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Articles 1 - 30 of 151

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Contextualization Of Myth: Identification Of Myth In The Propagation Of Narrative Across Generational Boundaries, Joseph G. Ponthieux Apr 2021

The Contextualization Of Myth: Identification Of Myth In The Propagation Of Narrative Across Generational Boundaries, Joseph G. Ponthieux

Communication & Theatre Arts Theses

This thesis demonstrates the unique correlation between myth and the propagation of narrative across generational boundaries. It argues that myth occurs in the intersection of belief, semiotics, and context, and further enables a way of re-encoding a narrative with a dual contextuality. This dual context preserves a narrative’s literal context while endowing it with a new or modified myth context and affords the audience a selection of choices for how to receive a narrative experienced as myth. To demonstrate this correlation a Myth Context Reception Model is designed for the purpose of identifying ascendent, obscure or emergent myths evident ...


A Polite And Respectful Acceptance —— Implicit Function Of Refusal In Chinese From Pedagogical Perspective, Yawei Li Jan 2021

A Polite And Respectful Acceptance —— Implicit Function Of Refusal In Chinese From Pedagogical Perspective, Yawei Li

Chinese Language Teaching Methodology and Technology

This paper discusses the implicit function of refusal expressions that has been used by Chinese native speakers when responding to people’s offerings. By analyzing three conversations regarding how Chinese people have accepted people’s offerings during different time periods (1960’s, 1980’s, and 2000’s), the author argues that the verbal refusal in reacting to people’s offerings (especially gifts) does not literally mean “No, I don’t want it.” Instead, it is a way to show humility, politeness, and respect to the gift giver, and it functions as an implicit form of acceptance. By referring to three ...


Rethinking Peace: Discourse, Memory, Translation, And Dialogue, Edited By Alexander Laban Hinton, Giorgio Shani And Jeremiah Alberg. Reviewed By Mohammed Moussa., Mohammed Moussa Nov 2020

Rethinking Peace: Discourse, Memory, Translation, And Dialogue, Edited By Alexander Laban Hinton, Giorgio Shani And Jeremiah Alberg. Reviewed By Mohammed Moussa., Mohammed Moussa

Peace and Conflict Studies

Excerpt

Peace is a protean concept that equally eludes academics and practitioners on the one hand and perpetrators and victims on the other hand. However, this conundrum has not discouraged the preoccupation of peace and conflict studies with fixing the definition of peace once and for all for immediate export to war zones. In this essay, I review the timely book of Rethinking Peace: Discourse, Memory, Translation, and Dialogue which explicitly aims at not only rethinking peace but also providing self-reflexive viable alternatives. My review proceeds according to two steps: first, I identify the key themes of each part and ...


Pedagogy Of Tarot: Simultaneity Of Past, Present, And Future, Ashley S. Hill Oct 2020

Pedagogy Of Tarot: Simultaneity Of Past, Present, And Future, Ashley S. Hill

Summit to Salish Sea: Inquiries and Essays

A three card tarot spread can represent the past, present, and future. As a reflective practice, tarot does not divine the future; rather it invites the practitioner to consider context and imagine multiple futures. Simultaneously experiencing the past, present, and future of education is valuable and is possible through a pedagogy of tarot. A pedagogy of tarot connects fxminist and democratic approaches to education through non-hierarchical relationships that honor lived experiences - calling teachers and learners to remain conscious and awake to one another. By acknowledging the possibility of multiple truths within current sociopoliticial and hxstorical contexts, we can make space ...


Enhancing Success Of Medicare's Shared Decision Making Mandates Using Implementation Science: Examples Applying The Pragmatic Robust Implementation And Sustainability Model (Prism), Daniel D. Matlock, Mayuko Ito Fukunaga, Andy Tan, Chris Knoepke, Demetria M. Mcneal, Kathleen M. Mazor, Russell E. Glasgow Oct 2020

Enhancing Success Of Medicare's Shared Decision Making Mandates Using Implementation Science: Examples Applying The Pragmatic Robust Implementation And Sustainability Model (Prism), Daniel D. Matlock, Mayuko Ito Fukunaga, Andy Tan, Chris Knoepke, Demetria M. Mcneal, Kathleen M. Mazor, Russell E. Glasgow

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has mandated shared decision making (SDM) using patient decision aids for three conditions (lung cancer screening, atrial fibrillation, and implantable defibrillators). These forward-thinking approaches are in response to a wealth of efficacy data demonstrating that decision aids can improve patient decision making. However, there has been little focus on how to implement these approaches in real-world practice. This article demonstrates how using an implementation science framework may help programs understand multilevel challenges and opportunities to improve adherence to the CMS mandates. Using the PRISM (Pragmatic Robust Implementation and Sustainability Model) framework, we ...


Leadership, Contexts, And Learning - Part 2. Theories Of Learning, Channels, And Curricula, Larry M. Starr, Phd Oct 2020

Leadership, Contexts, And Learning - Part 2. Theories Of Learning, Channels, And Curricula, Larry M. Starr, Phd

School of Continuing and Professional Studies Faculty Papers

In this second of a two-part essay (see Starr (2020a1) for part 1) a systems-informed discussion of learning leadership is presented. I review the components of a system which consist of inputs, transformation, outputs, feedback and contextual environment, and argue that from a system perspective learning leadership emerges from interactions among elements particularly contextual variables. The concept of context is expanded to include the theory of learning applied, i.e., pedagogy, andragogy or heutagogy, and the communication channel used, i.e., face-to-face, virtual/online, or hybrid/blended. Learning leadership is also influenced by environmental context variables such as threats to ...


When Words Matter Most: Positive Psychology Perspectives On Condolence Letters, Sarah Francois-Poncet Oct 2020

When Words Matter Most: Positive Psychology Perspectives On Condolence Letters, Sarah Francois-Poncet

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

While the focus of positive psychology is uncontestably on the positive, there is an emerging direction in the field indicating that the coexistence of both negative and positive emotions is critical to well-being. The act of writing a condolence letter is a good example of precisely this coexistence: loss and sorrow giving rise to the act of expressive writing to convey positive emotions of sympathy, solace, and more. Viewed through the lens of positive psychology, writing a condolence letter has the potential to activate a unique alchemy of elements that the science of positive psychology has identified with well-being, from ...


Various Approaches To The Study Of English Set Expressions And The Problems Of Classification, Mohigul Yusufovna Qahharova Aug 2020

Various Approaches To The Study Of English Set Expressions And The Problems Of Classification, Mohigul Yusufovna Qahharova

Scientific reports of Bukhara State University

Speech is what the speaker speaks about, expressing his/her feelings and interaction with the audience. The speaker tries to make his speech effective in one way or another and to attract the listener. A word has its own lexical and complementary meaning. For example, the lexical meaning of the words "expressive", "emotional", "affective" means "affective", and the additional meaning "emotional". In English, it is permissible to take into account syntactic, melodic and lexical features for expressing emotional expressions. By lexical feature, we mean adding additional meaning to words. The complementary meaning of words can be constant or variable. We ...


On Polysemy: A Philosophical, Psycholinguistic, And Computational Study, Jiangtian Li Aug 2020

On Polysemy: A Philosophical, Psycholinguistic, And Computational Study, Jiangtian Li

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Most words in natural languages are polysemous, that is they have related but different meanings in different contexts. These polysemous meanings (senses) are marked by their structuredness, flexibility, productivity, and regularity. Previous theories have focused on some of these features but not all of them together. Thus, I propose a new theory of polysemy, which has two components. First, word meaning is actively modulated by broad contexts in a continuous fashion. Second, clustering arises from contextual modulations of a word and is then entrenched in our long term memory to facilitate future production and processing. Hence, polysemous senses are entrenched ...


Development And Pilot Testing Of An Adaptable Protocol To Address Postpartum Depression In Pediatric Practices Serving Lower-Income And Racial/Ethnic Minority Families: Contextual Considerations, Sarah L. Goff, Michael J. Moran, Kathleen Szegda, Tina Fioroni, Mary Ann Debanate, Nancy Byatt Jul 2020

Development And Pilot Testing Of An Adaptable Protocol To Address Postpartum Depression In Pediatric Practices Serving Lower-Income And Racial/Ethnic Minority Families: Contextual Considerations, Sarah L. Goff, Michael J. Moran, Kathleen Szegda, Tina Fioroni, Mary Ann Debanate, Nancy Byatt

Psychiatry Publications

Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 25% of women in lower-income and racial/ethnic minority populations in the USA. Evidence-based interventions for PPD screening and treatment exist, but many women with PPD are not identified or are inadequately treated. To address this gap, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends screening for PPD at routine preventive visits in the first 6 months of postpartum, but less than half of pediatricians do so. Small PPD screening studies have been conducted in pediatric practices serving average-risk women, but less is known about practices serving families with lower-income and/or racial/ethnic minority status ...


Leadership Adapted: Towards An Understanding Of How Western-Developed Leadership Theories Are Translated And Practiced In The Modern Arab Middle East, Derek R. Olson May 2020

Leadership Adapted: Towards An Understanding Of How Western-Developed Leadership Theories Are Translated And Practiced In The Modern Arab Middle East, Derek R. Olson

Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to understand how western-developed leadership theories are translated and practiced in the Modern Arab Middle East (MAME). Over the past century the notion of leadership has progressed through phases of understanding, definition, and practice. This evolution continues today and is no longer contained to the academic and practice-oriented institutions of North America and Europe. Through western-styled educational institutions and professional industries, western-developed leadership theories have stretched around the globe, including the MAME. While this is known, what is much less understood is how these theories are adopted and adapted. This study’s objective is ...


Leadership, Contexts, And Learning - Part 1. Leadership Definitions And Themes, Larry M. Starr, Phd May 2020

Leadership, Contexts, And Learning - Part 1. Leadership Definitions And Themes, Larry M. Starr, Phd

School of Continuing and Professional Studies Faculty Papers

In two parts this paper examines how leadership is understood, taught, and anticipated to be learned in undergraduate, graduate, and executive education programs. Part 1 introduces the challenges of defining leadership then presents three taxonomies or themes representing the prevailing leadership models, theories, and practices. I then introduce a fourth theme derived from a broader understanding of context, particularly differences between challenges that are complicated and complex. This informs an expanded context-definition of leadership for which examples of leadership characteristics and proficiencies from a complex systems perspective are presented.

Part 2 is presented as a separate essay. It discusses the ...


Teaching Spelling In Context Can Also Be Explicit And Systematic, Tessa Daffern, Kathy Thompson, Luke Ryan Jan 2020

Teaching Spelling In Context Can Also Be Explicit And Systematic, Tessa Daffern, Kathy Thompson, Luke Ryan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers (Archive)

This article shares a few practical insights from an intervention study that focussed on building teacher capacity for effective instruction in spelling. For the study, four schools in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) were selected to participate through a stratified random sampling process. In total, 572 students across 31 classes in Years 3 to 6 participated. Of the 31 classes, 14 were involved in a ten-week intervention while the remaining 17 classes formed a 'comparison' group whereby a 'business as usual' approach to teaching spelling was adopted.


Expressing Speech Act Of Disagreement At Different Language Levels, Shokhista Nusratullaeva Teacher Of English Faculty Ii Sep 2019

Expressing Speech Act Of Disagreement At Different Language Levels, Shokhista Nusratullaeva Teacher Of English Faculty Ii

Philology Matters

The problem of revealing and systematizingthe features of expressing disagreement repeatedly is still at the center of linguistic research.The current article investigates the speech act of disagreement in the framework of Speech Act Theory and its realization with the help of linguistic means (lexical, grammatical, phraseologicaland stylistic). Speech act of disagreement is act which combines all types of negative reaction:refutation, objection, judgment, disapproval, and dissatisfaction. It is an informative, imperative orevaluative statement and has a certain realization through various means of expression. Using these means in a particular communication dependson the intentions of the speaker, on the nature ...


The Influence Of Aging, Gaze Direction, And Context On Emotion Discrimination Performance, Alyssa Renee Minton Apr 2019

The Influence Of Aging, Gaze Direction, And Context On Emotion Discrimination Performance, Alyssa Renee Minton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examined how younger and older adults differ in their ability to discriminate between pairs of emotions of varying degrees of similarity when presented with an averted or direct gaze in either a neutral, congruent, or incongruent emotional context. For Task 1, participants were presented with three blocks of emotion pairs (i.e., anger/disgust, sadness/disgust, and fear/disgust) and were asked to indicate which emotion was being expressed. The actors’ gaze direction was manipulated such that emotional facial expressions were depicted with a direct gaze or an averted gaze. For Task 2, the same stimuli were placed ...


Contextually Modulated Avoidance Behavior In Rats Post-Pavlovian Extinction, Lauren Branigan Feb 2019

Contextually Modulated Avoidance Behavior In Rats Post-Pavlovian Extinction, Lauren Branigan

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The following study sought to examine the psychological substrates of renewal (e.g.., context dependent extinction processes) for conditioned avoidance behaviors in rats. Using signaled active avoidance conditioning, rats acquired two-way shuttle responding, to two different auditory stimuli. These behaviors were then extinguished through exposure to the auditory stimuli where shuttling behavior was now without consequence. Subjects were then tested for renewal of avoidance in three distinct renewal sequences (e.g., ABA vs ABB, AAB vs AAA, and ABC vs ABB) in three separate groups of rats. It was found that subjects showed more responding to a stimulus presented outside ...


The Context Of African American Emotion Expression: College Campus Influences, Deon Brown Jan 2019

The Context Of African American Emotion Expression: College Campus Influences, Deon Brown

Theses and Dissertations

Theoretical frameworks suggest that African Americans express emotion in context-specific ways that are unique to their familial socialization experience (Boykin, 1986; Dunbar, Leerkes, Coard, Supple, & Calkins, 2017). However, less is known about how African Americans express emotion across familial and public contexts. The current study was interested in exploring the contextual differences in emotion expression among 188 African American/Black college students from 3 different types of college campuses: predominantly White (i.e., PWI), historically Black (i.e., HBCU), and racially diverse. Data were collected via an online survey in which students reported the school they attend, their emotion expression in the family and on campus, and their experiences with racial discrimination on campus. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to test the exploratory hypothesis of contextual differences in emotion expression. Five profiles of African American students’ emotion expression in the family and on campus emerged: High Positive and Negative Submissive Expression (n = 49; 26%), More Family Expression (n = 8; 5%), Low Family and Campus Expression (n = 24; 13%), More Campus Positive and Negative Dominant Expression (n = 45; 24%), and More Positive and Less Negative Dominant Expression (n = 63; 33%). While college campus racial composition type was not a significant predictor of profiles of emotion expression, Wald chi-square = 8.83, p = .360, racial discrimination was, Wald chi-square = 1.00, p = .041. Specifically, African American students who reported more frequent ...


The Ethics Of Identifiers And Causal Relations In Journalism, Alycia Wilson Jan 2019

The Ethics Of Identifiers And Causal Relations In Journalism, Alycia Wilson

Honors Theses and Capstones

The AP Stylebook, a guide used by many journalism organizations to inform editorial decision making, says identifiers such as race should be included in news stories when "pertinent." But how do we determine when an identifier is pertinent? My analysis of news stories demonstrates that sometimes identifiers can suggest a causal relation between an identity and an event. For example, journalists will identify race in any story involving a white police officer shooting a black suspect, even if the facts of the story suggest that the shooting was justified. Journalists also widely reported the sexual orientation of the victims in ...


Contextual Control Of Instrumental Actions And Habits Following Retroactive Interference, Michael Steinfeld Jan 2019

Contextual Control Of Instrumental Actions And Habits Following Retroactive Interference, Michael Steinfeld

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

It is commonly accepted that instrumental responses that have been extinguished can return. For example, in a phenomenon known as the renewal effect, extinguished behaviors return upon removal from the extinction context. Another well-accepted notion is that instrumental behaviors can be thought of as goal-directed actions, which form over the course of moderate amounts of practice or training, and habits, which form after extended practice. Despite years of research on both topics, what happens to actions and habits following extinction is poorly understood. The present experiments examined the renewal of actions and habits following retroactive interference paradigms such as extinction ...


Using Virtual Exchange To Advance Media Literacy Competencies Through Analysis Of Contemporary Propaganda, Renee Hobbs, Christian Seyferth-Zapf, Silke Grafe Nov 2018

Using Virtual Exchange To Advance Media Literacy Competencies Through Analysis Of Contemporary Propaganda, Renee Hobbs, Christian Seyferth-Zapf, Silke Grafe

Journal of Media Literacy Education

With the rise of so-called fake news as a global phenomenon, interest in propaganda analysis has advanced along with the recognition of the fundamentally social process of interpretation. In this essay, we explore the use of cross-national dialogue among German and American undergraduate students who are seeking to better understand how media messages are interpreted and how they inform and guide the civic actions of citizens. We describe and analyze five lessons that used a virtual exchange using a variety of digital media platforms, texts and technologies to support the cross-national study of contemporary propaganda. We observed that cross-national dialogue ...


Effects Of Context And Individual Differences On Memory For Prior Remembering., Marcus L. Leppanen Aug 2018

Effects Of Context And Individual Differences On Memory For Prior Remembering., Marcus L. Leppanen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Though people often remember experiences from their lives, they are also able to remember whether a memory has previously been retrieved, which is known as memory for prior remembering. Frequent failures of memory for prior remembering can have negative consequences on how people perceive their own cognitive health. The recurrence of traumatic memory retrieval can be interpreted as a consequence of intrusive memory for prior remembering. This dissertation was conducted to improve our understanding of the factors that influence the efficacy of memory for prior remembering. The two factors that were investigated were context change and individual differences. Participants (N ...


The Influence Of Context On Distinct Facial Expressions Of Disgust, Peter J. Reschke, Eric A. Walle, Jennifer M. Knothe, Lukas D. Lopez Jun 2018

The Influence Of Context On Distinct Facial Expressions Of Disgust, Peter J. Reschke, Eric A. Walle, Jennifer M. Knothe, Lukas D. Lopez

Faculty Publications

Face perception is susceptible to contextual influence and perceived physical similarities between emotion cues. However, studies often use structurally homogeneous facial expressions, making it difficult to explore how within-emotion variability in facial configuration affects emotion perception. This study examined the influence of context on the emotional perception of categorically identical, yet physically distinct, facial expressions of disgust. Participants categorized two perceptually distinct disgust facial expressions, "closed" (i.e., scrunched nose, closed mouth) and "open" (i.e., scrunched nose, open mouth, protruding tongue), that were embedded in contexts comprising emotion postures and scenes. Results demonstrated that the effect of nonfacial elements ...


Socialization Trajectories Of Civic Development: Examining Variation Among Children In Black Immigrant And African American Families, Juliana Karras-Jean Gilles May 2018

Socialization Trajectories Of Civic Development: Examining Variation Among Children In Black Immigrant And African American Families, Juliana Karras-Jean Gilles

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Little is known about how developmental experiences spanning early childhood through adolescence prepare children and youth to engage with society (Astuto & Ruck, 2017), and even less so for ethnically diverse Black children and youth (Jagers, Lozada, Rivas-Drake, & Guillame, 2017). Building from work linking positive youth development (PYD) to civic engagement (Lerner et al., 2006), this study examined how socialization trajectories from early childhood through adolescence in concert with early childhood experiences and contexts related to adolescent civic development. Civic development was measured by the PYD outcomes of competence, confidence, connection to school and peers, caring, and character; these domains have positively accounted for civic engagement across ethnically and racially diverse youth (Wray-Lake, Rote, Gupta, Godfrey, & Sirin, 2015). Results suggest that diversity in socialization experiences, sociocultural background, and context result in differential outcomes for civic development. This finding builds on previous civic engagement work by affirming the importance of parental perceptions, civic participation (White & Mistry, 2016), socialization practices (Evans et al., 2012), and context (Flanagan & Faison, 2001). Moreover, this work highlights the importance of considering intra-group variability ...


Understanding Hiv/Aids In The African Context, Eileen Stillwaggon, Larry Sawers Mar 2018

Understanding Hiv/Aids In The African Context, Eileen Stillwaggon, Larry Sawers

Economics Faculty Publications

This book of readings is intended for courses in Global Health. The editors asked Prof. Stillwaggon to contribute a chapter summarizing her years of work on the spread of HIV/AIDS in populations among whom bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral diseases are extremely common, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Her work has demonstrated that differences in behavior cannot explain differences in HIV rates between world regions.


Context, Coalitions, And Organizing: Immigrant Labor Rights Advocacy In San Francisco And Houston, Shannon Gleeson, Els De Graauw Jan 2018

Context, Coalitions, And Organizing: Immigrant Labor Rights Advocacy In San Francisco And Houston, Shannon Gleeson, Els De Graauw

Shannon Gleeson

[Excerpt] In the pages that follow, we first situate immigrant labor rights struggles in scholarship on the “right to the city.” We then present San Francisco and Houston, focusing on their immigration histories, current demographic profiles, and contexts for advancing immigrant labor rights. We next describe the parallel types of organizations that have advocated for stronger wage and labor rights in San Francisco and Houston and the similar principles that have motivated them to advocate with local government. In discussing the wage and labor rights campaigns in each city, we draw out key differences in the policy changes that advocates ...


Metadata--A Five Part Introduction, Tammy Troup Jan 2018

Metadata--A Five Part Introduction, Tammy Troup

Library and Information Technology Publications

This presentation defines metadata and introduces the social context and history of encoded knowledge, the use and reuse of metadata, the benefits and drawbacks of standardized information exchange, and the role of metadata in the preservation of digital objects. This three hour presentation is broken into sections and depends on interactives and thoughtful discussion.


Age-Related Differences In Context-Specificity Benefits Ambiguous Predictive Learning, Catherine Luna Jun 2017

Age-Related Differences In Context-Specificity Benefits Ambiguous Predictive Learning, Catherine Luna

Mahurin Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The present study investigated age differences in the context-specificity effect in learning. Ambiguity was manipulated in two conditions in a predictive learning paradigm (Callejas-Aguilera & Rosas, 2010) to encourage participants to attend to context. In the ambiguous condition, foods led to the presence of the illness equally as often as its absence. In the non-ambiguous condition, foods consistently led to the presence of the illness or consistently lead to its absence. Participants were instructed to make predictive judgments for foods leading to the presence of an illness in one of two restaurant contexts. During the test, participants made predictive judgments of ...


Classification Methods In Context At Theological Libraries: A Case Study, Chloe G. Noland Jun 2017

Classification Methods In Context At Theological Libraries: A Case Study, Chloe G. Noland

School of Information Student Research Journal

This case study explores issues of interoperability and shared collection management between two libraries – one community and one academic – located within the American Jewish University (AJU). AJU’s choice to use two separate classification systems, Library of Congress and Elazar, respectively, provides a necessary separation of academic and religious context, but limits record access between the two collections. Specifically, this study aims to answer the following core research question: is consolidation into one classification scheme both a realistic and helpful solution for increased interoperability? Examining the history, patron needs, and principles of arrangement in both systems provided further insights regarding ...


Basic Knowledge Training For Vfx Production Assistants And Coordinators, Sharon Anne Roberts May 2017

Basic Knowledge Training For Vfx Production Assistants And Coordinators, Sharon Anne Roberts

Instructional Design Capstones Collection

Visual Effects (VFX) is a part of the film-making process that takes place during the broader phase of film-making known as post-production. There are two broad groups of individuals who are responsible for the outcome of the VFX project - artists and production. The groups work in conjunction to achieve the team goals. At present, there is no formalized training available for production individuals and much of the required learning is done on the job. This projects explores a basic training course for individuals looking to increase their basic knowledge of VFX production. Grounded in industry research conducted by the author ...


What Happens When Social Pressures Collide? The Role Of Environmental Pressures Throughout Life, Jeffrey Lyons Apr 2017

What Happens When Social Pressures Collide? The Role Of Environmental Pressures Throughout Life, Jeffrey Lyons

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

How do competing social influences shape individual partisanship over the course of the life cycle? People enter and exit a host of environments over the course of the lifespan, and these environments provide social pressures that can conflict or reinforce early socialized attitudes. Socialization could be an agent for either opinion change, or opinion stability. Using the Youth-Parent Socialization Study and constructing partisan environmental measures at the county-level, I explore this question. The findings demonstrate that environments exert significant socializing influence over the lifespan, moderating the persistence of early forces. This helps to reconcile two competing perspectives on the enduring ...