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2011

Theory, Knowledge and Science

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Articles 1 - 30 of 38

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Editors' Introduction, Shane Willson, Rachael E. Gabriel Dec 2011

Editors' Introduction, Shane Willson, Rachael E. Gabriel

Catalyst: A Social Justice Forum

It is with great pride that we present to you the inaugural issue of Catalyst: A Social Justice Forum. Here we have attempted to create an innovative, peer-reviewed space in which people from numerous disciplines, or even those claiming no discipline, can present research, multimedia, and art aimed at furthering the ideals of social justice, broadly defined. Social justice is not a concept owned by the academy, for attempts to create a more just world can come from many professions, or even from no profession at all. By applying the traditionally academic peer-review process to work done by activists, artists ...


Desarrollo Cientifico Tecnologico Y Universidades, Jorge Gibert-Galassi Dec 2011

Desarrollo Cientifico Tecnologico Y Universidades, Jorge Gibert-Galassi

jorge gibert-galassi

The paper shows how scientific and technological activities are embodied at universities in emegent peripheric countries and regions.


La Construccion Social Del Cientifico, Jorge Gibert-Galassi Dec 2011

La Construccion Social Del Cientifico, Jorge Gibert-Galassi

jorge gibert-galassi

The interview-based paper describes structures and mechanisms which link market, State and the university, in order to explain, in principle, what a scientist is meant to be in Chile. By analysing four communities (astronomers, molecular biologists, sociologists, and communication scientists), it attempts to uncover the social and cultural reasons why there are these scientific communities with patent social and intellectual identity; latent but constituted identities, evolving; and communities in path-searching definable identity. Reinforcing a utilitarian historical relationship between university and society, and exacerbated by Neo-liberalism, these structures and mechanisms have been precipitated during the last 20 years. Finally, the paper ...


Mediating Justice: Toward A Critical-Reflexive Sociology, George Christopher Gondo Dec 2011

Mediating Justice: Toward A Critical-Reflexive Sociology, George Christopher Gondo

Masters Theses

Today, an increasing number of sociologists incorporate the theme of social justice within their work and strive to contribute to efforts to improve existing social conditions. In their view, sociological work that actively engages in issues related to social justice exemplifies ‘the promise’ of sociology and represents a means of refocusing and reinvigorating the discipline at a time of perceived crisis. Yet, a growing body of evidence questions whether previous efforts to use sociology as a mechanism of improving social conditions have been successful. In this thesis, I rely on the works of Alvin W. Gouldner to examine the relationship ...


Los Modelos De Equilibrio General: La Revisión De Chancelier Y Una Crítica A Debreu Y Mckenzie, Rodrigo Lopez-Pablos Nov 2011

Los Modelos De Equilibrio General: La Revisión De Chancelier Y Una Crítica A Debreu Y Mckenzie, Rodrigo Lopez-Pablos

Lopez-Pablos, Rodrigo

A revision on general equilibrium theory from an entropic perspective. JEL CLASSIFICATION: D50, O21, Z19


Primitive Accumulation And Enclosure Of The Commons: Genetically Engineered Seeds And Canadian Jurisprudence, Wilhelm Peekhaus Oct 2011

Primitive Accumulation And Enclosure Of The Commons: Genetically Engineered Seeds And Canadian Jurisprudence, Wilhelm Peekhaus

Wilhelm Peekhaus

This paper juxtaposes the legal decisions made in the case of Percy Schmeiser, who was sued by Monsanto for patent infringement, against the attempt by the Organic Agriculture Protection Fund to obtain class certification in its efforts to sue Monsanto and Bayer for genetic contamination of organic canola. Together these two cases establish an unacceptable incongruity at common law between the rights enjoyed by intellectual property owners and any corresponding duties that might attach to their inventions. I suggest that Marx’s concept of primitive accumulation offers a suitable theoretical register for apprehending contemporary erosions of the commons through the ...


Public Policy Instruments In (Re)Building National Innovation Capabilities: Cases Of Nanotechnology Development In China, Russia And Brazil, Evgeny A. Klochikhin Sep 2011

Public Policy Instruments In (Re)Building National Innovation Capabilities: Cases Of Nanotechnology Development In China, Russia And Brazil, Evgeny A. Klochikhin

Evgeny A. Klochikhin

In 2001 Goldman Sachs named Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRICs) the most rapidly-growing countries in the world capable of surpassing the United States, Japan and Europe as leading economies by 2050.

Nevertheless, for the last decade we have learned relatively little about the mechanisms of success and failure in these countries. All of them have huge territory and population as well as fast-growing economies that sometimes show two-digit rates of GDP growth per year and surprise the world by their increasing budgets and public spending. In the meantime, most of these countries are believed to be desperately struggling against ...


Between Structure And Agency: Assassination, Social Forces, And The Production Of The Criminal Subject, Cary H. Federman Aug 2011

Between Structure And Agency: Assassination, Social Forces, And The Production Of The Criminal Subject, Cary H. Federman

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Assassins are often regarded as ahistorical figures of evil. In this article, I contest this view by analyzing the assassination of President William McKinley by Leon Czolgosz in 1901. There are two purposes to this article. The first is to situate McKinley’s assassination within the history and development of the social sciences, principally sociology, rather than assume that the assassin is a trans-historical representation of willful irresponsibility. The second is to describe and critique the discourse that made Czolgosz into a rational agent once he entered history as an assassin.


Garbage-In, Garbage-Out: Item Generation As A Threat To Construct Validity, Terri A. Scandura Phd, Lucy R. Ford Jun 2011

Garbage-In, Garbage-Out: Item Generation As A Threat To Construct Validity, Terri A. Scandura Phd, Lucy R. Ford

Terri A. Scandura

Item generation has received only cursory attention in the research literature, despite the fact that it seems obvious that poorly written items will result in poor psychometric properties of measures. In this paper, we review the literature on item generation, develop a typology of threats to construct validity, and evaluate five commonly usedorganizational research measures with respect to typology. Our results demonstrate that the sampled measures have significant problems that may represent threats to construct validity. recommendations for improved item generation practice are offered.


Marcuse On The Two Dimensions Of Advanced Industrial Society And The Significance Of His Thought Today, Michael C. Hartley Mr. May 2011

Marcuse On The Two Dimensions Of Advanced Industrial Society And The Significance Of His Thought Today, Michael C. Hartley Mr.

Senior Honors Projects

Herbert Marcuse was a philosopher and social theorist who wrote extensively about the dynamics of social change in the technologically advanced societies of the Western world. Motivated by the desire to see humanity develop societies that would allow for individuals to live a free and happy existence, Marcuse critiqued the existing societies of his time. Although Marcuse’s main work, One-Dimensional Man, is over forty years old, it can continue to offer us new insights today. I believe that Marcuse’s thought offers a powerful framework for analyzing our contemporary society. In this project I distill this framework, what could ...


Les Musulmans : Un Cauchemar Ou Une Force Pour L’Europe ?, Hichem Karoui, Arno Tausch Apr 2011

Les Musulmans : Un Cauchemar Ou Une Force Pour L’Europe ?, Hichem Karoui, Arno Tausch

Hichem Karoui

This is a comparative study related to European and Global Islam, based on documented- social- anthropological analysis, and quantitative data from the European Social Survey and the World Values Survey. Can we really say that Islam is not faulty as for the exclusion of European Muslims? Or is it only biased European policies toward Islam? How can we explain the radicalization of some European Muslims?


On The Production And Ramification Of Cooperation: The Cooperation Afforder With Framing Hypothesis, Steven. O. Kimbrough Mar 2011

On The Production And Ramification Of Cooperation: The Cooperation Afforder With Framing Hypothesis, Steven. O. Kimbrough

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This article presents a new proposal for understanding the establishment and maintenance of cooperation: the cooperation afforder with framing hypothesis, producing what can be called cooperation from afforder-framing. Three key moves are present. First, a special variety of the Stag Hunt game, the Cooperation Afforder game, will reliably produce mutualistic cooperation through an evolutionary process. Second, cognitive framing is a credible candidate mechanism to meet the special conditions and requirements of the Cooperation Afforder game. Third, once mutualistic cooperation is established in this way, it will plausibly lead to broader forms of cooperation, even to limited forms of altruism.


Critical Race Theory And Education: Mapping A Legacy Of Activism And Scholarship, Kafi D. Kumasi Mar 2011

Critical Race Theory And Education: Mapping A Legacy Of Activism And Scholarship, Kafi D. Kumasi

School of Information Sciences Faculty Research Publications

This chapter explores the intellectual origins and historical precursors of Critical Race Theory (CRT), a lively branch of critical social theory. One of the goals of this work is to help novice educational scholars learn more about the history of CRT and to specifically see how it is used by contemporary scholars in the field of education to address a range of equity issues. The chapter begins by contextualizing contemporary discourse on race and education. It then chronicles the life work of key individuals whose antiracist, anti- colonial ideas and actions helped lay the foundation for the body of legal ...


Critical Race Theory As Theoretical Framework And Analysis Tool For Population Health Research, Louis Graham, Shelly Brown-Jeffy, Robert Aronson, Charles Stephens Feb 2011

Critical Race Theory As Theoretical Framework And Analysis Tool For Population Health Research, Louis Graham, Shelly Brown-Jeffy, Robert Aronson, Charles Stephens

Louis F Graham

In population health research, it is important to consider socioecological perspectives that include cultural attitudes and beliefs which permeate all levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional/community, and structural/ policy). Given the specificity of target populations centered on identity – ethnic and others – it is appropriate and warranted to centralize cultural studies theories into health determinant investigations. Cultural studies, which focus explicitly on identity exploration and impacts, have much to contribute to health research. In accordance with the transdisciplinary nature of population health and bearing in mind the significant role of ethnic identity in health outcomes, it is beneficial to utilize critical race ...


Student Activism And Curricular Change In Higher Education, Mikaila Arthur Jan 2011

Student Activism And Curricular Change In Higher Education, Mikaila Arthur

Mikaila Mariel Lemonik Arthur

While higher education is still far from universal in the United States, it plays an increasingly large role in shaping our collective understanding of what knowledge counts as legitimate and important. Therefore, understanding the college curriculum and how it is changed and shaped helps us to understand the overall dynamics of knowledge in contemporary society. This book considers the emergence of three curricular fields that have developed and spread over the past half century in American higher education - Women's studies, Asian American studies and Queer/LGBT studies. It details the broader history of their development as knowledge fields and ...


Little Understood Knowledge Trap, Hans-Dieter Evers, Solvay Gerke, Thomas Menkhoff Jan 2011

Little Understood Knowledge Trap, Hans-Dieter Evers, Solvay Gerke, Thomas Menkhoff

Thomas MENKHOFF

As knowledge increases, we realise how much else we do not know. Successful research always results in new questions. Any knowledge economy must be aware of such unknowns if it is to expand further through research and development. Debate on bridging the digital divide does not take this factor into account. Many of the strategies currently preached are misplaced.


El Desarrollo De La Ciencia Política En México. Una Mirada A Través De Los Estudios Sobre El Estado De La Disiciplina, J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal Jan 2011

El Desarrollo De La Ciencia Política En México. Una Mirada A Través De Los Estudios Sobre El Estado De La Disiciplina, J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal

J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal

Se presenta una revisión de los títulos publicados hasta 2009 que han analizado la situación de la ciencia política en México o algún aspecto de ésta. Destaca el crecimiento y la diversificación de autores e instituciones, de las revistas publicadas y de los enfoques y temas recurrentes. Hasta fines de los años noventa se ven autores recurrentes y momentos de auge en las publicaciones asociados a coyunturas como congresos, procesos de modificación a planes de estudio, etc., Después de estos años hay la emergencia de nuevos autores y enfoques de estudio, y que el desarrollo de estos trabajos en su ...


How Much Does A Belief Cost?: Revisiting The Marketplace Of Ideas, Gregory Brazeal Jan 2011

How Much Does A Belief Cost?: Revisiting The Marketplace Of Ideas, Gregory Brazeal

Gregory Brazeal

Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. is often credited with creating the metaphor of “the marketplace of ideas,” though he did not use the exact phrase and his argument for free speech was not based on distinctively economic reasoning. Truly economic investigations of the marketplace of ideas have progressed in step with developments and trends in the law and economics literature. These investigations have tended to be one-sided, with writers focusing primarily either on the production of ideas (for example, Posner) or their consumption (for example, behavioral law and economics), without considering in depth how producers and consumers interact. This may ...


Business And Non-Profit Organizations Facing Increased Competition And Growing Customers' Demands (Vol. 10), Anna Ujwary-Gil Jan 2011

Business And Non-Profit Organizations Facing Increased Competition And Growing Customers' Demands (Vol. 10), Anna Ujwary-Gil

Anna Ujwary-Gil

The major issues analyzed in the papers referred to: • business and non-profit organizations as an object of scientific research, • business and non-profit organizations in market economy, • modern tools for business and non-profit organizations management • business and non-profit organizations – global and regional aspects, • financial aspects of managing business and non-profit organizations.


The Analysis Of Barriers To Knowledge Management In The Organization, Anna Ujwary-Gil Jan 2011

The Analysis Of Barriers To Knowledge Management In The Organization, Anna Ujwary-Gil

Anna Ujwary-Gil

tThe subject of this article is to highlight the need for cooperation and exchange of knowledge among communities of the organization to develop and achieve competitive advantage in the market. On the other hand, research indicates that cooperation is not always the case, so it is worth considering why this is happening. An important part of this article is to present the latest results of research carried out under the EU project entitled Knowledge Management System Model for Enterprise. An analysis of barriers to knowledge management. A tool for analysis of barriers to knowledge management in the company (Model Personnel ...


Utilizing The Past To Shape The Future: The Rehabilitation Of Child Soldiers In Darfur, Michael K. Marriott Jan 2011

Utilizing The Past To Shape The Future: The Rehabilitation Of Child Soldiers In Darfur, Michael K. Marriott

Michael K Marriott

Child soldiering, an unfortunate reality of war, has become increasingly common in modern warfare. With world attention focused on the genocide taking place in the Darfur region of Sudan, issues regarding the use of child soldiers in the conflict have come to light. By providing an overview of the use of child soldiers both globally and in Sudan, discussing the relevant legal norms theoretically governing the country and providing a case study on Sierra Leone, this paper ultimately provides an analysis and proposed framework for comprehensive programs that could be put into action after cessation of hostilities in an attempt ...


Collective Choice, Justin Schwartz Jan 2011

Collective Choice, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

This short nontechnical article reviews the Arrow Impossibility Theorem and its implications for rational democratic decisionmaking. In the 1950s, economist Kenneth J. Arrow proved that no method for producing a unique social choice involving at least three choices and three actors could satisfy four seemingly obvious constraints that are practically constitutive of democratic decisionmaking. Any such method must violate such a constraint and risks leading to disturbingly irrational results such and Condorcet cycling. I explain the theorem in plain, nonmathematical language, and discuss the history, range, and prospects of avoiding what seems like a fundamental theoretical challenge to the possibility ...


Les Deux Angleterres Et Le Continent. Anglophone Sociology As The Guardian Of Old European Semantics, Steffen Roth Dr. Jan 2011

Les Deux Angleterres Et Le Continent. Anglophone Sociology As The Guardian Of Old European Semantics, Steffen Roth Dr.

Dr. Steffen Roth

Despite its influence in Central European sociology, N. Luhmann’s Social Systems theory remains a marginal branch of international sociology. In this paper, the theory questions the reasons for its own marginality in general and for its marginality in the Anglophone centers of sociology in particular, with the latter still being a surprise against the background of the theory’s cybernetic roots in the US. The theory arrives at the conclusion that, while Europe, or ‘the continent’, is still perceived as old compared with the Anglophone new world(s), it still is Anglophone sociology that preserves ‘Old European’ semantics. Sociology ...


Ripped From The Land, Shipped Away And Reborn: Unthinking The Conceptual And Socio-Geo-Historical Dimensions Of The Massacre Of Bellavista, Aurora Vergara Figueroa Jan 2011

Ripped From The Land, Shipped Away And Reborn: Unthinking The Conceptual And Socio-Geo-Historical Dimensions Of The Massacre Of Bellavista, Aurora Vergara Figueroa

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

The monograph Ripped from the land, shipped away, and reborn introduces the concept Destierro-which translates as uprooting, deracination, exile, exodus, and banishment- to unthink the intellectual, political, and legal categories used by prevailing intellectual models to narrate/explain the 2002 massacre, occurred at the community of Bellavista-Bojayá-Chocó-Colombia. This thesis offers a critical prospect of the event. It highlights ethno-historical analytics to deconstruct the concepts of forced displacement, and forced migration. I study the racial, class, gender, generational, and regional dimensions undergirding this phenomenon to propose an Afrodiasporic Decolonial Critique of the field of Forced Migration. Single-axis explanations of this event ...


Reflexivity In Financial Markets: A Neuroeconomic Examination Of Uncertainty And Cognition In Financial Markets, Steven Pikelny Jan 2011

Reflexivity In Financial Markets: A Neuroeconomic Examination Of Uncertainty And Cognition In Financial Markets, Steven Pikelny

Senior Projects Spring 2011

Financial markets exist to disperse the risks of an unknown future in an economy. But for this process to work in an optimal fashion, investors – and subsequently markets – must have a way to interpret uncertainty. The investor rationality and market efficiency literature utilizes a methodology inadequate to address this fact, so I supplement it with the perspectives of epistemology, economic sociology, neuroscience, cognitive science, and philosophy of mind. This approach suggests that what is commonly viewed as market “inefficiency” is not necessarily caused by investor irrationality, but rather by the inherent nature of the epistemological problem faced by investors. I ...


Paper Fish And Policy Conflict: Catch Shares And Ecosystem-Based Management In Maine’S Groundfishery, Jennifer F. Brewer Jan 2011

Paper Fish And Policy Conflict: Catch Shares And Ecosystem-Based Management In Maine’S Groundfishery, Jennifer F. Brewer

Geography Scholarship

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration professes support for ecosystembased fisheries management, as mandated by Congress in the Fishery Conservation and Management Act, and as endorsed by the Obama Administration’s national ocean policy. Nonetheless, driving agency policies, including catch shares and fishing quotas, focus principally on individual species, diverting attention from ecosystem considerations such as habitat, migratory patterns, trophic relationships, fishing gear, and firmlevel decision making. Environmental non-governmental organization (ENGO) agendas manifest similar inconsistencies. A case study of Maine’s groundfishery demonstrates implications of this policy conflict at the local level. There, multigenerational fishing villages have historically pursued diversified ...


Understanding Risk Governance: Introducing Sociological Neoinstitutionalism And Foucauldian Governmentality For Further Theorizing, Wee Kiat Lim Jan 2011

Understanding Risk Governance: Introducing Sociological Neoinstitutionalism And Foucauldian Governmentality For Further Theorizing, Wee Kiat Lim

CMP Research

This article traces the career of risk across prominent theoretical approaches by highlighting their key assumptions and premises, specifically the technical approach found in the physical sciences, and economics, psychology, and sociology in the social sciences. In each discipline, the strengths and limitations of each theoretical approach are pointed out. The discussion focuses on sociology in particular because other approaches—in treating risks as dominantly technical, psychological, or economic phenomena—tend to downplay the broader historical and socio-political context that impinges on risk construction and production, and its differential impact across society. This exploration points out that institutions play an ...


Knowledge Curation, Michael J. Madison Jan 2011

Knowledge Curation, Michael J. Madison

Articles

This Article addresses conservation, preservation, and stewardship of knowledge, and laws and institutions in the cultural environment that support those things. Legal and policy questions concerning creativity and innovation usually focus on producing new knowledge and offering access to it. Equivalent attention rarely is paid to questions of old knowledge. To what extent should the law, and particularly intellectual property law, focus on the durability of information and knowledge? To what extent does the law do so already, and to what effect? This article begins to explore those questions. Along the way, the article takes up distinctions among different types ...


Women In Law Enforcement: Subverting Sexual Harassment Through Social Bonds, Jill Hume Harrison Jan 2011

Women In Law Enforcement: Subverting Sexual Harassment Through Social Bonds, Jill Hume Harrison

Faculty Publications

Female law enforcement officers who have strong social bonds with their colleagues can reduce the effect that sexual harassment has on job satisfaction. We test social bond theory to examine the relationship between sexual harassment and job satisfaction from a sample of n=109 active duty male and female police and correctional officers. Law enforcement personnel are thought to be particularly vulnerable to stressors on the job, like sexual harassment, but they can significantly benefit from strong departmental and colleague support. With some progress toward gender equity, this study shows that female officers still face barriers that are linked to ...


Beyond Invention: Patent As Knowledge Law, Michael J. Madison Jan 2011

Beyond Invention: Patent As Knowledge Law, Michael J. Madison

Articles

The decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Bilski v. Kappos, concerning the legal standard for determining patentable subject matter under the American Patent Act, is used as a starting point for a brief review of historical, philosophical, and cultural influences on subject matter questions in both patent and copyright law. The article suggests that patent and copyright law jurisprudence was constructed initially by the Court with explicit attention to the relationship between these forms of intellectual property law and the roles of knowledge in society. Over time, explicit attention to that relationship has largely disappeared from ...