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2021

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

American Surrogacy: Babies For Sale?, Madison Edwards Dec 2021

American Surrogacy: Babies For Sale?, Madison Edwards

Honors Projects

More surrogacy contracts are fulfilled in the United States than in any other country (Bromfield, 2016, p. 193). In 2014, there were approximately 2,000 surrogacy arrangements in the U.S., yet the market is totally unregulated (Shellnutt and Grizzle, 2018, p. 31). Given that 1 in 6 American couples face infertility, there will continue to be a demand for alternative and assisted reproductive options (Shellnutt and Grizzle, 2018, p. 34). This paper seeks to explore several areas of surrogacy, including contract enforcement, potential problems parties in surrogacy agreements face, current legislation, the role of religion in surrogacy, and specific case studies. …


Reproducibility Of Individual Dna Deposits Detected Through Cellular Fluorescence, Natalee Small-Davidson Dec 2021

Reproducibility Of Individual Dna Deposits Detected Through Cellular Fluorescence, Natalee Small-Davidson

Student Theses

Contact traces are an important part of DNA casework, but the probative value of any identified associations depends on the possibility of passive transfer. There is known individual variation in DNA left behind during contact, this DNA shedding propensity has an effect on whose DNA is detected. This study evaluated this variability using a cell staining approach. Volunteers were asked to deposit a fingerprint on a clean glass slide, then wash their hands and deposit a second fingerprint after a 30-minute wait without touching anything. Three sets of samples were collected over three consecutive weeks. Fingerprints were stained with a …


Evaluating A Test For Shedding Propensity Using Tape Lifts From Different Skin Locations, Xiao M. Chen Dec 2021

Evaluating A Test For Shedding Propensity Using Tape Lifts From Different Skin Locations, Xiao M. Chen

Student Theses

The shedding propensity of a person can assist data interpretation in casework when assessing the possibility of passive transfer for DNA analysis. Past studies on shedding propensity evaluated palmar skin (washed and unwashed) deposits. This study compared different skin locations with respect to shedding propensity, and explored the potential of tape-lifts as a skin surface collection method. Eight different skin types and samples were collected with adhesive tape disks from 28 participants over three non-consecutive days; the washed and unwashed fingers from both hands, toe, and arm, neck below ear, and nape. Samples were extracted, quantified, amplified, genotyped, and evaluated …


Sexual Violence In Prisons: Inmate Subculture And Demographics Of Fear, Mackenzie Leroux Dec 2021

Sexual Violence In Prisons: Inmate Subculture And Demographics Of Fear, Mackenzie Leroux

Arts & Sciences Undergraduate Showcase

Prison sexual violence has been a prominent issue since the establishment of correctional facilities. However, the issue was dismissed due to the stigmatization of the inmate population. As a result, there were no documented policies, statutes, or laws that prohibited prison rape or imposed sanctions upon offenders. The attention towards inmates rights, specifically regarding sexual assault, began to be addressed in the media in the 1990s. Through past offender stories, legal cases, and an overall sense of awareness, the Prison Rape Elimination Act was established in 2003. This act outlawed any sexual relationships between either inmates, or inmates and correctional …


Criminal Justice And Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University Dec 2021

Criminal Justice And Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice & Criminology News (2012-2023)

No abstract provided.


Criminal Justice And Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University Dec 2021

Criminal Justice And Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice & Criminology News (2012-2023)

  • Internship Showcase


Criminal Justice And Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University Dec 2021

Criminal Justice And Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice & Criminology News (2012-2023)

  • Internship Showcase


The Understanding Of Digital And Multimedia Evidence (Dme) By Attorneys And Digital Forensic Examiners (Dfe) Within The United States Criminal Justice System, Joseph Levi White Dec 2021

The Understanding Of Digital And Multimedia Evidence (Dme) By Attorneys And Digital Forensic Examiners (Dfe) Within The United States Criminal Justice System, Joseph Levi White

Dissertations

One goal of this research was to determine potential themes that may influence the understanding of Digital and Multimedia Evidence (DME) by attorneys and Digital Forensic Examiners (DFE) within the United States Criminal Justice System. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted to gather information from experienced criminal attorneys and DFEs regarding potential influences on their understanding of DME. The results of these interviews were transcribed, and the data coded to allow for qualitative analysis. Five themes were developed from this data and are thought to play a role in understanding of DME by attorneys and DFEs: motivation for involvement in the …


Surviving Interlocutory Appeals: Trial Lawyer Edition, Grace Jun Dec 2021

Surviving Interlocutory Appeals: Trial Lawyer Edition, Grace Jun

The Bridge: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Legal & Social Policy

This presentation provides an overview of Supreme Court caselaw regarding qualified immunity and government officials’ right to interlocutory appeal from denials of qualified immunity, and provides a brief discussion of ways trial lawyers can overcome interlocutory appeals to provide their injured plaintiffs with an opportunity to be heard and vindicated at trial by a jury.


Civil Rights And Protective Orders, Michael P. Doyle, Erin Brockway Dec 2021

Civil Rights And Protective Orders, Michael P. Doyle, Erin Brockway

The Bridge: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Legal & Social Policy

“Open courts” are a bedrock principal of our judicial system, and court secrecy, including concealment of pretrial proceedings, poses a serious threat to public safety. Overbroad protective orders have concealed facts uncovered during litigation regarding some of the most important public harms, keeping them secret when the public needs protection. Protective orders routinely include provisions that allow parties to designate discovery material as “confidential” without further judicial review. These orders are often abused and result in unnecessary costs to litigants, the courts, and the public’s confidence in the court system. This is always a mistake because it harms the discovery …


Implicit Bias: Racism Without Racist, Genesis Draper Dec 2021

Implicit Bias: Racism Without Racist, Genesis Draper

The Bridge: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Legal & Social Policy

Implicit bias is something that everyone has but many cannot identify within themselves. Judge Draper draws on caselaw, research, and anecdotes from her own career to demonstrate the ways that implicit bias can impede equitable and just court experiences for all. She argues for the importance of more diverse juries, implicit bias instruction early in the proceedings, and the use of Batson as remedies to counteract bias.


Investigating Officer Involved Shootings: Don’T Ignore The Evidence, Michael Maloney Dec 2021

Investigating Officer Involved Shootings: Don’T Ignore The Evidence, Michael Maloney

The Bridge: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Legal & Social Policy

This presentation sheds light on a part of officer involved shootings not always discussed at a legal symposium: the potential bias that emerges at a crime scene during an investigation. The speaker explores the evidentiary challenges associated with an officer involved shooting, and describes the reconstruction project that he led as a consultant during the investigation and trial of off-duty police officer Amber Guyger, who was convicted of the murder of Botham Jean.


Does Human Rights Derogation Limit Covid-19 Infections?, Brian K. Gran, Reema Sen Dec 2021

Does Human Rights Derogation Limit Covid-19 Infections?, Brian K. Gran, Reema Sen

Biennial Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

The purpose of this project is to model and understand socio-legal responses to the spread of COVID-19—in particular, emergency measures that derogate from states’ human rights commitments. Derogation of human rights in response to COVID-19 is unprecedented, according to some experts (Scheinin 2020). This project investigates whether combinations of conditions, such as moderate human rights derogation in combination with strong health infrastructures, reduce degrees of virus transmission and promote prevention. Its preliminary findings indicate that suspension of some rights appears crucial to limiting COVID-19 infections, but suspension of many rights has limited impacts, raising questions for practices of human rights …


Using Multiple Mendelian Randomization Approaches And Genetic Correlations To Understand Obesity, Urate, And Gout, Charleen D. Adams, Brian B. Boutwell Dec 2021

Using Multiple Mendelian Randomization Approaches And Genetic Correlations To Understand Obesity, Urate, And Gout, Charleen D. Adams, Brian B. Boutwell

Faculty and Student Publications

Observational studies suggest relationships between obesity, urate, and gout but are possibly confounded. We assessed whether genetically determined obesity, higher urate (and related traits), and gout were causal using multiple Mendelian randomization (MR) approaches and linkage disequilibrium score regression for genetic correlations (rg). For data, we used genome-wide association study summary statistics available through MR-Base. We observed that obesity increased urate (beta = 0.127; 95% CI = 0.098, 0.157; P-value = 1.2E−17; rg = 0.25 [P-value = 0.001]) and triglycerides (beta = 0.082; 95% CI = 0.065, 0.099; P-value = 1.2E−21; rg = 0.23 [P-value = 8.8E−12]) and decreased high-density …


Criminal Justice Update - December 2021, Patrick Mahoney Dec 2021

Criminal Justice Update - December 2021, Patrick Mahoney

Criminal Justice Updates

The Criminal Justice Update is a monthly newsletter created by the Adams County Bar Foundation Fellow providing updates in criminal justice policy coming from Pennsylvania's courts and legislature as well as the US Supreme Court.

Contents:

  • Updates from PA Governor's Office (no updates this month)
  • Updates from the PA Legislature
    • Criminal Law & Procedure
  • Updates from the Courts
    • U.S. Supreme Court (no updates this month)
    • PA Supreme Court: Criminal Law & Procedure
    • PA Superior Court: Criminal Law & Procedure


Dna Extraction And Genotyping From Burned Skeletal Remains, Kayla M. Rooney Dec 2021

Dna Extraction And Genotyping From Burned Skeletal Remains, Kayla M. Rooney

Student Theses

In this research, bovine leg bones were burned, both with and without meat intact, in order to determine if it was possible to extract and amplify DNA to obtain profiles. The meat was burned over an open flame and the DNA was extracted using the Qiagen DNeasy Blood & Tissue Mini Kit, quantified with the NanoDrop, and amplified using the Bovine Genotypes Panel 3.1 Kit, and separated using the 3500 Genetic Analyzer. Profiles were analyzed using the Thermo Fisher Cloud Microsatellite Analysis software. The samples burned with the meat intact produced lower quantities of DNA than the bones burned with …


Integration Of Blockchain Technology Into Automobiles To Prevent And Study The Causes Of Accidents, John Kim Dec 2021

Integration Of Blockchain Technology Into Automobiles To Prevent And Study The Causes Of Accidents, John Kim

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Automobile collisions occur daily. We now live in an information-driven world, one where technology is quickly evolving. Blockchain technology can change the automotive industry, the safety of the motoring public and its surrounding environment by incorporating this vast array of information. It can place safety and efficiency at the forefront to pedestrians, public establishments, and provide public agencies with pertinent information securely and efficiently. Other industries where Blockchain technology has been effective in are as follows: supply chain management, logistics, and banking. This paper reviews some statistical information regarding automobile collisions, Blockchain technology, Smart Contracts, Smart Cities; assesses the feasibility …


The Implementation Of Tribal Provisions From The Vawa 2013 Reauthorization, Deejay E. Chino Dec 2021

The Implementation Of Tribal Provisions From The Vawa 2013 Reauthorization, Deejay E. Chino

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Recent changes in VAWA allows tribes – for the first time – to prosecute non-Indians for intimate partner violence. In order to do so, however, tribes have to first meet specific federal mandates. Implementation of federal regulatory policy by American Indian tribes is a dynamic and complex process but there is a dearth of information on the challenges tribes face or on factors that would facilitate successful implementation at the tribal level. This legislation has filled a serious gap in tribal jurisprudence but not all tribes are able to meet requirements, which include having specific legal codes and justice resources. …


Islands In The Sun: Lawfare And Great-Power Competition In The Indo-Pacific, Clayton T. Russo Dec 2021

Islands In The Sun: Lawfare And Great-Power Competition In The Indo-Pacific, Clayton T. Russo

MSU Graduate Theses

This thesis examines the U.S.-Japan Mutual Defense Treaty and its future considering the recent developments in the international security environment. The 2018 National Defense Strategy brought back an emphasis on Great Power Competition, fundamentally transforming the role of U.S. alliances to address new challenges. In the 2021 budget, the Pacific Deterrence Initiative (PDI) has prioritized the People’s Republic of China as the number one pacing threat to theUnited States, drastically shifting international focus away from the Middle East and towards East Asia. In conjunction with funding new capabilities through the PDI, the U.S. will need to conceive new legal doctrines …


Obstacles To The Implementation Of Criminal Justice Reform, Matt Allen Dec 2021

Obstacles To The Implementation Of Criminal Justice Reform, Matt Allen

Dissertations

Mass incarceration or overincarceration has gained significant attention over the last two decades, and criminal justice reform seeks to address it. This study uses constructivist grounded theory to examine the implementation of criminal justice reform legislation in Mississippi. Mississippi was chosen as the study setting because the state has been recognized as a national leader in enacting reform legislation and it has one of the nation’s highest incarceration rates. It is well established that policy implementation affects outcomes. Therefore, if the policies Mississippi is implementing are effective and they are implemented correctly, it stands to reason the state could benefit …


Corporate Crime And Punishment: An Empirical Study, Dorothy S. Lund, Natasha Sarin Dec 2021

Corporate Crime And Punishment: An Empirical Study, Dorothy S. Lund, Natasha Sarin

All Faculty Scholarship

For many years, law and economics scholars, as well as politicians and regulators, have debated whether corporate criminal enforcement overdeters beneficial corporate activity or in the alternative, lets corporate criminals off too easily. This debate has recently expanded in its polarization: On the one hand, academics, judges, and politicians have excoriated enforcement agencies for failing to send guilty bankers to jail in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis; on the other, the U.S. Department of Justice has since relaxed policies that encouraged individual prosecutions and reduced the size of fines and number of prosecutions. A crucial and yet understudied …


"And Some, I Assume, Are Good People:" A Closer Look At Hispanic Immigration And The Code Of The Street, Nicole Cebak Dec 2021

"And Some, I Assume, Are Good People:" A Closer Look At Hispanic Immigration And The Code Of The Street, Nicole Cebak

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Although research shows that increasing neighborhood levels of immigration tend to be associated with lower crime, little attention has been paid to why this is the case-- in essence what variables might help account for, or explain, these findings. Thus, the focus of this study is to explore a cultural explanation, specifically whether adherence to the code of the street helps to explain this relationship. Further, this study is looking to find the differences between immigrant generations as well as recent and established immigrants as it pertains to adherence to the code of the street. Using a random sample of …


Traditional And Non-Traditional Gender Role Stereotypes In Children’S Animated Films, Rachael Davidson Dec 2021

Traditional And Non-Traditional Gender Role Stereotypes In Children’S Animated Films, Rachael Davidson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As gender stereotypes could lead to adherence to rape myths later in life, it is important to study the potential development of gender role stereotypes. Based on the theoretical approach of Bandura’s social learning, this mixed methods study sought to expand the literature on children observing gender stereotypes through film viewing. A content analysis of verbal and body language of the highest grossing animated films between 2017-2019 was conducted. The results indicated that most main characters displayed both traditional and non-traditional gender role stereotypes, which is indicative of gender role flexibility. This shows promise that there could be a moderating …


Evaluation Of The Trunarc Handheld Narcotics Analyzer As A Pre-Analysis Screening Device For The Orange County Crime Lab, Sarah Yang, D. Bauer, C. Woltz, S. Soto, Michael Ibba Dec 2021

Evaluation Of The Trunarc Handheld Narcotics Analyzer As A Pre-Analysis Screening Device For The Orange County Crime Lab, Sarah Yang, D. Bauer, C. Woltz, S. Soto, Michael Ibba

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Forensic analysis of suspected narcotics is often dangerous as the substances’ composition is unknown. Many techniques for drug identification require handling of the substance outside of its packaging, which can expose the analyst to potentially harmful chemicals. The TruNarc Handheld Narcotics Analyzer is a portable Raman spectroscopy device that is non-destructive of evidence and can be used to screen drugs through simple packaging to minimize the risk of exposure. The Orange County Crime Lab (OCCL) is testing the limits of this device to determine if it can be used to screen new evidence within the Seized Drugs Lab. The OCCL …


The Influence Of Demographic Information On Public Attitudes Towards Individuals Who Commit Sexual Offenses, Emily Bogdan Dec 2021

The Influence Of Demographic Information On Public Attitudes Towards Individuals Who Commit Sexual Offenses, Emily Bogdan

Student Theses

Research exploring the factors that shape public attitudes towards individuals who commit sexual offenses is needed to inform policy and reduce stigma that these individuals face as they reenter society. Prior research has explored demographic factors of those who offend and have been victimized, but few have studied how these variables may interact with one another to shape attitudes toward people who commit sexual offenses. The current study explores whether offender gender, victim gender, and victim age shape the public’s attitudes towards these individuals. Participants were presented with a vignette describing the offense and then they were asked to respond …


Dosage Matters: What Is Dosage, Doyoung Kim Dec 2021

Dosage Matters: What Is Dosage, Doyoung Kim

Student Theses

To reduce recidivism, many correctional programs and interventions have been introduced to offenders. Though, the rate of recidivism remains exceedingly high. To improve program outcomes, it is important to match the dosage of a program to risk levels. However, there is not a standardized definition and measurement of program dosage. This thesis extends the study on identifying the definition and measurement of dosage and the effectiveness of the programs by conducting a systematic review of prior research. The results indicate that as a treatment dosage, treatment duration was more frequently used compared to treatment intensity to reduce recidivism rate of …


Detecting Gsr Indicative Particles On Decayed Bones Using A Novel Field Kit, Sven Engling Dec 2021

Detecting Gsr Indicative Particles On Decayed Bones Using A Novel Field Kit, Sven Engling

Student Theses

Decomposed human remains are complex forensic puzzles, escalating in difficulty as the remains’ age obscures evidence, like trauma. Research has shown that scanning electron microscopes with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (SEM-EDX) are capable of detecting and identifying gunshot residue (GSR) particles on bones. However, SEM-EDX work is time consuming, expensive, and not accessible to every forensic department. Therefore, a preliminary field test capable of detecting GSR indicative particles, like lead, could save departments money and assist in trauma identification. This study examines the viability of using either the 3M Lead Check Test swabs or a sodium rhodizonate solution as part …


The Impact Of Covid-19 On The Thai Probation Department, Thanaphon Nunphong Dec 2021

The Impact Of Covid-19 On The Thai Probation Department, Thanaphon Nunphong

Student Theses

The COVID-19 pandemic had a crucial impact on the Thai criminal justice system. While it may be true that the Department of Probation has proposed preventive and responsive measures in response to COVID-19, relatively little is known about the practical applications of these measures as well as the impact of COVID-19 on probation personnel, probationers, and parolees. The goal of this study is to explore the policies and practices of Thai probation agencies as they respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study surveyed probation officers in Thailand (N = 534; 60.6% Female) in March to April 2021, focusing on …


Effects Of Improper Ammunition Storage, Victoria S. Andre Dec 2021

Effects Of Improper Ammunition Storage, Victoria S. Andre

Student Theses

Firearms are commonly used by law enforcement, hunters, and civilians either for protection, sport or criminal activity. Ammunition is used in traditional firearms such as rifles and handguns, and consists of a cartridge case, propellant, a bullet (projectile), and primer. The two types of priming systems within the cartridge that are commonly used today are rimfire and centerfire cartridges. There are several types of malfunctions that can occur with ammunition. Improper ammunition storage is one major factor that plays a role in ammunition failure. One form of improper ammunition storage is where the storage environment being used abruptly changes due …


Charting The Unknown: Examining The Prevalence And Correlates Of Seconday Traumatic Stress In Kentucky Probation And Parole Officers., Amanda Marie Roberts Dec 2021

Charting The Unknown: Examining The Prevalence And Correlates Of Seconday Traumatic Stress In Kentucky Probation And Parole Officers., Amanda Marie Roberts

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to discern the prevalence and magnitude of both exposure to traumatic events and Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS); as well as potential correlates of STS in a group of Probation and Parole officers in the state of Kentucky Department of Corrections (KY DOC). Participants (N=302) completed a written survey which asked them to indicate demographic variables (age, gender, and ethnicity), as well as several important occupational variables, namely years of experience in the KY DOC, caseload volume, prison work experience, and whether or not they are responsible for a sexual offender caseload. Participants were also …