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Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Individual Differences In Posttraumatic Growth Following Bone Marrow Transplantation, Michelle Renee Widows Mar 2022

Individual Differences In Posttraumatic Growth Following Bone Marrow Transplantation, Michelle Renee Widows

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Prior research suggests that the diagnosis and treatment of cancer can result in the experience of positive outcomes, or positive growth. Based on Schaefer and Moos' (1992) model of adaptation of life crises, the current study examined the predictive utility of personality traits, coping, and social support in accounting for variability in posttraumatic growth and whether trauma appraisals, social constraint, and mental health were associated with the degree of posttraumatic growth in cancer patients who had undergone bone marrow transplantation. Participants were 53 females and 19 males treated with BMT an average of 24 months previously. Qualitative reports of posttraumatic ...


Exploring Gendered Barriers To Higher Education Leadership For Women In Midlevel Student Affairs Roles, Melodye J. Macalpine Jan 2022

Exploring Gendered Barriers To Higher Education Leadership For Women In Midlevel Student Affairs Roles, Melodye J. Macalpine

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative case study explored the perceived barriers to leadership for female-identifying student affairs professionals at the midlevel who aspire to, but have not yet attained, a senior student affairs officer role. Women hold 71% of all student affairs positions in higher education compared to men; however, that majority shrinks to 56% for senior-level positions (Pritchard &McChesney, 2018). Thus, a study designed to explore gendered barriers to leadership was warranted. The research questions were designed to explore what barriers, if any, have participants experienced regarding their ability to move into a senior student affairs officer role and to what extent, if at all, participants experience higher education institutions as gendered organizations. A theoretical framework of gender role theory and gendered organizations was used to explore the research questions. The study was conducted in two phases; Phase 1 included a questionnaire in which participants (n = 32) responded to a series of statements about perceived barriers to leadership and gendered workplaces in student affairs. In Phase 2, follow-up interviews were conducted on a random selection of participants (n = 8) from Phase ...


The Influence Of A Public School Fundraising Equity Policy: Investigating Financial Impacts And Parent Perceptions, Bethany K. Cavanaugh Jan 2022

The Influence Of A Public School Fundraising Equity Policy: Investigating Financial Impacts And Parent Perceptions, Bethany K. Cavanaugh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this mixed-methods case study was to explore whether an urban public school district’s longstanding policy requiring the redistribution of a portion of parent financial contributions resulted in the equitable distribution of fundraising dollars. Additionally, the study investigated how parents in the district perceived the impacts of this policy, and whether those perceptions differed based on how much fundraising was done in their schools or based on participant demographics.

Using public datasets including annual fundraising dollars and school demographic information, correlational analysis determined that there was a statistically significant relationship (p < .001) between school racial and socioeconomic demographics and the amount of dollars allocated both before and after the distribution of “equity grants” to qualifying schools. Next, 238 parents from 52 of the district’s 57 elementary schools reported their attitudes about the policy and its impacts through a voluntary online survey. Results were disaggregated to determine whether attitudes differed by race or by the level of fundraising occurring in participants’ schools. Chi-square analysis revealed statistically significant differences (p < .05) in parent positions on specific elements of the policy such as how much schools should be required to share or the role of fundraising dollars in paying for teachers, but overall attitudes about the policy were aligned with the expected distributions based on race or level of fundraising. Qualitative analysis of the single open-ended survey question along with the interview responses also revealed thematic differences, with parents from low fundraising schools reporting more negative attitudes than other groups and White parents reporting more negative attitudes than BIPOC parents. Finally, interview participants were shown the quantitative analysis of the financial distribution data and asked to respond. Magnitude coding was used to identify shifts in the direction or intensity of interview participants’ attitudes about the policy. This analysis revealed that parents who initially thought the policy was having an equitable impact due to its redistribution requirement shifted to a negative or more complex view of the policy’s impacts after viewing the financial data.

Results of this study have implications ...


Understanding Women’S Experience In Undergraduate Leadership Development Through A Transformative And Intersectional Lens, Maureen E. Cullen Jan 2022

Understanding Women’S Experience In Undergraduate Leadership Development Through A Transformative And Intersectional Lens, Maureen E. Cullen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Women today are completing their undergraduate studies and entering careers during a time of shifting values, systemic barriers, and complex social environments. Undergraduate leadership development may positively influence women’s leadership self-concept, which includes the incorporation of their intersectional social identities with their sense of themselves as leaders. A positive leadership self-concept may empower emerging women leaders to leverage their unique leadership qualities toward overcoming barriers to advancement. This qualitative study employed hermeneutic phenomenology to develop understanding of women’s experience of undergraduate leadership development. The study included semi-structured interviews with 10 women who completed their undergraduate education 2-8 years ...


Success And Persistence Of First-Generation Students At Private Colleges And Universities, Matthew Daily Jan 2022

Success And Persistence Of First-Generation Students At Private Colleges And Universities, Matthew Daily

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this descriptive study utilizing survey research was to understand student perceptions about how private institutions support the persistence of first-generation college students. First-generation college students refer to those students whose parents or guardians have earned a four-year bachelor’s degree but may have some postsecondary college experience (Center for First-Generation Student Success, 2017). Today, 4.1 million students, or 33% of all students, are considered first-generation, yet only 20% earn a four-year college degree within six years (Center for First-Generation Student Success, 2019). Thus, it is critical to understand the landscape that exists for first-generation college students ...


The Role Of Sex: An Analysis Of U.S. Attitudes Toward Climate Change, Chloe Riggs Dec 2021

The Role Of Sex: An Analysis Of U.S. Attitudes Toward Climate Change, Chloe Riggs

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study analyzes the intersection of sex, environmental risk perception of climate change, and feminism. More specifically, with a sample size of 8,280 respondents from the American National Election Studies (ANES) 2020 Times Series Study, this research examines the relationship between pro-environmental attitudes and sympathy for feminism, controlling for sex, as well as if a measure of sympathy for feminism influences pro-environmental attitudes, controlling for demographic (age, education, race, sex, and income) and political preference (political ideology and party affiliation) variables. Previous literature strongly supports a sex gap in risk perception, a pattern known as the White Male Effect ...


Use Patterns And Influencing Factors Of Irrigation Best Management Practices In The Lower Mississippi River Basin, Merri E. Day Dec 2021

Use Patterns And Influencing Factors Of Irrigation Best Management Practices In The Lower Mississippi River Basin, Merri E. Day

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study uses the 2016 Irrigation Survey from Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi to document the use of irrigation best management practices (IBMPs), analyze use patterns, and use quantitative methods to determine factors that influence producers’ decisions regarding IBMPs. IBMPs included in the survey can be grouped as: field management practices (zero-grade leveling, precision-grade leveling, end blocking, warped surface, and deep tillage), water flow control practices (computerized pipe-hole selection, multiple-inlet irrigation, surge irrigation, alternate wetting and drying, cutback irrigation, flow meters, and pump timers), water recovery/storage practices (tail-water recovery system and on-farm storage reservoir), and advanced irrigation scheduling practices (soil ...


The Electrification Of The Kitchen: On The Energy Consumption Of Common Electric Cooking Appliances, Hozen Ricchie Rose Asok Rose Dec 2021

The Electrification Of The Kitchen: On The Energy Consumption Of Common Electric Cooking Appliances, Hozen Ricchie Rose Asok Rose

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In developed countries, electricity has been gaining popularity as a source of energy for meal preparation. Utilizing electricity produced from renewable resources along with efficient electrical cooking appliances could result in sustainable clean cooking. The first objective of this research was to study the efficiency of common electrical cooking appliances—namely induction, resistance plate, resistance coil, infrared, and electric pot— by the water boiling test and the simmering test. The induction and electric pot were observed as the most efficient devices for the water boiling test. For simmering, which mimics many cooking processes, the electric pot and resistance coil were ...


Examining The Relationship Between Library Services Use And Fall-To-Fall Retention In Community College Libraries, Eric Deatherage Dec 2021

Examining The Relationship Between Library Services Use And Fall-To-Fall Retention In Community College Libraries, Eric Deatherage

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Community college libraries exist to support institutional outcomes. One such outcome is student retention. This study’s purpose was to fill the gap in the literature at the community college level, proposing that a model including all library service use types would explain variance in student retention beyond that explained by total library financial expenditure. Services included were numbers of physical materials circulated, digital books circulated, e-serials used, reference transactions, library presentations, attendees at presentations, gate counts, and interlibrary loan materials borrowed. Additionally, it was proposed that the relationship between gate counts of physical entry into the library and student ...


Diversifying Woolf’S Room: Private Spaces And Creativity In The Works Of Willa Cather, Kate Chopin, Gayl Jones, And Alice Walker, Ebtesam M. Alawfi Dec 2021

Diversifying Woolf’S Room: Private Spaces And Creativity In The Works Of Willa Cather, Kate Chopin, Gayl Jones, And Alice Walker, Ebtesam M. Alawfi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There is a divergence between Woolf’s vision of private physical spaces necessary for creating art and that of some feminists of color such as Alice Walker, Ortiz Cofer, and Gloria Anzaldua. Both Woolf and these contemporary scholars agree on the importance of physical spaces for female artists. However, they disagree on the nature of these spaces. Woolf’s private physical space is a room with a lock on the door whereas these writers’ room is the kitchen table, the bus, or the welfare line. Walker and like-minded writers challenge the narrowness of Woolf’s room because her locked room ...


The Impact Of Corporal Punishment For Timorese High School Graduates, Veronica Godinho Pereira Dec 2021

The Impact Of Corporal Punishment For Timorese High School Graduates, Veronica Godinho Pereira

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research examines the impacts of corporal punishment for Timorese high school graduates. Physical punishment is a pervasive method of disciplining students and children used in Timor-Leste because it has been such a tradition (UNICEF 2017). Few researchers have attempted to analyze the negative impacts of corporal punishment and possible gender differences; there is no known research on the impacts of corporal punishment in Timor-Leste. This study uses an in-depth interview method, where data were collected from 26 Timorese high school graduates composed of both men and women from both private and public schools in Timor-Leste. The ages of the ...


Does Whispering Improve Children’S Memory? Comparing Auditory Vigilance And Salience Hypotheses, Christina M. Barnes Dec 2021

Does Whispering Improve Children’S Memory? Comparing Auditory Vigilance And Salience Hypotheses, Christina M. Barnes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Oral communication is one of the primary tools children use to learn new information and speech registers can deliver additional meaning to the words someone uses. Cirillo’s (2004) vigilance hypothesis states “Whispering can affect the psychobiological state of recipients, and in particular raise their auditory vigilance” (Cirillo, 2004, p. 76). Building on this theory, the current study investigates the role of whispering and children’s memory by examining a whispering vigilance, whispering salience which focused on the changes between normal and whisper registers, and combined vigilance and salience hypotheses to determine if whispering contributes to the recall of information ...


Listening To Voices Of Latinx Immigrants In Rural America, Jacqueline Smith Dec 2021

Listening To Voices Of Latinx Immigrants In Rural America, Jacqueline Smith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to capture and gain an understanding of Latinx immigrants’ lived experiences during their transitions from their native countries to rural Arkansas. Using purposeful criterion-based sampling, the population of interest was five Latinx immigrant students and families who migrated from their native countries to the state of Arkansas. The analytic strategy included a single-case model of each family’s transcription, two-case model, cluster analysis to identify likeness, document portrait, and subtheme development. The structural descriptions that formed the essence of the experience resulted in three themes: education, migration, and emotional experiences. The three ...


[Dis]Assembling Race: The Fepc In Oklahoma, 1941-1946, Arley Ward Dec 2021

[Dis]Assembling Race: The Fepc In Oklahoma, 1941-1946, Arley Ward

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

On the World War II home front in Oklahoma the Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC) succeeded in securing defense jobs for African Americans. The efforts of the committee, The Oklahoma Eagle, the Oklahoma City Black Dispatch, and the State Conference of Branches of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) advanced civil rights in Oklahoma throughout World War II and beyond. The efforts of the FEPC in Oklahoma connect civil rights efforts in the 1940s directly to Brown v Board of Education, (1954) and the classic civil rights movement.


The Passion Of Ken Williams: The Double Life Of A Mayor, The Newspaper That Brought Him Down, And The Story Of Journalism In America, Michael Adkison Dec 2021

The Passion Of Ken Williams: The Double Life Of A Mayor, The Newspaper That Brought Him Down, And The Story Of Journalism In America, Michael Adkison

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In November 2007, a team of reporters from the Benton County Daily Record published an expose revealing that Ken Williams, the mayor of Centerton, Arkansas, had been living a double life. In his former life as Don LaRose, he was a preacher in the Northeast, who one day vanished without a trace. His wild saga includes Satanists, truth serums, and a supposed murder. The Benton County Daily Record confronted the former reverend several times before he finally confessed to his double life. The next morning, he resigned as mayor, saying that the decisions he made were for the protection of ...


News Media Trust And Mistrust During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Kaitlyn Seiter Dec 2021

News Media Trust And Mistrust During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Kaitlyn Seiter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With the uncertainty and growing information surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic, news media consumption has increased drastically compared to pre-pandemic consumption. At the start of the pandemic, 94% of Americans reported closely following COVID-19 news, with more than half of Americans spending more than two hours consuming COVID-19 news everyday (SSRS, 2020). With the news media serving as a critical source of information through this public health crisis, the public’s reactions, behaviors, and attitudes to the pandemic stem from the level of trust they have in the news media to share COVID-19 information. Because of this, this study examines trust ...


Dollar Stores And Supermarket Survivability In Non-Metropolitan Us Communities, Cami Farmer Dec 2021

Dollar Stores And Supermarket Survivability In Non-Metropolitan Us Communities, Cami Farmer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With the growing popularity of dollar stores, concerns have surfaced over the potential relationship between dollar stores and the closures of grocery stores. Healthy food accessibility for consumers, particularly those in rural areas, has additionally become of great interest. This thesis aims to investigate the potential relationship of dollar store presence and grocery store closures. Data used included County Business Patterns, Rural Urban Continuum Codes, American Community Survey, and authorized SNAP retailer data. The spatial distance between grocery stores and the number of dollar stores at various radii were calculated. Following the computation of the number of dollar stores surrounding ...


International Students In The Campus Carry Debate: A Descriptive Phenomenological Inquiry, Andre Richardo Grant Dec 2021

International Students In The Campus Carry Debate: A Descriptive Phenomenological Inquiry, Andre Richardo Grant

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative phenomenological study purposefully sampled 15 graduate international students at a Southern University (SU). Semi-structured interviews were used to determine their perceptions and attitudes regarding the implementation of campus carry policies at the institution. The study aimed to answer the following research questions: How has the implementation of the campus carry policy at SU impacted international students’ perceptions of their experiences at the institution? How has the implementation of campus carry policies at SU influenced international students’ perceptions of the social ecology of the institution? and How did SU formally include international students in the on-campus campus carry policy ...


Dissonance Between Christian Beliefs And Eating Habits In The South, Karli Dianne Stringer Dec 2021

Dissonance Between Christian Beliefs And Eating Habits In The South, Karli Dianne Stringer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to initiate understanding of how obesity in the South is still so prevalent even though the majority of inhabitants subscribe to a faith that discourages unhealthy lifestyles. Furthermore, the information presented in this research sought to fill the knowledge gap for communicators and educators concerning the dissonance between Christianity in the South and the unhealthy eating habits of Southerners. Grounded in the Cognitive Dissonance Theory, this study comprised of a semi-structured interview route in which Protestant evangelical Christians in the South (N = 11) participated in a descriptive study conducted by a committee of ...


Factors Influencing The Usage Of Shared E-Scooters : A Case Study Of Chicago, Farzana Mehzabin Tuli Dec 2021

Factors Influencing The Usage Of Shared E-Scooters : A Case Study Of Chicago, Farzana Mehzabin Tuli

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The rapid popularity growth of shared e-scooters creates the necessity of understanding the determinants of shared e-scooter usage. This thesis estimates the impacts of temporal variables (weather data, weekday/weekend, and gasoline prices) and time-invariant variables (socio-demographic, built environment, and neighborhood characteristics) on the shared e-scooter demand by using four months (June 2019- October 2019) period of data from the shared e-scooter pilot program in Chicago. The study employs a random-effects negative binomial (RENB) model that effectively models shared e-scooter trip origin and destination count data with over-dispersion while capturing serial autocorrelation in the data. Results of temporal variables indicate ...


In The Line Of Duty - A Documentary Film About Davis Duty And His Seeing Eye Dog, Paulina Sobczak Dec 2021

In The Line Of Duty - A Documentary Film About Davis Duty And His Seeing Eye Dog, Paulina Sobczak

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

“In the Line of Duty” is a documentary film about Jeff Davis Duty, a man from a small town in Arkansas, who lost his sight at the age of five. He is the oldest Seeing Eye dog user in the world. At the age of 22, he was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship at the London School of Economics in England, as the first Fulbright Scholar with disability. Duty achieved great success in his career as a lawyer, leading a fulfilling and enjoyable life. The documentary film’s storytelling focuses on Duty’s life from his childhood to current times and ...


Screening For Our Fathers: Representations Of Native American Masculinity In American Film, Jeromy Duane Miller Dec 2021

Screening For Our Fathers: Representations Of Native American Masculinity In American Film, Jeromy Duane Miller

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this work, I examine representation of Native American masculinity in the American film industry. The American film industry began just over a century ago, and one of its earliest subjects was the Native American. Throughout its history, the American film industry has maintained a steady trajectory of exploitation and erasure of Native American men and their subsequent masculine qualities. While there are notable historical outliers and critical exceptions in the 21st century, Native American men in film have been continually reduced to corpses, devoid of significant social presence, and denied meaningful explorations of their sexuality and interpersonal identity. The ...


Good Intentions Go Awry: Investigation Of Unhelpful Supportive Leadership, Cheryl E. Gray Nov 2021

Good Intentions Go Awry: Investigation Of Unhelpful Supportive Leadership, Cheryl E. Gray

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In studies of the dark side of leadership, leaders are often depicted as bad people who engage in abusive behaviors. While some leaders have self-serving motives and engage in cruel behaviors, negative leadership outcomes are not limited to abusive supervisors. This research casts light on an understudied form of negative leadership: unhelpful supportive leadership. Unhelpful supportive leadership characterizes leaders who perform supportive acts that the recipient believes were intended to benefit them but are perceived as unhelpful or harmful. Results of two quantitative survey studies (Study 1: N = 1,257 employees; Study 2: N = 161 employee-supervisor dyads) demonstrate that unhelpful ...


Remote Sensing And Gis Integration For Amazon Rainforest Wildfires Applications, Cong Ma Nov 2021

Remote Sensing And Gis Integration For Amazon Rainforest Wildfires Applications, Cong Ma

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Known as the “Lung of the world”, the Amazon rainforest produces more than 20% of the oxygen of the world, which was originally a carbon pool for mitigating climate change, but in recent years it has become a significant carbon emitter due to wildfires. In 2019, a large-scale fire occurred in the Amazon rainforest, causing serious damage to the ecosystem and to humans as well. Therefore, managing wildfires effectively has become an urgent task for fire authorities. This thesis tried to incorporate spatial analysis and spatial statistics approaches to study wildfire from two aspects, namely the temporal and spatial distribution ...


Examining Evidence Of Reliability And Validity In Florida’S Human Trafficking Screening Tool, Monica Landers Nov 2021

Examining Evidence Of Reliability And Validity In Florida’S Human Trafficking Screening Tool, Monica Landers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) involving children is understood to be a pervasive public health problem that negatively impacts individuals, families, and communities (Greenbaum, 2020). Combined efforts of the United States government, federal agencies, organizations such as the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, researchers, and practitioners work toward understanding risk factors associated with CSE in an effort to prevent victimization (Fong & Cardoso, 2010). Given the amount of public and political attention to trafficking over the past two decades, it is concerning that prevalence estimates widely vary and may be unreliable. Further, there is not currently a validated screening tool ...


Hello Traitor: An Examination Of Individual Differences In Perceptions Of Technology-Related Incivility, David J. Howard Nov 2021

Hello Traitor: An Examination Of Individual Differences In Perceptions Of Technology-Related Incivility, David J. Howard

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Workplace incivility is unfortunately common among employees in today’s workplace. The increase in usage of email, texting, smartphones, and social media for interpersonal workplace communication has led to an increase of these mediums being used in an uncivil manner. While there has been a growth of general workplace incivility research conducted in the past two decades, the extant literature lacks sufficient primary studies that examine technology-related workplace incivility. This research project aims to add to the burgeoning literature in the technology-related incivility content domain. First, it examined the prevalence of email incivility reported by workers and found a much ...


Decisions And How Doctors Make Them: Modeling Multilevel Decision-Making Within Diagnostic Medicine, Michelle S. Kaplan Nov 2021

Decisions And How Doctors Make Them: Modeling Multilevel Decision-Making Within Diagnostic Medicine, Michelle S. Kaplan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Effective decision-making is critical and necessary for organizational success across a wide range of occupations, situations, and industries. However, decision making, by its nature, is not always a direct process of a single decision leading to a direct outcome. Rather, it can often become a multilevel process whereby one decision’s outcome leads to information that is used in subsequent larger or other types of decisions. The decision-making process then becomes progressively more complex and more difficult to navigate as these decisions compound within one another. Thus, decision-makers must find an appropriate way to approach such decisions. Understanding the multilevel ...


Novel Approach To Integrate Can Based Vehicle Sensors With Gps Using Adaptive Filters To Improve Localization Precision In Connected Vehicles From A Systems Engineering Perspective, Abhijit Vasili Nov 2021

Novel Approach To Integrate Can Based Vehicle Sensors With Gps Using Adaptive Filters To Improve Localization Precision In Connected Vehicles From A Systems Engineering Perspective, Abhijit Vasili

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research and development in Connected Vehicles (CV) Technologies has increased exponentially, with the allocation of 75 MHz radio spectrum in the 5.9 GHz band by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) dedicated to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in 1999 and 30 MHz in the 5.9 GHz by the European Telecommunication Standards Institution (ETSI). Many applications have been tested and deployed in pilot programs across many cities all over the world.

CV pilot programs have played a vital role in evaluating the effectiveness and impact of the technology and understanding the effects of the applications over the safety of road ...


Fighting Mass Diffusion Of Fake News On Social Media, Abdallah Musmar Nov 2021

Fighting Mass Diffusion Of Fake News On Social Media, Abdallah Musmar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Fake news has been considered one of the most challenging problems in the last few years. The effects of spreading fake news over social media platforms are widely observed across the globe as the depth and velocity of fake news reach far more than real news (Vosoughi et al., 2018). The plan for the following dissertation is to investigate the mass spread of fake news across social media and propose a framework to fight the spread of fake news by mixing preventive methods that could hinder the overall percentage of fake news sharing. We plan to create a study on ...


Oppression, Resistance, And Empowerment: The Power Dynamics Of Naming And Un-Naming In African American Literature, 1794 To 2019, Melissa "Maggie" Romigh Nov 2021

Oppression, Resistance, And Empowerment: The Power Dynamics Of Naming And Un-Naming In African American Literature, 1794 To 2019, Melissa "Maggie" Romigh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Oppression, Resistance, and Empowerment: The Power Dynamics of Naming and Un-naming in African American Literature, 1794 to 2019 researches and discusses the way African American authors both discuss naming and un-naming in their works and the way they use naming in their works to illustrate the dynamics of power in relationships—racial, familial, gender-related, work-related, etc. Chapter 1 focuses on the earliest forms of African American literature, memoirs in particular, also known as “slave narratives.” In their memoirs, many of those men and women who were formerly enslaved wrote about having their names taken from them and replaced with names ...