmar’S Buddhist Extremists: Some Preliminary Musings, Kumar Ramakrishna Nov 2020

Understanding Myanmar’S Buddhist Extremists: Some Preliminary Musings, Kumar Ramakrishna

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article examines Buddhist extremism in Myanmar. It argues that Buddhist extremism—like other types of religious extremism—is an acute form of fundamentalism. The article begins with a survey of how extremism is usually understood in the theoretical literature, showing that its religious variant is best conceived of as an acute form of fundamentalism. It then fine tunes this understanding, arguing that religious extremism is a fundamentalist belief system that justifies structural violence against relevant out-groups. The article outlines seven core characteristics of the religious extremist culled from the various theoretical approaches to extremism. It employs these seven characteristics ...


Divided By The Sermon On The Mount, David A. Skeel Jr. Jan 2020

Divided By The Sermon On The Mount, David A. Skeel Jr.

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Essay, written for a festschrift for Bob Cochran, argues that the much-discussed friction between evangelical supporters of President Trump and evangelical critics is a symptom of a much deeper theological divide over the Sermon on the Mount, where Jesus told his disciples to turn the other cheek when struck, love their neighbor as themselves, and pray that their debts will be forgiven as they forgive their debtors. Divergent interpretations of these teachings have given rise to competing evangelical visions of justice. One side of today’s divide—the religious right—can be traced directly back to the fundamentalist critics ...


Exiters Of Religious Fundamentalism: Reconstruction Of Identity, Social Relationships And Support, And Meaning Related To Well-Being, Andreea Alexandra Nica Jun 2018

Exiters Of Religious Fundamentalism: Reconstruction Of Identity, Social Relationships And Support, And Meaning Related To Well-Being, Andreea Alexandra Nica

Dissertations and Theses

Over the past decade, researchers have documented the steady growth of religious "nones," those who do not affiliate with any organized religion. There is, however, limited research examining religious disaffiliation on health outcomes--that is, how the process of religious disaffiliation or exiting contributes to mental well-being. These trends and gap in the literature make it timely and it is important to consider the impact of leaving religion on the well-being of individuals experiencing this life transition. This qualitative study investigates a particularly understudied subgroup of exiters -- individuals who have exited Christian fundamentalist religious groups.

Drawing on 24 in-depth, individual interviews ...


An Analysis Of The Sociopolitical Factors Contributing To The Politicization Of Sunni Islam In The Middle East, Ginger Wenzel Kieffer May 2017

An Analysis Of The Sociopolitical Factors Contributing To The Politicization Of Sunni Islam In The Middle East, Ginger Wenzel Kieffer

Honors College

This research analyzes the sociopolitical trends of the 20th century that have contributed to the susceptibility of the Middle East to extremist organizations, with a particular focus on Sunni Islamic groups such as the Islamic State. The goal of this analysis is to show how the failure of states to provide sociopolitical and economic stability has led to the politicization of religiosity as an alternative to secular authority.

The major aspects analyzed will be the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, imperialism, nationalism, and the eventual turn towards fundamentalist, extremist organizations within the Middle East. The failure of governmental systems to ...


Subject Formation, Fundamentalism And Instrumentalist Nationalism In Zimbabwean Politics, Joram Tarusarira Dr. Apr 2017

Subject Formation, Fundamentalism And Instrumentalist Nationalism In Zimbabwean Politics, Joram Tarusarira Dr.

Peace and Conflict Studies

This article argues that despite presiding over a failed economy, the Zimbabwe African Union Patriotic Front (ZANU PF) led by Robert Mugabe, has willing and enthusiastic supporters. There are claims that the large crowds witnessed singing and dancing at ZANU PF rallies are mobilized by force because the attendees do not benefit anything from supporting the regime. In a divergence from the consensus of the literature, this article surfaces other explanations than coercion for the huge turnout at rallies, rented crowds, handouts, and well-articulated election manifestos. The psychological dimension, especially the fundamentalist mindset created by instrumentalist nationalism, is one such ...


Ethnicity, Religion And Violence In Bosnia-Herzegovina, Jusuf Salih Apr 2017

Ethnicity, Religion And Violence In Bosnia-Herzegovina, Jusuf Salih

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

The violence that erupted in the Balkans at the end of the second millennium made fierce enemies of people who had lived together in peace as neighbors, friends, classmates, and married couples. Nationalism, chauvinism, and religious fanaticism quickly grew stronger, leading to the disappearance of centuries-long harmony among its inhabitants. Among the reasons for the conflict were the experienced communist leaders who skillfully used religious slogans to advance their campaigns; also, religious leaders became close associates to political leaders with hopes that they would attain the religious rights denied and limited during the old governance. As a result, nationalism and ...


Seeking The Shield Of Faith: The Influence Of Defensive Theology On The Development Of Religious Fundamentalism Following Mortality Salience, Brian Lammert, Cindy Miller-Perrin, Steven Rouse Dr. Mar 2017

Seeking The Shield Of Faith: The Influence Of Defensive Theology On The Development Of Religious Fundamentalism Following Mortality Salience, Brian Lammert, Cindy Miller-Perrin, Steven Rouse Dr.

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

This study examined religious fundamentalism in a sample of 88 undergraduate students attending a private, Christian university. After completing a measure of defensive theology, participants were randomly assigned to either a mortality salience or control condition and then assessed using a religious fundamentalism measure. A moderation analysis was performed in order to test the hypothesis that defensive theology moderates the relationship between mortality salience and religious fundamentalism. Results indicated that only defensive theology significantly predicted post-manipulation fundamentalism (p


Reducing Substance Abuse Stigma In Employment Application, Timothy W. Curran Jan 2017

Reducing Substance Abuse Stigma In Employment Application, Timothy W. Curran

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A history of substance use and having a history of legal charges can be a barrier to employment. Available research shows individuals with a criminal history of substance related charges have greater difficulty obtaining employment due to the presence of substance abuse stigma and criminal history stigma. Research also shows that employers with higher levels of fundamentalism and conservativism are more likely to negatively evaluate applicants with a criminal history of substance charges. Furthermore, available research demonstrates employers in rural areas are more likely to deny employment to an individual with a legal history of substance charges based upon higher ...


"The Family" & Faith: The Theology Of Power, Erika Phillipo May 2016

"The Family" & Faith: The Theology Of Power, Erika Phillipo

Senior Theses

The Family & Faith: The Theology of Power hopes to shed light on the relationship between American politics, American history, and the Christian Fundamentalist group known as The Family. This paper uses the book The Family: The Secret Fundamentalism at the Heart of American Power by Jeff Sharlet as its main source. By connecting the relationship between this mega-group with American politics and politicians, the theme of power arises and refuses to go away. Thus, the focus goes beyond simply just political influence and history and instead results ultimately with how the group gains and maintains their power within the political ...


Wesleyanism, Fundamentalism, And The Dones, Mature Christians Who Are Done With The Institutional Church: Two Book Reviews, Craighton Hippenhammer Apr 2016

Wesleyanism, Fundamentalism, And The Dones, Mature Christians Who Are Done With The Institutional Church: Two Book Reviews, Craighton Hippenhammer

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Book #1: "Square Peg: Why Wesleyans Aren't Fundamentalists," written by Nazarene and published by the Nazarene Publishing House. Book #2: "Church Refugees: Sociologists Reveal Why People Are DONE with Church but Not Their Faith," by Josh Packard and Ashleigh Hope, which tells why there are mature, highly educated Christians leaving the institutional church. The reasons why they are leaving are for the same four unexpected reasons. While these folks may not be large in numbers, they may be large in impact because they are doers and leaders at all levels of the church, so they may be leading the ...


Leaving Ideological Social Groups Behind: A Grounded Theory Of Psychological Disengagement, Kira Jade Harris Jan 2015

Leaving Ideological Social Groups Behind: A Grounded Theory Of Psychological Disengagement, Kira Jade Harris

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Much of the current disengagement literature focuses on the causes of an individual leaving a radical social group with the intention of countering fundamentalism and violent extremism. However, the link between the cause and the decision to disengage is unclear as one cause may facilitate disengagement for one member and not another. Minimal empirical research exists on the individual’s psychological experience of disengagement and the studies that have been done tend to focus on sole ideologies or group types. What is lacking in the field of disengagement is a broader understanding of the core psychological experience across a broad ...


The Perceived Threat Of Secularism And Militancy Among Religious Fundamentalists, Chase Wilson Jan 2014

The Perceived Threat Of Secularism And Militancy Among Religious Fundamentalists, Chase Wilson

Master's Theses

Religious fundamentalism has been found to predict endorsement of aggressive counterterrorism techniques, such as the use of severe interrogations and pre-emptive military attacks (e.g. Barnes, Brown & Osterman, 2012). The present study tested whether a perceived increase in secularism constitutes a psychological threat to American religious fundamentalists, and thus increases endorsement of such counterterrorism tactics. Replicating previous research, religious fundamentalism was found to positively predict endorsement of aggressive counterterrorism techniques, even when controlling for ideology and party identification. Contrary to hypothesis, the secularism prime had no effect. An unpredicted finding of this study was that religious fundamentalism only related to ...


Pluralism And Anti-Pluralism In Economics: The Atomistic Individual And Religious Fundamentalism, John B. Davis Jan 2014

Pluralism And Anti-Pluralism In Economics: The Atomistic Individual And Religious Fundamentalism, John B. Davis

Economics Faculty Research and Publications

This short paper examines a possible connection between religion and economics in terms of the parallelism between the atomistic individual doctrine and the individual soul doctrine. The paper explores whether resistance to pluralism in economics as a methodological practice might be illuminated in terms of this connection. On this view, resistance to pluralism in economics is not a matter of economists holding methodological views about economics practice that are contrary to pluralism, but is rather a kind of anti-pluralism reflecting an intransigent defense of the atomistic individual view as a kind of core or ‘untouchable’ deep doctrine. Two arguments are ...


Predictors Of Perfectionism In Latter-Day Saint Students, Preston V. Tenney Mar 2013

Predictors Of Perfectionism In Latter-Day Saint Students, Preston V. Tenney

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to gain insight into the prevalence, nature and etiology of perfectionism in a sample of devout Latter-day Saint college students at Brigham Young University. A number of variables-including self-conscious emotions, mental health, interpersonal/cognitive style, and religious orientation-were entered into multiple regression models to determine the strongest predictors of perfectionism. Participants were 245 students studying at Brigham Young University in Provo, UT in the spring of 1995. The self-conscious construct of shame demonstrated to be the strongest predictor of perfectionism followed by depression and religious fundamentalism. In addition to these findings, it was ...


Living With Differences: From Everyday Fundamentalisms To Invitational Communication, Lisa M. Watrous Jan 2013

Living With Differences: From Everyday Fundamentalisms To Invitational Communication, Lisa M. Watrous

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

This project examines fundamentalism understood as an everyday way of living poorly with difference. It demonstrates that the fundamentalist is not reducible to stereotypes of the terrorist, extremist, irrational madman, or religious zealot. All of these characterizations--common in mainstream media--depict the fundamentalist as them, and rarely, if ever, as us. Rather, this project understands fundamentalism in terms of fundamental interpretive constructs that constrain our ways of being-with others, skew our interpretive and responsive possibilities, distort our perceptions of difference, and affirm our poor treatment of others. Following Martin Heidegger's conception of the hermeneutic structure of existence, this dissertation calls ...


"The Dynamics Of Terror And Creation Of Homegrown Terrorists," Richard J. Hughbank, Ed. Et Al., (Mustang, Ok: Tate Publishing And Enterprises, 2010), Jennifer Jefferis Jul 2011

"The Dynamics Of Terror And Creation Of Homegrown Terrorists," Richard J. Hughbank, Ed. Et Al., (Mustang, Ok: Tate Publishing And Enterprises, 2010), Jennifer Jefferis

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


"The New Muslim Brotherhood In The West," Lorenzo Vidino, (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010), Sheldon Greaves , Ph.D. Jul 2011

"The New Muslim Brotherhood In The West," Lorenzo Vidino, (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010), Sheldon Greaves , Ph.D.

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


Radicalization Into Violent Extremism Ii: A Review Of Conceptual Models And Empirical Research, Randy Borum Jan 2011

Radicalization Into Violent Extremism Ii: A Review Of Conceptual Models And Empirical Research, Randy Borum

Journal of Strategic Security

Over the past decade, analysts have proposed several frameworks to explain the process of radicalization into violent extremism (RVE). These frameworks are based primarily on rational, conceptual models which are neither guided by theory nor derived from systematic research. This article reviews recent (post-9/11) conceptual models of the radicalization process and recent (post-9/11) empirical studies of RVE. It emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between ideological radicalization and terrorism involvement, though both issues deserve further empirical inquiry.Finally, it summarizes some recent RVE-related research efforts, identifies seven things that social science researchers and operational personnel still need to know ...


Four Lessons From The Study Of Fundamentalism And Psychology Of Religion, Sara Savage Jan 2011

Four Lessons From The Study Of Fundamentalism And Psychology Of Religion, Sara Savage

Journal of Strategic Security

What lessons can the study of fundamentalism and the psychology of religion teach the newer field of Radicalization and Involvement in Violent Extremism (RIVE)? Four lessons and an intervention are offered in this article: (1) Religion is a robust human experience and cultural product that adopts a defensive shape when its worldview is threatened. (2) This does not mean that all "fundamentalisms" or radical versions of religion are somehow linked or perform similar functions; rather, they reflect the limited human repertoire to threat, yet within different cultural and historical contexts. (3) Causal explanations on the level of the individual are ...


Gangs, Terrorism, And Radicalization, Scott Decker, David Pyrooz Jan 2011

Gangs, Terrorism, And Radicalization, Scott Decker, David Pyrooz

Journal of Strategic Security

What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support ...


Friction: How Radicalization Happens To Them And Us. By Clark Mccauley And Sophia Moskalenko (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), Robin L. Thompson Jan 2011

Friction: How Radicalization Happens To Them And Us. By Clark Mccauley And Sophia Moskalenko (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), Robin L. Thompson

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence And Suicide Bombing, Murad Ismayilov Oct 2010

Conceptualizing Terrorist Violence And Suicide Bombing, Murad Ismayilov

Journal of Strategic Security

This article presents an analysis of different approaches to terrorist violence, with a particular focus on suicide terrorism, using the above mentioned levels of analysis as a conceptual framework to organize this study. In doing so, the article focuses primarily on four selected studies: Khashan's theory of collective Palestinian frustration operating at individual and structural levels; Pape's strategic theory of suicide terrorism, Devji's notion of global jihad, and Hammes' conceptualization of suicide terrorism as one of the strategies of Fourth Generation Warfare, all studied at a strategic level. Drawing on these analyses, as well as on Tilly ...


Eriksonian Identity Theory In Counterterrorism, Cally O'Brien Oct 2010

Eriksonian Identity Theory In Counterterrorism, Cally O'Brien

Journal of Strategic Security

Certain terrorists come from unexpected backgrounds. They give up comfortable lives and opportunities in order to wage jihad. Their existence has puzzled various theorists since they came to light. This article will explain how a theory of psychosocial identity formation created by Erik Erikson and his student James Marcia may explain this phenomenon. It will also explain how Erikson's theoretical legacy has contributed to current attempts at increasing moderation in the Middle East through education. Many of those attempts reflect ideas that are drawn from Eriksonian theory, although they are not typically described in Eriksonian terms. Meanwhile, while some ...


Islamist Distortions: Hizb Ut- Tahrir A Breeding Ground For Al- Qaida Recruitment, Krishna Mungur Nov 2009

Islamist Distortions: Hizb Ut- Tahrir A Breeding Ground For Al- Qaida Recruitment, Krishna Mungur

Journal of Strategic Security

In 1953, a radical splinter organization from the Muslim Brotherhood,Hizb ut-Tahrir (HuT), was founded by the Al-Azhar University (Cairo,Egypt) educated jurist Sheikh Taqiuddin an-Nabhani who criticized theMuslim Brotherhood for collaborating with Egyptian secularists, such as Gamal Abdel Nasser. A sizable portion of the more radical members of the Muslim Brotherhood broke away, to join Nabhani's budding movement. Today, HuT is known to operate in more than forty countries, calling for the restoration of the Islamic Caliphate, with a history of violence and links to violent terrorist organizations. Given increasing tensions in the region over the presence of ...


Tolerance, Democracy And Fundamentalism(S) : Challenges In Time Of Systemic Bifurcations, Guillermo C. Hansen Jan 2009

Tolerance, Democracy And Fundamentalism(S) : Challenges In Time Of Systemic Bifurcations, Guillermo C. Hansen

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Relationships Between Religion And Prejudice: Implicit And Explicit Measures., Horace Ted Denney May 2008

Relationships Between Religion And Prejudice: Implicit And Explicit Measures., Horace Ted Denney

Psychology Theses

This study examined the relationship among implicit and explicit measures of prejudice (against African-Americans, homosexuals, and Muslims), Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), Religious Fundamentalism (RF), and Christian Orthodoxy (CO). The implicit measure of prejudice was Facial EMG, which is the measurement of the activity of key facial muscles when participants were exposed to pictures of members of the minority groups, as well as to pictures of the corresponding group. The explicit measure of prejudice was the Social Distance Scale, which measures how willing people are to have someone in a variety of close relationships. The primary hypothesis was that one’s score ...


De L’Écriture De L’Urgence À L’Écriture Du Renouveau, Armelle Crouzières-Ingenthron Jun 2007

De L’Écriture De L’Urgence À L’Écriture Du Renouveau, Armelle Crouzières-Ingenthron

Présence Francophone: Revue internationale de langue et de littérature

This critical analysis focuses on Rachid Boudjedra’s trilogy that deals with Algerian fundamentalism. Even though Boudjedra’s famous labyrinthine and vertiginous technique was at first based on the literary, on a pleasure of writing that would in turn trigger political thought – at least until the publication of the political pamphlet FIS de la haine –, his more recent technique reflects an urgency and a writing focused on political thought, both of which give birth to a literary process. Despite the author’s well-known reticence regarding conventional happy endings, he annihilates once and for all terrorism and fundamentalism, and embraces an ...


Tolerance And Democracy Instead Of Fundamentalism And Empire, Guillermo C. Hansen Jan 2007

Tolerance And Democracy Instead Of Fundamentalism And Empire, Guillermo C. Hansen

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Linking Public Opinion To State Legislative Behavior: The Partial Birth Abortion Issue, Michael Bruce, Jr. Jan 2007

Linking Public Opinion To State Legislative Behavior: The Partial Birth Abortion Issue, Michael Bruce, Jr.

LSU Master's Theses

The effect of public opinion on state legislative behavior has been an important and extensively explored topic. However, not much research has been conducted regarding public opinion on the abortion issue and how it influences state legislative behavior. Previous theory suggests that highly salient and controversial issues increase the probability that state legislators will respond to public opinion when voting. Arguing that issue salience and interest groups act as facilitating factors, I hypothesize that public opinion plays a significant role in determining whether or not state legislatures pass bans on partial birth abortion. Using Brace et al (2002) state-level opinion ...


Review Essay: Radicals In Robes , Dru Stevenson May 2006

Review Essay: Radicals In Robes , Dru Stevenson

ExpressO

This essay reviews and critiques Cass Sunstein’s new book entitled Radicals in Robes. After a discussion of Sunstein’s (somewhat misleading) rhetorical nomenclature, this essay argues that Sunstein’s proposed “minimalist” methodology in constitutional jurisprudence is beneficial, but not for the reasons Sunstein suggests. Sunstein alternatively justifies judicial restraint or incrementalism on epistemological self-doubt (cautiousness being an outgrowth of uncertainty) and his fear that accomplishments by Progressives in the last century will be undone by conservative judges in the present. Constitutional incrementalism is more convincingly justified on classical economic grounds. While affirming Sunstein’s overall thesis, this essay offers ...