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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Development Of A New Measure To Assess For Poverty-Based Stress: The Poverty-Based Stressor Scale (Pbss), Brianna N. Allen Jan 2022

Development Of A New Measure To Assess For Poverty-Based Stress: The Poverty-Based Stressor Scale (Pbss), Brianna N. Allen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Poverty, typically measured by economic well-being or depravation, is the result of systemic flaws built into the structure of society that adversely impact multiple dimensions of health and well-being. The specific stressors that disproportionately impact low-income individuals are called poverty-based stressors, and they encompass multiple categories of risk including physical, psychosocial, and financial risks. Currently, there is not an adequate measure of poverty-based stressors for low-income adults in the United States (U.S.), which restricts our ability to accurately determine the effects of poverty on important health-related outcomes. The purpose of this dissertation was to develop a psychometrically sound measure ...


The Multicultural Distress, Depression, Anxiety, And Stress Levels Of Black Undergraduate Students As Compared To Asian, Latinx, And White Undergraduate Students, Franklin Dickerson Turner Sep 2021

The Multicultural Distress, Depression, Anxiety, And Stress Levels Of Black Undergraduate Students As Compared To Asian, Latinx, And White Undergraduate Students, Franklin Dickerson Turner

Journal of Research Initiatives

College students who experienced poor academic performance, depression, and anxiety reported having higher levels of stress than those students who were more successful academically (Andrews & Wilding, 2004; Bennett, 2003). It is also known that marginalized students have a higher tendency to experience stress. This study took a systematic look at levels of Multicultural distress, stress, depression, and anxiety as reported by Asian, Black, Latin, and White students at a major urban university. The findings indicated no significant differences in the general stress, depression, and anxiety levels based on a students’ race. However, Asian, Black, and Latin students had a significantly higher level ...


Personalized Depression Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial To Optimize Effects Through Risk-Informed Personalization, Jami F. Young, Jason D. Jones, Robert Gallop, Jessica S. Benas, Christie M. Schueler, Judy Garber, Benjamin L. Hankin Sep 2021

Personalized Depression Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial To Optimize Effects Through Risk-Informed Personalization, Jami F. Young, Jason D. Jones, Robert Gallop, Jessica S. Benas, Christie M. Schueler, Judy Garber, Benjamin L. Hankin

Mathematics Faculty Publications

Objective: To evaluate whether evidence-based depression prevention programs can be optimized by matching youths to interventions that address their psychosocial vulnerabilities. Method: This randomized controlled trial included 204 adolescents (mean [SD] age ¼ 14.26 [1.65] years; 56.4% female). Youths were categorized as high or low on cognitive and interpersonal risks for depression and randomly assigned to Coping With Stress (CWS), a cognitive-behavioral program, or Interpersonal Psychotherapy–Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), an interpersonal program. Some participants received a match between risk and prevention (eg, high cognitive–low interpersonal risk teen in CWS, low cognitive–high interpersonal risk teen ...


Benefits Of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu In Managing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Longitudinal Study, Kelly Weinberger, Tracey Burraston Aug 2021

Benefits Of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu In Managing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Longitudinal Study, Kelly Weinberger, Tracey Burraston

Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship

The longevity of the United States’ armed conflicts has resulted in a substantial portion of military personnel being at risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fewer than half of veterans needing mental health services receive treatment for PTSD. For those who do receive treatment, less than one third are receiving evidence-based care. Additionally, one third of first responders develop PTSD. The need for additional treatment options is staggering. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is evaluated here as a complementary and alternative method (CAM) that promotes discipline, structure, camaraderie, concentration, and mind-body coordination. These effects are measured in terms of their impact on ...


Rejection Sensitivity, Relationship Quality, And Adjustment In Late-Adolescent Romantic Relationships And Friendships, Laura A. Foster Aug 2021

Rejection Sensitivity, Relationship Quality, And Adjustment In Late-Adolescent Romantic Relationships And Friendships, Laura A. Foster

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rejection sensitive (RS) individuals are at greater risk for emotional maladjustment across the lifespan, with consistent links identified with depression and social anxiety. Yet little is known about interpersonal factors that may affect this association for late adolescents, especially with their romantic partners and close friends. The present study examined relationship qualities of support and negative interactions with romantic partners and friends as moderators of the link between RS and internalizing symptoms. Given the differences between male and female social relationships and experiences, these associations were expected to be further moderated by gender, with RS females in poorer quality relationships ...


Stigma And Social-Emotional Health In Youth With Learning Differences, Kelsey Maki Aug 2021

Stigma And Social-Emotional Health In Youth With Learning Differences, Kelsey Maki

Doctoral Dissertations

Youth diagnosed with specific learning disorder (SLD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), defined collectively for the purposes of this study as youth with learning differences, experience poorer social-emotional health outcomes in comparison to their typically developing peers. These youth additionally experience stigma from their peers, teachers, and broader community, which may impact social-emotional health. As a secondary data analysis of a larger study, the present study investigated the role of stigma consciousness alongside demographic variables, self-esteem, and peer relationships in social-emotional health outcomes. Due to the possible differences between youth diagnosed with SLD, ADHD, and comorbid SLD/ADHD ...


I Am Out, Now What?: The Double-Edged Sword Of Being Justice-Involved, Eric J. Cazares Aug 2021

I Am Out, Now What?: The Double-Edged Sword Of Being Justice-Involved, Eric J. Cazares

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The United States (U.S.) is at the forefront when it comes to sending its citizens to correctional facilities. The U.S. prison population is estimated to be around 2,100,000, with China trailing at 1,700,000. With staggering incarceration rates, both nationally and locally, officials have begun to act by enacting legislation that would reduce California’s prison population. According to the National Institute of Justice (2015), however, two-thirds (67.8%) of released individuals will recidivate within three years. One critical avenue in reducing recidivism is employment; justice-involved individuals who find employment are less likely to reoffend ...


Depressive Symptoms And Marijuana Outcomes In College Students: The Mediating Role Of Protective Behavioral Strategies For Marijuana, Nicholas Militello Aug 2021

Depressive Symptoms And Marijuana Outcomes In College Students: The Mediating Role Of Protective Behavioral Strategies For Marijuana, Nicholas Militello

Master's Theses

The present study evaluated the sequentially mediating role of protective behavioral strategies for marijuana (PBSM) and marijuana use frequency on the relationships depressive symptoms had with hazardous marijuana use and marijuana-related negative consequences in college students Participants were 338 (50.3% male) undergraduate college students age 18 to 25 (M = 22.10; SD = 1.97) who reported marijuana use in the past 30 days. Participants reported their gender and completed measures of depressive symptoms, PBSM use, marijuana use frequency, marijuana-related negative consequences, and hazardous marijuana use through an online survey from a 2018 project. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with ...


Risk Factors For Early And Late Onset Depression And Subsequent Risk For Alzheimer's Disease And Related Dementias In An Older Adult Population, Jordan Kugler Aug 2021

Risk Factors For Early And Late Onset Depression And Subsequent Risk For Alzheimer's Disease And Related Dementias In An Older Adult Population, Jordan Kugler

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Cache County Study on Memory in Aging (CCSMA) was a research study that followed 5092 participants aged 65 or older over the course of 12 years, examining risk and protective factors for dementia. One of these factors was depression history, which has evidence for a connection with dementia, such that those with a history of depression are more likely to develop dementia later in life. However, the existing literature has yet to examine sex differences, genetic and psychosocial factors that contribute to earlier or later onset of depression and how these factors in turn might later increase risk for ...


Depression Predicts Chronic Pain Interference In Racially-Diverse, Low-Income Patients [Preprint], Benjamin C. Nephew, Angela C. Incollingo Rodriguez, Veronica Melican, Justin J. Polcari, Kathryn E. Nippert, Mikhail Rashkovskii, Lilly-Beth Linnell, Ruofan Hu, Carolina Ruiz, Jean A. King, Paula Gardiner Jul 2021

Depression Predicts Chronic Pain Interference In Racially-Diverse, Low-Income Patients [Preprint], Benjamin C. Nephew, Angela C. Incollingo Rodriguez, Veronica Melican, Justin J. Polcari, Kathryn E. Nippert, Mikhail Rashkovskii, Lilly-Beth Linnell, Ruofan Hu, Carolina Ruiz, Jean A. King, Paula Gardiner

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Background Chronic pain is one of the most common reasons adults seek medical care in the US, with estimates of prevalence ranging from 11% to 40%. Mindfulness meditation has been associated with significant improvements in pain, depression, physical and mental health, sleep, and overall quality of life. Group medical visits are increasingly common and are effective at treating myriad illnesses including chronic pain. Integrative Medical Group Visits (IMGV) combine mindfulness techniques, evidence based integrative medicine, and medical group visits and can be used as adjuncts to medications, particularly in diverse underserved populations with limited access to non-pharmacological therapies.

Objective and ...


The Effect Of Stress, Acculturation, And Heritage Identity On Depression In Arab Americans, Abdul-Rahman Suleiman, Omar Afify, Keith E. Whitfield Jun 2021

The Effect Of Stress, Acculturation, And Heritage Identity On Depression In Arab Americans, Abdul-Rahman Suleiman, Omar Afify, Keith E. Whitfield

Executive Vice President & Provost Faculty Publications

Introduction: Arab Americans are significantly affected by depression with prevalence as high as 50%. Our study assesses whether unique causes of depression such as stress, acculturation, and heritage identity play a role in the high prevalence of depression in Arab Americans. Methods: We surveyed 142 self-identified Arab Americans using a convenience model. Participants answered questions about their level of perceived stress, everyday discrimination, and acculturative stress. They also answered questions regarding their level of acculturation and heritage identity. Finally, participants answered questions regarding their depressive symptoms. A score of 16+ on the depression scale was used as the cut-off for ...


Mhealth For The Treatment Of Depression In Primary Care: A Feasibility Study, Krista Herbert Jun 2021

Mhealth For The Treatment Of Depression In Primary Care: A Feasibility Study, Krista Herbert

Theses and Dissertations

The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of implementing three mobile applications (apps) designed to ameliorate depressive symptoms within primary care. The secondary aim was to examine whether participants utilizing a mobile app would experience reductions in depressive symptoms and improvements in quality of life when compared to a waitlist control condition. Participants (n=3) were recruited from two primary care practices and randomized to: (a) a cognitive-behavioral app, (b) a mindfulness app, (c) a social problem-solving app, or (d) the waitlist control condition. Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms and quality of life ...


Coping With Medical School: An Interpretive Phenomenological Study, Sebastian C K Shaw, John L. Anderson Jun 2021

Coping With Medical School: An Interpretive Phenomenological Study, Sebastian C K Shaw, John L. Anderson

The Qualitative Report

Anecdotal evidence suggested that hopelessness and helplessness (HH) were often reported by undergraduate medical students. It is known that medical students are more susceptible to high levels of stress and depression than other student groups. There is currently concern about suicide rates in students and high drop-out rates in junior doctors. But what can be said of HH within this population? This study was aimed at eliciting medical students’ experiences of HH. An interpretive phenomenological approach was adopted. Participants were recruited from a single medical school. Loosely structured, audio-recorded interviews were carried out. Recordings were then transcribed verbatim, then underwent ...


Five Facets Of Mindfulness In Pregnancy And Postpartum Periods, Brianna J. Mcneley Jun 2021

Five Facets Of Mindfulness In Pregnancy And Postpartum Periods, Brianna J. Mcneley

Global Honors Theses

Pregnancy, particularly the postpartum period is high risk for women with preexisting mental disorders such as bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety. This research investigates if self-reported use of overall mindfulness and individual facets of mindfulness (observe, describe, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreacting), reduce common symptoms associated with these disorders. Pregnant or postpartum participants recruited from social media groups (18+) were asked to self-report symptoms of mania, depression, anxiety, and five facets of mindfulness. Overall mindfulness was significantly negatively correlated with mania, depression, and anxiety, and in particular with nonjudging and acting with awareness. But symptoms were positively correlated with ...


Depression And Socioeconomic Status In West Virginians, Brittany N. Phillips, Amy Alvarez Jun 2021

Depression And Socioeconomic Status In West Virginians, Brittany N. Phillips, Amy Alvarez

Mountaineer Undergraduate Research Review

Abstract

The researchers conducted this study in order to determine the relationship between depression and the different socioeconomic statuses in West Virginians. A survey was posted to various social media accounts as well as a classroom forum and data was collected from thirty three individuals who had a permanent residence in West Virginia. A variation of the Depression Test gathered from Mental Health America was used in the study with added questions regarding socioeconomic status as well as descriptive questions, both of which were summed individually and the data was compared using SPSS. Researchers hypothesized that higher depression rates would ...


The Power Of Video Games: How Celeste And Hellblade Address Mental Health, Victor M. Ortiz Jun 2021

The Power Of Video Games: How Celeste And Hellblade Address Mental Health, Victor M. Ortiz

Communication Studies

The media has the power to educate audiences on topics through effective storytelling. This paper shows how video games as a medium possess unique potential to affect players through interactive experiences. Two video games titled Celeste and Hellblade: Senua’s Sacrifice serve as examples of social cognitive learning through media exposure. This paper conducts a content analysis on the two titles. From the analysis, we learn the stories in Celeste and Hellblade aim to help those who play them learn how to cope with mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. The literature review section discusses past research done ...


Incorporating Religion Into Therapy To Better Treat Depression, Jacob Tubbs May 2021

Incorporating Religion Into Therapy To Better Treat Depression, Jacob Tubbs

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common treatment option for depression. Often, CBT is only effective at masking the symptoms of depression without helping the person overcome depression altogether; thus, it may benefit CBT patients if alternative therapies are combined with CBT. Incorporating the patient’s religion into therapy is an alternative that may help many people. A large percentage of Americans are still religious or spiritual. This literature review discusses methods of building a personalized version of CBT that incorporates the patient’s religion, or religiously integrated CBT (RCBT), and ...


The Disproportionate Impact Of Covid-19 On Women, Ava Stallone May 2021

The Disproportionate Impact Of Covid-19 On Women, Ava Stallone

Honors Scholar Theses

The impact of COVID-19 is placing a large strain on women. This can be seen through reports of mental health and financial concerns. Women are more vulnerable to COVID-19 related economic effects due to existing gender inequalities, which in turn may also have a negative effect on mental health. Through this study gender disproportion is looked at between mental health and COVID-19 financial concerns among women and men. The aim is to asses how COVID-19 financial concerns may be contributing to stress, anxiety, and depression. It is hypothesized that; women will report worse mental health and greater economic concerns than ...


The Benefits Of Clay For Adolescents In The Inpatient Setting: Development Of A Method, Lauren Sideravage May 2021

The Benefits Of Clay For Adolescents In The Inpatient Setting: Development Of A Method, Lauren Sideravage

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Adolescence is a period of time where there is continuous change in one’s social, emotional, and physical development. In severe situations, these changes could contribute to two of the most common mental disorders in teens, one being mood disorders and the other being anxiety disorders. Arts based interventions were administered to measure and test if using clay through touch and movement could reduce anxiety and stress for adolescents in a psychiatric inpatient setting, leading to greater mental well-being and increased stabilization. Patients participated in a three-part group that focused on different clay techniques, including rolling, flattening, and free choice ...


The Implementation Of Mindfulness And Dance/Movement Therapy For Women With Postpartum Depression: A Literature Review, Angel Nga Ying Chan May 2021

The Implementation Of Mindfulness And Dance/Movement Therapy For Women With Postpartum Depression: A Literature Review, Angel Nga Ying Chan

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This literature review discusses the impact and effectiveness of using mindfulness-based interventions and a dance/movement therapy approach on mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) to promote their holistic well-being. The experience of giving birth and the transition to motherhood can be rewarding and remarkable, yet challenging and overwhelming. It is widely suggested if a mother who suffers from postpartum depression is left untreated and unattended, the ongoing depression and emotional distress can have negative impacts on their child’s well-being and development. The practice of mindfulness with women with PPD is suggested to be significant in reducing depression and improving ...


Mindfulness-Based Interventions For Prenatal Stress, Anxiety, And Depression, Fiona Kate Rice May 2021

Mindfulness-Based Interventions For Prenatal Stress, Anxiety, And Depression, Fiona Kate Rice

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Pregnant people in the United States (US) face myriad barriers to resource accessibility when seeking support, including financial gatekeeping, discrimination, and cis-gendering of the process. Commodification of prenatal support is exhaustive and contributes to a growing exclusivity of traditionally accessible interventions designed to reduce stress, anxiety, and depression, and to promote positive fetal outcomes and parent-child bond. Mindfulness-based interventions are particularly appropriate for reducing stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnancy. Mindfulness-based interventions are intersectional, accessible means of pregnancy and childbirth support with evidence-based outcomes of positive birth experiences and results. Mindfulness is defined as nonjudgmental awareness of the present moment ...


Neuro-Informed Music Therapy For The Treatment Of Anxiety And Depression: A Literature Review, Sarah E. Sullivan May 2021

Neuro-Informed Music Therapy For The Treatment Of Anxiety And Depression: A Literature Review, Sarah E. Sullivan

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

This capstone thesis project is a literature review of research specifically regarding the neuroscience and neurochemistry of music and how it can inform music therapy treatment of mental health. Mental health is a large, overarching term that includes many disorders that refer to one’s psychological and/or emotional condition(s), which further includes an individual’s social well-being. This can include, but is not limited to, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This paper will focus in on a research-based, neuro-informed music therapy treatment of anxiety and depression. The goal of this paper was to provide research toward ...


The Effect Of Depression, Anxiety, And Stress On Heart Rate Variability During Self-Critical And Self-Compassionate Exercises, Derek C. Bartlett May 2021

The Effect Of Depression, Anxiety, And Stress On Heart Rate Variability During Self-Critical And Self-Compassionate Exercises, Derek C. Bartlett

Theses and Dissertations

The cognitions of individuals who experience symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress have been well documented, but their physiological reactions have not. The present study examines the physiological reactions of individuals with elevated levels of depression, anxiety, and stress during a self-critical and self-compassionate writing exercise to see if there is a difference in comparison to healthy participants. This study is a secondary analysis of data that was collected from a randomized controlled trial where participants followed a protocol. This protocol consisted of a 5-minute baseline, a 10-minute breathing exercise or nature video, 5-minutes of a self-critical writing exercise, 5-minutes ...


Vegetarian Diets, Maybe Not As Healthy As You Think, Darryl Goh, Debbie Chan, Merson Hoo, Ian Wong May 2021

Vegetarian Diets, Maybe Not As Healthy As You Think, Darryl Goh, Debbie Chan, Merson Hoo, Ian Wong

Introduction to Research Methods RSCH 202

Many are approaching vegetarianism as a viable diet option in recent years, presuming that adopting a vegetarian diet would provide health benefits. This paper explores the possibilities of physical and mental effects that vegetarianism may have on humans and its extent by the use of regression analysis. To measure the possible impacts vegetarian diets may hold on both the physiology and physical aspects of humans, we have utilized the measures of life expectancy and prevalence of depression respectively. Cross-sectional data were examined from sources such as the World Health Organization, Our World In Data and the World Bank, with figures ...


Rates Of Anxiety And Depression Are High Among Young Adults During Covid-19, Xiaoyan Zhang May 2021

Rates Of Anxiety And Depression Are High Among Young Adults During Covid-19, Xiaoyan Zhang

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

This data slice uses data from the U.S. Census Bureau Household Pulse Survey to compare the percentage of U.S. young adults (ages 18-29) who reported experiencing anxiety or depression during a two-week period in late March 2021 by race/ethnicity. The brief shows much lower rates of self-reported anxiety among Non-Hispanic Blacks than among other racial/ethnic groups but no significant racial/ethnic differences in self-reported depression.


Breaking The Cognitive Spell: Cognitive Fusion Mediates The Relation Of Cognitive Anxiety Sensitivity And Rumination In Undergraduate College Students, Jacey L. Anderberg May 2021

Breaking The Cognitive Spell: Cognitive Fusion Mediates The Relation Of Cognitive Anxiety Sensitivity And Rumination In Undergraduate College Students, Jacey L. Anderberg

Honors Thesis

Rumination (i.e., intrusive and repetitive self-directed thinking) predicts the onset, severity, and maintenance of depression (Galecki & Talarowska, 2017). Ruminative behavior is positively associated with cognitive anxiety sensitivity (i.e., fear of losing internal control; CAS), which may be attributed to cognitive vulnerabilities of depression. However, researchers have not clarified the link between these variables, and mechanisms responsible for change in CAS following treatment are unclear (Tull & Gratz, 2008). Accordingly, clarification of intermediate factors that may be targeted in psychosocial interventions appears warranted. Cognitive fusion (i.e., engaging with thoughts as true reflections of reality rather than products of thinking; CF) may influence this relation, as individuals with high CAS may be attached to and impacted by negative thoughts, leading to ruminative behavior. We hypothesized CF would mediate the CAS-rumination relation in undergraduate students. Bootstrap analyses suggested CF significantly mediated the CAS-rumination relation, ab = 1.12, 95% CI [0.88, 1 ...


Stage Of Estrous Cycle Influences Behavior After Social Stress, Alexander Jonah Rodriguez May 2021

Stage Of Estrous Cycle Influences Behavior After Social Stress, Alexander Jonah Rodriguez

Honors Thesis

Since women are almost twice as likely to develop major depression compared to men, research into this and other potentially debilitating mood disorders using behavioral studies should involve females despite hormonal, physiological, and potential behavior changes due to reproductive cyclicity. Until recently, most studies exclusively used males, thus limiting results of previous research to half of the population. Using adult female C57BL/6N mice as model organisms, we exposed them to novel forms of social stress across five days which encompassed the four-day estrous cycle to determine if the stages of the estrous cycle had an impact on behavior when ...


Perfectionism And Internalizing Disorders As Predictors Of Career Indecision Among College Students, Paige Jones May 2021

Perfectionism And Internalizing Disorders As Predictors Of Career Indecision Among College Students, Paige Jones

Honors Theses

Perfectionism has been found to be a significant predictor of career indecision in adults. Perfectionism has also been linked with internalizing disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder in children. The primary aim of this study is to determine if there is a relationship between those internalizing emotions experienced in childhood and career indecision as an adult. There have not been many studies for career indecision based on emotions directly from one’s childhood, so this study aims to provide some basic understanding on that relationship. This study investigated if perfectionism and internalizing disorders (measured retroactively) during childhood were ...


The Relationship Between Mothers’ Negative Emotional Symptoms And Mother-Infant Interactions During The Covid-19 Pandemic., Kolbie A Vincent May 2021

The Relationship Between Mothers’ Negative Emotional Symptoms And Mother-Infant Interactions During The Covid-19 Pandemic., Kolbie A Vincent

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between mothers' negative emotional symptoms (depression, anxiety, and stress) and mother-infant interactions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected in the early months of the pandemic, when daycares were closed, through an online survey of parents and infants. Participants included 54 mothers of infants 3-34 months of age living in Kentucky. Well-being was measured with the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale – 21 (DASS 21). Questions related to parent-infant interactions included time spent interacting with the infants by reading, singing, playing freely with no set goal, engaging in a meaningful way ...


Teachers’ Stress, Anxiety, And Depression: What Are Special Education Teachers Experiencing?, James H. Potter May 2021

Teachers’ Stress, Anxiety, And Depression: What Are Special Education Teachers Experiencing?, James H. Potter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research has shown that people in the teaching profession have high levels of stress and often report increased levels of symptoms of anxiety and depression. Students’ academic progress may have adverse effects when their teachers have high-stress levels or report mental distress. Those who teach special education often face high levels of stress. However, there is little research considering special education teachers’ job-related health. This study collected data on 598 general and special education teachers in the United States. This study compared the endorsements of both stress and psychopathology between special education and general education teachers. This research found that ...