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LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

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Indigenous Ancestral Assets: The Ecology Of Native Hawaiian Education Through Youth Perspectives, Claire Kēhaulani Ramirez May 2024

Indigenous Ancestral Assets: The Ecology Of Native Hawaiian Education Through Youth Perspectives, Claire Kēhaulani Ramirez

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

In K-12 education, student voice is not often considered when establishing curriculum, addressing school policy, or creating a climate that reflects culturally inclusive teaching practices. Across education systems serving Indigenous communities within the United States, the voices of youth as a form of contribution are silenced, which echoes further attempts towards the erasure of the existence of these communities. The context of the study highlighted various strengths through their traditions, languages, and cultural teachings. While Indigenous communities exist globally, this study centered on Indigenous communities from the North American continent, specifically those Native to the Hawaiian Islands. To learn about …


Employed Desistance: Identifying Best Employment-Focused Interventions And Practices For Gang Desistance, Jacob Fergen Albert Apr 2023

Employed Desistance: Identifying Best Employment-Focused Interventions And Practices For Gang Desistance, Jacob Fergen Albert

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

This study examined those employment-focused interventions (services, programming, mentorship, other supports) most effective in supporting an individual’s desistance from gang involvement. Utilizing a qualitative approach (interviews, document analysis and nonparticipant observation), this study engaged with individuals and organizations involved in the critical work of gang desistance to learn what makes their practices most effective. The criticality of gang desistance work lies in its efforts to address the thousands of lives continually lost each year as a result of gang-involvement and activity. Where gangs exist in cities, towns and communities across the country (and world, for that matter), the approaches of …


Exploring Algorithmic Literacy For College Students: An Educator’S Roadmap, Susan Gardner Archambault Jan 2022

Exploring Algorithmic Literacy For College Students: An Educator’S Roadmap, Susan Gardner Archambault

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Research shows that college students are largely unaware of the impact of algorithms on their everyday lives. Also, most university students are not being taught about algorithms as part of the regular curriculum. This exploratory, qualitative study aimed to explore subject-matter experts’ insights and perceptions of the knowledge components, coping behaviors, and pedagogical considerations to aid faculty in teaching algorithmic literacy to college students. Eleven individual, semi-structured interviews and one focus group were conducted with scholars and teachers of critical algorithm studies and related fields. Findings suggested three sets of knowledge components that would contribute to students’ algorithmic literacy: general …


A Cord Of Many Strands: A Case Study Of Inclusive Practice Within The Archdiocese Of Los Angeles, Patrick James Allison Jan 2022

A Cord Of Many Strands: A Case Study Of Inclusive Practice Within The Archdiocese Of Los Angeles, Patrick James Allison

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

The foundational philosophy of Catholic schools impels them toward inclusive practice. Scholars have repeatedly established that a moral mandate exists in Catholic Social Teaching for Catholic schools to include all students. However, students with disabilities have traditionally been excluded from Catholic school settings due perceived resource constraints, lack of practitioner skill, and the disposition that students with disabilities are better served in public schools. Many Catholic schools have made tremendous progress in inclusive practice, and stand at the forefront of this work, but these efforts have not been replicated at scale.

The purpose of this study was to explore how …


“Si No Yo, ¿Entonces Quién?”: Testimonios Of Latino/A Catholic School Teachers In Under-Resourced Urban Catholic Schools, Antonio Felix Jan 2022

“Si No Yo, ¿Entonces Quién?”: Testimonios Of Latino/A Catholic School Teachers In Under-Resourced Urban Catholic Schools, Antonio Felix

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

There has been a significant increase in the number of Students of Color attending Catholic schools in the United States in the last forty years. However, only 17% of the professional staff in Catholic schools nationally are Teachers of Color (with about 9.6% identifying as Latino/a) (McDonald & Schultz, 2020). The racial gap between Students and Teachers of Color is a social justice issue (Berrios, 2016), and yet, research on why Teachers of Color are choosing to teach in Catholic urban schools and the motivating factors that sustain their work in hard-to-staff Catholic schools is limited.

This qualitative research study …


Rising Scholars: Narratives Of Formerly Incarcerated/System-Impacted Community College Students In An On-Campus Support Program, Jason Durrell Bostick Jan 2022

Rising Scholars: Narratives Of Formerly Incarcerated/System-Impacted Community College Students In An On-Campus Support Program, Jason Durrell Bostick

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

This study uplifted the stories of formerly incarcerated and/or system-impacted students attending a California community college (i.e., “Rising Scholars”) to provide qualitative context to a growing literature following the state’s promotion of support programs at the University of California (UC), California State University (CSU), and California Community Colleges (CCC) systems. This study interviewed six formerly incarcerated/system impacted Rising Scholars using a narrative inquiry methodology with a theoretical framework of Critical Race Theory (CRT) and Desistance theory to inquire about their educational experiences before and during their enrollment at an urban California community college with reentry support. Key themes in the …


Unaccompanied Youth In Our Public Schools And Our Opportunity To Lead For Emancipatory Practices (Jóvenes No Acompañados En Nuestras Escuelas Públicas Y Nuestra Oportunidad Para Liderar Prácticas Emancipatorias), Leyda W. Garcia Jan 2021

Unaccompanied Youth In Our Public Schools And Our Opportunity To Lead For Emancipatory Practices (Jóvenes No Acompañados En Nuestras Escuelas Públicas Y Nuestra Oportunidad Para Liderar Prácticas Emancipatorias), Leyda W. Garcia

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Unaccompanied youth are migrant children who travel by themselves to the United States, mostly from Central America and Mexico. Since 2014, more than 200,000 unaccompanied youth have entered the United States, with approximately 28,000 residing in Los Angeles, California (U.S. Customs and Border Protection [CBP], CBP 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021a, 2021b). Hundreds of these young migrants have enrolled in public schools (Pierce, 2016). Schools seek adequate and effective ways to support these students’ complex needs and aspirations. Within the body of research about this sub-group of immigrants there is a significant absence of the voices of unaccompanied youth themselves, which …


Transforming Campus Climate For Diversity: Accreditation Liaison Officer Perceptions And Beliefs Regarding The Impact Of Regional Accreditation On Institutional Change, David H. Sundby Jan 2021

Transforming Campus Climate For Diversity: Accreditation Liaison Officer Perceptions And Beliefs Regarding The Impact Of Regional Accreditation On Institutional Change, David H. Sundby

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Despite attention given to the increasing diversity in higher education, greater barriers to college access and degree attainment exist for many minoritized groups in comparison to dominant groups. Research illustrates that campus climate for diversity, a systemic concept, plays a critical role in the success of minoritized groups. Additionally, institutional accreditation is a critical process, and it may be a catalyst for systemic change. However, there is little research on the relationship between the regional accreditation process and institutional change, with even less research on the impact of accreditation on campus climate for diversity.

To address this gap in literature, …


Social Justice Leadership In Catholic Secondary Schools: A Critical Examination Of Social Justice Orientation And Praxis, Linda Nguyễn Jan 2021

Social Justice Leadership In Catholic Secondary Schools: A Critical Examination Of Social Justice Orientation And Praxis, Linda Nguyễn

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to understand the impact of a leader’s social justice orientation on their praxis of social justice. The study also sought to discover the successes and challenges associated with enacting social justice. Nine Catholic secondary school leaders in the California Archdiocese participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews and document analysis were used to understand how social justice orientation affects social justice praxis. The data analysis indicates that the social justice outcomes of a school site are greatly impacted by the school leader’s justice-orientation. Findings revealed that justice-orientation is dependent on two factors: the self-efficacy of the leader and …


Building An Ignatian Ummah: The Experience Of Muslim International Students At An American Jesuit University, Csilla V. Samay Jan 2021

Building An Ignatian Ummah: The Experience Of Muslim International Students At An American Jesuit University, Csilla V. Samay

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

In 2020, over a million international students enrolled at universities in the United States. A significant percent come from Muslim-majority countries whose governments sponsor their education abroad. As overall international enrollments decrease, recruiting this population remains attractive to U.S. institutions. International students face the challenge of entering higher education in a foreign country and culture, navigating their education during a time of political battles over immigration and issues of diversity. Muslim students face prejudice and exclusion due to Islamophobia in the U.S. Universities have a responsibility to understand and fully support students from whom they benefit financially.

This study examined …


Muchos Somos Más Fuertes: Testimonios Of Latina Parent Leaders In The Local Control And Accountability Plan Process, Sylvia J. Hodge Jan 2021

Muchos Somos Más Fuertes: Testimonios Of Latina Parent Leaders In The Local Control And Accountability Plan Process, Sylvia J. Hodge

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

English Learners represent 18.6% of the entire California public school population or 1.1 million students; 81.4% speak Spanish (California Department of Education [CDE], 2021b). Historically, English Learners have experienced inequitable educational opportunities when compared to their English-only counterparts in California (Gándara & Contreras, 2010; Gándara et al., 2003; Perez Huber et al., 2015; Rumberger & Gándara, 2004), which has led to low educational achievement CDE, 2019a; Gándara & Mordechay, 2017; Olsen, 2010). To address underserved students’ inequitable educational opportunities throughout California, then-Governor Edmund G. Brown signed into law the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) in 2013. The LCFF provides equitable …


In Their Own Voices: The First-Year College Experiences Of Upward Bound Alumni At Four-Year Postsecondary Institutions, Norma Romero Jan 2020

In Their Own Voices: The First-Year College Experiences Of Upward Bound Alumni At Four-Year Postsecondary Institutions, Norma Romero

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Upward Bound (UB) projects provide educational support services to high school students in order to address inequalities in college access for low-income (LI) and first-generation students (FGS). However, access alone does not eradicate systemic barriers to positive collegiate experiences and degree attainment. As a federally funded program, UB regularly collects mandated outcome data; however, little is known about the specific academic, social, and emotional supports these programs provide. Especially lacking are in-depth qualitative studies that follow students into college and focus on students’ own stories. To address this gap in research, this study used in-depth interviews to capture the stories …


Learning Wakanda: Assessing The Responses Of African-American Children And Their Caregivers Toward Concordant Educational Media, Cameron L. Coleman Jan 2020

Learning Wakanda: Assessing The Responses Of African-American Children And Their Caregivers Toward Concordant Educational Media, Cameron L. Coleman

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Screen-based educational media, as an extension of the schooling process whose history has mirrored brick and mortar institutions, have traditionally espoused narratives of Eurocentricity, shifting relatively recently to multicultural yet simultaneously raceless narratives. While many viewers have learned from and been inspired by these media, the enthusiastic response to the film Black Panther (2018), as demonstrated by financial earnings and sustained social media energy, revealed an intense yearning in the Black community for media positively centering the strengths and successes of Black lives. Launched from the sociocultural fervor for Black concordance in media, and extending concordance into the educational media …


The Limits Of Inclusion: Teacher Beliefs And Experience With Inclusion Of Students With Learning Disabilities, Allegra Johnson Jan 2020

The Limits Of Inclusion: Teacher Beliefs And Experience With Inclusion Of Students With Learning Disabilities, Allegra Johnson

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

General education teachers are critical contributors to the successful inclusion of students labeled with learning disabilities in general education classrooms. Similarly, teacher beliefs about disability labels significantly influence how teachers include or exclude students labeled with a learning disability in their classrooms. This qualitative study investigated eight secondary general education teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion and their experiences teaching students labeled with a learning disability from a Critical Disabilities Studies perspective. Data were collected using an innovative qualitative method, Q methodology, in order to surface distinct perspectives within the group about inclusion and the experience of teaching students labeled with a …


Impact, Implementation, And Insights Of Peace Education: A Case Study Of The M.A. In Peace Studies And Conflict Transformation Program At The University Of Rwanda, Sarah M. Doerrer Jan 2019

Impact, Implementation, And Insights Of Peace Education: A Case Study Of The M.A. In Peace Studies And Conflict Transformation Program At The University Of Rwanda, Sarah M. Doerrer

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Higher education is arguably critical for healing and stabilization in postconflict contexts, by developing leaders who value peace and have the skill sets to achieve it in various sectors. A rapidly growing body of literature concludes that peace education in particular has great potential to transform postconflict communities, both in higher education and at other levels of schooling. Yet there exists little rigorous analysis of the decisions faced by educational leaders responsible for implementing such programs, particularly those in postconflict settings where the needs are uniquely challenging.

This qualitative investigation documented the M.A. in Peace Studies and Conflict Transformation program, …


Missing In Action: A Critical Narrative Study Of The Absence Of Black Female Secondary Science Teachers, Nadia Despenza Jan 2018

Missing In Action: A Critical Narrative Study Of The Absence Of Black Female Secondary Science Teachers, Nadia Despenza

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Despite the increasing research that lists cultural incongruence in the classroom among the top factors that speaks to the disproportionate numbers of Black females obtaining STEM degrees there is limited research on the actual number of Black female science teachers at the secondary level in education and the impact this plays on Black females in science, technology, engineering, and math classrooms (STEM). The consequence of all this is that we find ourselves with Black female science teachers “missing in action,” and only 5% of Black females receiving a STEM degree. I employ critical pedagogy, critical race theory, and Black feminist …


A Critical Interrogation Of The Mind, Brain, And Education Movement: Toward A Social Justice Paradigm, Bibinaz Pirayesh Jan 2018

A Critical Interrogation Of The Mind, Brain, And Education Movement: Toward A Social Justice Paradigm, Bibinaz Pirayesh

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Much attention has been given to “bridging the gap” between research and practice since neuroscience research first made claim to its potential impact in classrooms. With the inception of Mind, Brain, and Education (MBE) as a new interdisciplinary field, an unprecedented opportunity to explore the educational implications of new research coming out of neuroscience has presented itself. And yet, the gap between research and practice persists while new problems arise as education looks to brain science for answers with ongoing social and academic difficulties faced by students. A critical bicultural methodology, grounded in a decolonizing interpretive approach, is utilized to …


From Guest To Host: Cultural And Language Conflict In The Korean American Catholic Parish, Irene H. Park Oct 2017

From Guest To Host: Cultural And Language Conflict In The Korean American Catholic Parish, Irene H. Park

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Pastoral ministry in the context of Korean American Catholic parishes brings many challenges, including that of cultural conflict. Frequent miscommunications occur between the Korean speaking and English speaking groups who coexist in these parishes. Considering some of the socio-cultural and theological factors of this issue, which are explored in this paper, a pastoral plan utilizing social media is proposed.


Potential Of One-To-One Technology Uses And Pedagogical Practices: Student Agency And Participation In An Economically Disadvantaged Eighth Grade, Maria Dulce Silva Andrade Johnson Jul 2017

Potential Of One-To-One Technology Uses And Pedagogical Practices: Student Agency And Participation In An Economically Disadvantaged Eighth Grade, Maria Dulce Silva Andrade Johnson

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

The accelerated growth of 1:1 educational computing initiatives has challenged digital equity with a three-tiered, socioeconomic digital divide: (a) access, (b) higher order uses, and (c) user empowerment and personalization. As the access gap has been closing, the exponential increase of 1:1 devices threatens to widen the second and third digital divides. Using critical theory, specifically, critical theory of technology and critical pedagogy, and a qualitative case study design, this research explored the experiences of a middle school categorized under California criteria as “socioeconomically disadvantaged.” This study contributes to critical theory on technology within an educational setting, as well as …


Towards A Community College Pin@Y Praxis: Creating An Inclusive Cultural Space, Atheneus C. Ocampo Jun 2016

Towards A Community College Pin@Y Praxis: Creating An Inclusive Cultural Space, Atheneus C. Ocampo

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Darder (2012), in Culture and Power in the Classroom, argued that a system of educational inequality is promoted through the consistent production and reproduction of contradictions between the dominant culture and subordinate culture. More significantly, she noted that these dominant and subordinate culture contradictions create a necessity for bicultural individuals to navigate the dialectical tensions between dominant and subordinate cultures and the processes by which education perpetuates dynamics of unequal power and reproduces the dominant worldview. Hence, she urged educators to challenge prevalent power structures and re-imagine the process of schooling as a more inclusive form of pedagogy, geared towards …


Contributions Of The Jesuits To Human Rights In Mexico: A Case Study Of Center Miguel Agustin Pro Juarez, Luis Arriaga Valenzuela Apr 2016

Contributions Of The Jesuits To Human Rights In Mexico: A Case Study Of Center Miguel Agustin Pro Juarez, Luis Arriaga Valenzuela

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

In Mexico, as in other parts of the world, human rights violations have deep historical roots. In the forty years before this study, these violations had been increasing, especially with respect to excluded populations and vulnerable groups, such as women, indigenous peoples, migrants, and victims of repression (Center Prodh, 2013). To reverse or at least decrease these conditions, disenfranchised people needed to become aware of their rights within civil society. Toward that end, diverse non-governmental organizations (NGOs) had taken on the task of providing education and strategic practices to disenfranchised people and communities. The Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) had …


The New Ecology Of Biliteracy In California: An Exploratory Study Of The Early Implementation Of The State Seal Of Biliteracy, Tanya Margarita Deleon Mar 2016

The New Ecology Of Biliteracy In California: An Exploratory Study Of The Early Implementation Of The State Seal Of Biliteracy, Tanya Margarita Deleon

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Nearly 25,000 graduating high school students across California have earned state recognition for achieving proficiency in multiple languages in 2014. This exploratory, mixed-methods study investigated the early implementation of the State Seal of Biliteracy (SSB) in California. Sixty-two district personnel were surveyed, three SSB directors were interviewed, and a document review was conducted. Overall, the study revealed four themes that influence the implementation of the SSB at the district level: Intentional Creation of an Ecology of Biliteracy, Developing Notions for Biliteracy Scripts and Assessment, Privileging Sequential Biliteracy Development—Scarcity of Biliteracy Pathways, and Individual and Collective Agency for Biliteracy. Hornberger’s (2003) …


Unburying The Mirror: An Autoethnography Of A Latino Teacher Who Left The Classroom, Arturo Rafael Acevedo-Febles Mar 2016

Unburying The Mirror: An Autoethnography Of A Latino Teacher Who Left The Classroom, Arturo Rafael Acevedo-Febles

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Despite the expressed need for bicultural teachers, research on teacher attrition has demonstrated that a growing number of bicultural educators are leaving the classroom. Bicultural male teachers, in particular, experience high rates of teacher attrition. Schools, unfortunately, are contexts in which Latino male teachers are constantly experiencing dilemmas related specifically to both their gendered and racialized positionality as males of color.

Grounded in Antonia Darder’s critical bicultural framework, this autoethnographic study explored the complex factors that drive Latino male teachers out of the classroom, through an in-depth and grounded examination of a Latino male teacher who left the classroom. The …


Children Are The Messengers: A Case Study Of Academic Success Through The Voices Of High-Achieving Low-Income Elementary Students, Stephen Howard Mccray Oct 2015

Children Are The Messengers: A Case Study Of Academic Success Through The Voices Of High-Achieving Low-Income Elementary Students, Stephen Howard Mccray

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

For low-income minority and marginalized communities, American democracy’s educational mission remains unfulfilled. Student voices have provided insight into ways that schools disserve and serve students and how schools can improve in promoting academic achievement; however, academically successful low-income students’ voices—particularly those at the elementary school level—are largely excluded from the literature. Providing a platform for student voices, this qualitative, intrinsic critical case study explored six high achieving low-income students’ views of their academic success and how that success was achieved. Participants were six fifthgrade students, their parents, and teacher, in a school-wide Title I urban public school. Data were collected …


Beyond Recidivism: Learning With Formerly Incarcerated Men About Youth Incarceration, Scott Patrick Bastian Jul 2015

Beyond Recidivism: Learning With Formerly Incarcerated Men About Youth Incarceration, Scott Patrick Bastian

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Too often, the truth behind a phenomenon is not sought through the perspectives of the people who lived that phenomenon—“the masters of inquiry” into their own realities, as Paulo Freire (1982, p. 29) has explained. Voice is the most powerful, reliable medium for collecting data based on lived experiences, if we are to gain genuine insight into the phenomenon (Freire, 1982). Focusing on the lived experiences of four formerly incarcerated young men of color, this study gave each participant the space to not only recall specific events and times, but to critically reflect on their lives—becoming more critically aware of …


Critical Hip-Hop Graffiti Pedagogy In A Primary School, Wade E. Brown Apr 2015

Critical Hip-Hop Graffiti Pedagogy In A Primary School, Wade E. Brown

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Educational reform movements are constantly in the process of trying to improve a fractured educational system. Many scholars contend there is a discrepancy between educational outcomes for White students and students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Some educators in working class communities of color have begun to infuse elements of students’ social and cultural backgrounds, including popular culture, to create instructional methods that can better engage and pique student interest. Hip-hop Pedagogy is one of the methods, rooted in popular culture, which is being used in classroom settings to increase students’ awareness about the societal constructs and issues in their communities …


Breaking The “At Risk” Code: Deconstructing The Myth And The Label, Kara Christine Allen Jul 2014

Breaking The “At Risk” Code: Deconstructing The Myth And The Label, Kara Christine Allen

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

The term “at risk” is a label that is used to describe students who encompass a host of prominent socially and politically constructed titles that are intended to simplify student understanding and awareness and allow for clear reporting. The purpose of this study was to demythologize the concept of “at risk” by creating the conditions for student voice and critical dialogue to emerge, through the use of narrative inquiry. This research hoped to provide an outlet for young people to find and use their own voices, while finding their own place within their lived histories. The research also aimed to …


Catholic School Leaders’ Perceptions Of Governance Models In Los Angeles Parochial Schools, Kristopher Leo Knowles Jul 2014

Catholic School Leaders’ Perceptions Of Governance Models In Los Angeles Parochial Schools, Kristopher Leo Knowles

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quantitative study was to provide insight to the perspectives of leaders and individuals in authority within the Archdiocese of Los Angeles system of Catholic parochial schools regarding current models of governance, levels of authority, and decision-making processes. There is a lack of clearly-defined levels of decision-making authority from the bishops to the Archdiocesan Department of Catholic Schools down to the individual schools.

The pastors, principals, and Department of Catholic Schools personnel shared their perspectives of current governance structures and elements of three emerging alternative governance models. Data were analyzed through a factor analysis of the survey …


Disability And Power: A Charter School Case Study Investigating Grade-Level Retention Of Students With Learning Disabilities, Esther Lorraine Perez Apr 2014

Disability And Power: A Charter School Case Study Investigating Grade-Level Retention Of Students With Learning Disabilities, Esther Lorraine Perez

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Students attending charter schools, including those with learning disabilities, are subject to policies set by individual charter management organizations. One practice used within some charter schools is grade-level retention, or having students repeat a grade level. Literature overwhelmingly indicates that retention is associated with negative outcomes, yet the practice continues to be used. One particular charter school that uses a strict retention policy and retains students with learning disabilities was studied to understand how the process unfolds. Using the conceptual frameworks of critical disability theory and critical pedagogy, the study draws inferences regarding how this phenomenon blends with ableism and …


Implementing Calendar Reform In A Suburban Catholic Elementary School: A Case Study, Catherine Cichocki Muzzy Apr 2014

Implementing Calendar Reform In A Suburban Catholic Elementary School: A Case Study, Catherine Cichocki Muzzy

LMU/LLS Theses and Dissertations

Time-based reform proposals are founded on the assumption that more time in school will produce great learning outcomes. Research shows that when schools adopt time-based reform initiatives, there are certain considerations that they should make and methods they should follow to ensure the change produces the outcomes intended. This was not the case in a local Archdiocese where a calendar extension was adopted by several elementary schools.

This qualitative case study focused on the adoption of a calendar extension at one Catholic elementary school. The researcher gathered data from the pastor, principal, teachers, parents, and students to determine how these …