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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Systematic Enso-Driven Nutrient Variability Recorded By Central Equatorial Pacific Corals, Michele Lavigne, Intan S. Nurhati, Kim M. Cobb, Helen V. Mcgregor, Daniel Sinclair, Robert M. Sherrell Aug 2013

Systematic Enso-Driven Nutrient Variability Recorded By Central Equatorial Pacific Corals, Michele Lavigne, Intan S. Nurhati, Kim M. Cobb, Helen V. Mcgregor, Daniel Sinclair, Robert M. Sherrell

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

[1] Variations in ocean productivity are driven largely by nutrient supply to the photic zone, but temporal records of nutrient variability are sparse. Here we show scleractinian coral P/Ca proxy records of variations in phosphate concentrations during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles in the central equatorial Pacific. Covarying P/Ca records in Porites corals from Christmas and Fanning Islands show a regional ~40% decrease during the upwelling relaxation of the 1997–1998 El Niño, consistent with less frequent nutrient measurements from this area. Similar ~35–45% skeletal P/Ca decreases occur during the 1982–1983 and 1986–1987 El Niño events, which predate satellite color …


Rapid Cascade Synthesis Of Poly-Heterocyclic Architectures From Indigo, Alireza Shakoori Ghasabi, John Bremner, Anthony C. Willis, Rachada Haritakun, Paul A. Keller Jun 2013

Rapid Cascade Synthesis Of Poly-Heterocyclic Architectures From Indigo, Alireza Shakoori Ghasabi, John Bremner, Anthony C. Willis, Rachada Haritakun, Paul A. Keller

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The base-induced propargylation of the dye indigo results in the rapid and unprecedented one-pot synthesis of highly functionalized representatives of the pyrazino[1,2-a:4,3-a′]diindole, pyrido[1,2-a:3,4-b′]diindole and benzo[b]indolo[1,2-h]naphthyridine heterocyclic systems, with the last two reflecting the core skeleton of the anticancer/antiplasmodial marine natural products fascaplysin and homofascaplysins and a ring B-homologue, respectively. The polycyclic compounds 6–8, whose structures were confirmed through single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis, arise from sequential inter/intramolecular substitution–addition reactions, and in some cases, ring rearrangement reactions. Preliminary studies on controlling the reaction path selectivity, and the potential reaction mechanisms, are also described. Initial biological activity studies with these new heterocyclic derivatives …


Rates Of Shoreline Change Along The Coast Of Bangladesh, Md. Golam Mahabub Sarwar, Colin D. Woodroffe May 2013

Rates Of Shoreline Change Along The Coast Of Bangladesh, Md. Golam Mahabub Sarwar, Colin D. Woodroffe

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Bangladesh, at the confluence of the sediment-laden Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, supports an enormous and rapidly growing population (>140 million in 2011), across low-lying alluvial and delta plains that have accumulated over the past few thousand years. It has been identified as one of the most vulnerable places in the world to the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise. Although abundant sediment supply has resulted in accretion on some parts of the coast of Bangladesh, others are experiencing rapid erosion. We report a systematic assessment of rates of shoreline change over a 20-year period from 1989 to 2009, …


Concise Synthesis Of (-)-Steviamine And Analogues And Their Glycosidase Inhibitory Activities, Nadechanok Jiangseubchatveera, Marc E. Bouillon, Boonsom Liawruangrath, Saisunee Liawruangrath, Robert J. Nash, Stephen G. Pyne Apr 2013

Concise Synthesis Of (-)-Steviamine And Analogues And Their Glycosidase Inhibitory Activities, Nadechanok Jiangseubchatveera, Marc E. Bouillon, Boonsom Liawruangrath, Saisunee Liawruangrath, Robert J. Nash, Stephen G. Pyne

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

A concise synthesis of (−)-steviamine is reported along with the synthesis of its analogues 10-nor-steviamine, 10-nor-ent-steviamine and 5-epi-ent-steviamine. These compounds were tested against twelve glycosidases (at 143 μg mL−1 concentrations) and were found to have in general poor inhibitory activity against most enzymes. The 10-nor analogues however, showed 50–54% inhibition of α-L-rhamnosidase from Penicillium decumbens while one of these, 10-nor-steviamine, showed 51% inhibition of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (from Jack bean) at the same concentration (760 μM).


Uv Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy Of Haloanilinium Ions In A Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, Christopher S. Hansen, Benjamin B. Kirk, Stephen J. Blanksby, Richard A. J O'Hair, Adam J. Trevitt Apr 2013

Uv Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy Of Haloanilinium Ions In A Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, Christopher S. Hansen, Benjamin B. Kirk, Stephen J. Blanksby, Richard A. J O'Hair, Adam J. Trevitt

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

UV-vis photodissociation action spectroscopy is becoming increasingly prevalent because of advances in, and commercial availability of, ion trapping technologies and tunable laser sources. This study outlines in detail an instrumental arrangement, combining a commercial ion-trap mass spectrometer and tunable nanosecond pulsed laser source, for performing fully automated photodissociation action spectroscopy on gas-phase ions. The components of the instrumentation are outlined, including the optical and electronic interfacing, in addition to the control software for automating the experiment and performing online analysis of the spectra. To demonstrate the utility of this ensemble, the photodissociation action spectra of 4-chloroanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-iodoanilinium cations …


Switching Radical Stability By Ph-Induced Orbital Conversion, Ganna Gryn'ova, David L. Marshall, Stephen J. Blanksby, Michelle L. Coote Apr 2013

Switching Radical Stability By Ph-Induced Orbital Conversion, Ganna Gryn'ova, David L. Marshall, Stephen J. Blanksby, Michelle L. Coote

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

In most radicals the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) is the highest-energy occupied molecular orbital (HOMO); however, in a small number of reported compounds this is not the case. In the present work we expand significantly the scope of this phenomenon, known as SOMO–HOMO energy-level conversion, by showing that it occurs in virtually any distonic radical anion that contains a sufficiently stabilized radical (aminoxyl, peroxyl, aminyl) non-π-conjugated with a negative charge (carboxylate, phosphate, sulfate). Moreover, regular orbital order is restored on protonation of the anionic fragment, and hence the orbital configuration can be switched by pH. Most importantly, our theoretical …


Five Practical Uses Of Spatial Autocorrelation For Studies Of Coral Reef Ecology, S Hamylton Mar 2013

Five Practical Uses Of Spatial Autocorrelation For Studies Of Coral Reef Ecology, S Hamylton

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The organisation of benthic communities across coral reefs is underpinned by spatially structured ecological processes and neighbourhood interactions such as larval dispersal, migration, competition and the spread of disease. These give rise to spatial autocorrelation in reef communities. This paper demonstrates how the measurement of spatial autocorrelation can profitably be incorporated into studies of coral reef ecology through a series of 5 simple statistical exercises: for the generation of maps depicting the strength of spatial relationships between ecological communities, as an indicator of optimal dimensions for sampling ecological communities on coral reefs, as a diagnostic tool for model misspecification, as …


Biofabrication: An Overview Of The Approaches Used For Printing Of Living Cells, Cameron J. Ferris, Kerry G. Gilmore, Gordon G. Wallace, Marc In Het Panhuis Mar 2013

Biofabrication: An Overview Of The Approaches Used For Printing Of Living Cells, Cameron J. Ferris, Kerry G. Gilmore, Gordon G. Wallace, Marc In Het Panhuis

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The development of cell printing is vital for establishing biofabrication approaches as clinically relevant tools. Achieving this requires bio-inks which must not only be easily printable, but also allow controllable and reproducible printing of cells. This review outlines the general principles and current progress and compares the advantages and challenges for the most widely used biofabrication techniques for printing cells: extrusion, laser, microvalve, inkjet and tissue fragment printing. It is expected that significant advances in cell printing will result from synergistic combinations of these techniques and lead to optimised resolution, throughput and the overall complexity of printed constructs.


Carbon Dioxide Rebreathing In Respiratory Protective Devices: Influence Of Speech And Work Rate In Full-Face Masks, Carmen L. Smith, Jane L. Whitelaw, Brian Davies Mar 2013

Carbon Dioxide Rebreathing In Respiratory Protective Devices: Influence Of Speech And Work Rate In Full-Face Masks, Carmen L. Smith, Jane L. Whitelaw, Brian Davies

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing has been recognised as a concern regarding respirator use and is related to symptoms of discomfort, fatigue, dizziness, headache, muscular weakness and drowsiness. Previous investigations are limited by small sample size and have not evaluated the relationship between CO2 inhalation and phonic respiration (breathing during speech) in respiratory protective devices (RPDs). A total of 40 workers trained in the use of RPDs performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergonometer that increased in workload every 5 min. During the third minute of each stage, participants read aloud a prepared text. Measures of mixed expired CO2 …


Diversifying Ethnicity In Australia's Population And Environment Debates, Natascha Klocker, Lesley Head Feb 2013

Diversifying Ethnicity In Australia's Population And Environment Debates, Natascha Klocker, Lesley Head

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Population–environment debates in Australia are at an impasse. While the ability of this continent to sustain more migrants has attracted persistent scrutiny, nuanced explorations of diverse migrant cultures and their engagements with Australian landscapes have scarcely begun. Yet as we face the challenges of a climate changing world we would undoubtedly benefit from the most varied knowledges we can muster. This paper brings together three arenas of environmental debate circulating in Australia—the immigration/carrying capacity debate, comparisons between Indigenous and Anglo-European modes of environmental interaction, and research on household sustainability dilemmas—to demonstrate the exclusionary tendencies of each. We then attempt to …


Welcome To Bogan-Ville: Reframing Class And Place Through Humour, Chris Gibson Feb 2013

Welcome To Bogan-Ville: Reframing Class And Place Through Humour, Chris Gibson

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

On August 4, 2009, Australian online news commentary website the Punch announced that Albion Park, in the Australian industrial city of Wollongong, was one of the nation's top ten “most bogan” places. This paper explores what it means to be bogan in Australia, tracing historical antecedents, local debate at the time of this media event, and the manner in which the politics of class and place identity are negotiated through humour. Some local residents railed against associations with “lower-class” culture or feared damaged reputations for their neighbourhoods; others responded in sometimes unexpected and creative ways—through humour, and by claiming bogan …


Effects Of Atmospheric Light Scattering On Spectroscopic Observations Of Greenhouse Gases From Space. Part 2: Algorithm Intercomparison In The Gosat Data Processing For Co2 Retrievals Over Tccon Sites, Sergey Oshchepkov, Andrey Bril, Tatsuya Yokota, Paul O. Wennberg, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Debra Wunch, Geoffrey C. Toon, Yukio Yoshida, Christopher W. O'Dell, David Crisp, Charles E. Miller, Christian Frankenberg, Andre Butz, Ilse Aben, Sandrine Guerlet, Otto Hasekamp, Hartmut Boesch, Austin Cogan, Robert Parker, David Griffith, Ronald Macatangay, Justus Notholt, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Vanessa Sherlock, John Robinson, Esko Kyro, Pauli Heikkinen, Dietrich G. Feist, Isamu Morino, Nikolay Kadygrov, Dmitry Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Osamu Uchino, Hiroshi Watanabe Feb 2013

Effects Of Atmospheric Light Scattering On Spectroscopic Observations Of Greenhouse Gases From Space. Part 2: Algorithm Intercomparison In The Gosat Data Processing For Co2 Retrievals Over Tccon Sites, Sergey Oshchepkov, Andrey Bril, Tatsuya Yokota, Paul O. Wennberg, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Debra Wunch, Geoffrey C. Toon, Yukio Yoshida, Christopher W. O'Dell, David Crisp, Charles E. Miller, Christian Frankenberg, Andre Butz, Ilse Aben, Sandrine Guerlet, Otto Hasekamp, Hartmut Boesch, Austin Cogan, Robert Parker, David Griffith, Ronald Macatangay, Justus Notholt, Ralf Sussmann, Markus Rettinger, Vanessa Sherlock, John Robinson, Esko Kyro, Pauli Heikkinen, Dietrich G. Feist, Isamu Morino, Nikolay Kadygrov, Dmitry Belikov, Shamil Maksyutov, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Osamu Uchino, Hiroshi Watanabe

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

This report is the second in a series of companion papers describing the effects of atmospheric light scattering in observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), in orbit since 23 January 2009. Here we summarize the retrievals from six previously published algorithms; retrieving column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 (XCO2) during 22 months of operation of GOSAT from June 2009. First, we compare data products from each algorithm with ground-based remote sensing observations by Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Our GOSAT-TCCON coincidence criteria select satellite observations within a 5° radius of 11 …


Dinosaur Lactation?, Paul L. Else Feb 2013

Dinosaur Lactation?, Paul L. Else

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, …


Sequential Extraction Procedures For The Determination Of Phosphorus Forms In Sediment, Changyou Wang, Yong Zhang, Hongli Li, R John Morrison Jan 2013

Sequential Extraction Procedures For The Determination Of Phosphorus Forms In Sediment, Changyou Wang, Yong Zhang, Hongli Li, R John Morrison

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

This article summarizes the main extraction methods for sedimentary phosphorus (P) determination. With sequential chemical extractions, P is supposed to be selectively removed from different compounds in the sediments. Extraction schemes using strong acids and alkaline solutions have been tested on different sediments and found not to extract well-defined fractions. In addition, several systematic errors in these schemes have been detected. Thus, these schemes have been modified and simplified accordingly. The Standards Measurements and Testing Program of the European Commission (SMT) method is a popular modification of these extraction schemes, as it is simple to handle, allows laboratories to achieve …


Single Molecule Characterization Of The Interactions Between Amyloid-Β Peptides And The Membranes Of Hippocampal Cells, Priyanka Narayan, Kristina A. Ganzinger, James Mccoll, Laura Weimann, Sarah Meehan, Seema Qamar, John A. Carver, Mark R. Wilson, Peter St George-Hyslop, Christopher M. Dobson, David Klenerman Jan 2013

Single Molecule Characterization Of The Interactions Between Amyloid-Β Peptides And The Membranes Of Hippocampal Cells, Priyanka Narayan, Kristina A. Ganzinger, James Mccoll, Laura Weimann, Sarah Meehan, Seema Qamar, John A. Carver, Mark R. Wilson, Peter St George-Hyslop, Christopher M. Dobson, David Klenerman

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Oligomers of the 40 and 42 residue amyloid-β peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42) have been implicated in the neuronal damage and impaired cognitive function associated with Alzheimer’s disease. However, little is known about the specific mechanisms by which these misfolded species induce such detrimental effects on cells. In this work, we use single-molecule imaging techniques to examine the initial interactions between Aβ monomers and oligomers and the membranes of live cells. This highly sensitive method enables the visualization of individual Aβ species on the cell surface and characterization of their oligomerization state, all at biologically relevant, nanomolar concentrations. The results indicate …


Maternal Obesity Is Associated With The Formation Of Small Dense Ldl And Hypoadiponectinemia In The Third Trimester, Barbara J. Meyer, Frances M. Stewart, Elizabeth A. Brown, Josephine Cooney, Solveig Nilsson, Gunilla Olivecrona, Jane E. Ramsay, Bruce A. Griffin, Muriel J. Caslake, Dilys J. Freeman Jan 2013

Maternal Obesity Is Associated With The Formation Of Small Dense Ldl And Hypoadiponectinemia In The Third Trimester, Barbara J. Meyer, Frances M. Stewart, Elizabeth A. Brown, Josephine Cooney, Solveig Nilsson, Gunilla Olivecrona, Jane E. Ramsay, Bruce A. Griffin, Muriel J. Caslake, Dilys J. Freeman

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

CONTEXT: Maternal obesity is associated with high plasma triglyceride, poor vascular function, and an increased risk for pregnancy complications. In normal-weight pregnant women, higher triglyceride is associated with increased small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL). HYPOTHESIS: In obese pregnancy, increased plasma triglyceride concentrations result in triglyceride enrichment of very low-density lipoprotein-1 particles and formation of small dense LDL via lipoprotein lipase. DESIGN: Women (n = 55) of body mass index of 18-46 kg/m(2) were sampled longitudinally at 12, 26, and 35 weeks' gestation and 4 months postnatally. SETTING: Women were recruited at hospital antenatal appointments, and study visits were in a …


Food Synergy: The Key To A Healthy Diet, David R. Jacobs Jr, Linda C. Tapsell Jan 2013

Food Synergy: The Key To A Healthy Diet, David R. Jacobs Jr, Linda C. Tapsell

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Food synergy is the concept that the non-random mixture of food constituents operates in concert for the life of the organism eaten and presumably for the life of the eater. Isolated nutrients have been extensively studied in well-designed, long-term, large randomised clinical trials, typically with null and sometimes with harmful effects. Therefore, although nutrient deficiency is a known phenomenon, serious for the sufferer, and curable by taking the isolated nutrient, the effect of isolated nutrients or other chemicals derived from food on chronic disease, when that chemical is not deficient, may not have the same beneficial effect. It appears that …


Synthesis, Characterization, And Photophysics Of Oxadiazole- And Diphenylaniline-Substituted Re(I) And Cu(I) Complexes, Raphael Horvath, Michael G. Fraser, Scott A. Cameron, Allan G. Blackman, Pawel Wagner, David L. Officer, Keith C. Gordon Jan 2013

Synthesis, Characterization, And Photophysics Of Oxadiazole- And Diphenylaniline-Substituted Re(I) And Cu(I) Complexes, Raphael Horvath, Michael G. Fraser, Scott A. Cameron, Allan G. Blackman, Pawel Wagner, David L. Officer, Keith C. Gordon

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Transition-metal complexes of the types [Re(CO)3Cl(NN)], [Re(CO)3py(NN)]+, and [Cu(PPh3)2(NN)]+, where NN = 4,4′-bis(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine (OX) and 4,4′-bis(N,N-diphenyl-4-[ethen-1-yl]-aniline)-2,2′-bipyridine (DPA), have been synthesized and characterized. Crystal structures for [Re(CO)3Cl(DPA)] and [Cu(PPh3)2(OX)]BF4 are presented. The crystal structure of the rhenium complex shows a trans arrangement of the ethylene groups, in agreement with density functional theory calculations. The structure of the copper complex displays the planar aromatic nature of the bpy–oxadiazole ligand. Density functional theory modeling of the complexes was supported by comparison of calculated and experimental normalized Raman spectra; the mean absolute deviations of the complexes were <10 cm–1. The Franck–Condon state was investigated using UV–vis and resonance Raman spectroscopic as well as density functional theory computational techniques. It was shown that the lowest energy absorption peaks are metal to ligand charge transfer and ligand-centered charge transfer for the oxadiazole- and diphenylaniline-substituted bipyridine ligands, respectively. The lowest energy excited states were characterized using transient emission and absorption spectroscopic techniques in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. These showed that the DPA complexes had ligand-centered nonemissive “dark” states with lifetimes ranging from 300 to 2000 ns.


Concise Synthesis Of Α-Substituted 2-Benzofuranmethamines And Other 2-Subsituted Benzofurans Via Α-Substituted 2-Benzofuranmethyl Carbocation Intermediates, Nikhom Wongsa, Ubonta Sommart, Thunwadee Ritthiwigrom, Arife Yazici, Somdej Kanokmedhakul, Kwanjai Kanokmedhakul, Anthony C. Willis, Stephen G. Pyne Jan 2013

Concise Synthesis Of Α-Substituted 2-Benzofuranmethamines And Other 2-Subsituted Benzofurans Via Α-Substituted 2-Benzofuranmethyl Carbocation Intermediates, Nikhom Wongsa, Ubonta Sommart, Thunwadee Ritthiwigrom, Arife Yazici, Somdej Kanokmedhakul, Kwanjai Kanokmedhakul, Anthony C. Willis, Stephen G. Pyne

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Propargyl amines 4, where R3 is aryl, undergo 5-exo-dig cyclization reactions under relatively mild conditions (AgNO3, DMF, 60 °C, 1 h) to give 3-amino-2,3-dihydro-2-arylmethylidenebenzofurans 5 (R3 = aryl). In contrast, substrates where R3 is alkyl undergo competing 6-endo-dig and 5-exo-dig cyclization processes. The hydroxymethyl substrate 4 (R3 = CH2OH), however, was smoothly converted to its corresponding 5-exo-dig cyclization product 5, likely due to the assistance of the primary hydroxyl group in the 5-exo-dig cyclization process by silver cation coordination. Under more enforcing conditions (AgNO3, DMF, 100 °C, 18 h), the initially formed products 5 undergo a 1,3-allylic rearrangement to their …


Bottles, Bores, And Boats: Agency Of Water Assemblages In Post/Colonial Inland Australia, Leah Maree Gibbs Jan 2013

Bottles, Bores, And Boats: Agency Of Water Assemblages In Post/Colonial Inland Australia, Leah Maree Gibbs

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Australian water politics is marked by conceptual and bureaucratic separation of water as discrete matter. The source of this politics of separation is colonial relations with water and the Australian continent. Yet, analysis of the materiality of water illuminates the agency of water as part of an assemblage. This paper seeks to unsettle the treatment of water as separate, discrete matter. It asks how political responses to the public problem of water would change were we to take seriously the vitality of nonhuman bodies. In order to investigate this question, the paper presents an analysis of six objects from the …


Mid-Holocene Age Obtained For Nested Diamond Pattern Petroglyph In The Billasurgam Cave Complex, Kurnool District, Southern India, Paul S.C Tacon, Nicole Boivin, Michael Petraglia, James Blinkhorn, Allan Chivas, Richard G. Roberts, David Fink, Thomas Higham, Peter Ditchfield, Ravi Korisettar, Jian-Xin Zhao Jan 2013

Mid-Holocene Age Obtained For Nested Diamond Pattern Petroglyph In The Billasurgam Cave Complex, Kurnool District, Southern India, Paul S.C Tacon, Nicole Boivin, Michael Petraglia, James Blinkhorn, Allan Chivas, Richard G. Roberts, David Fink, Thomas Higham, Peter Ditchfield, Ravi Korisettar, Jian-Xin Zhao

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

India has one of the world's largest and most significant bodies of rock paintings and engravings, yet not a single rock art site or image has been directly and accurately dated using radiometric techniques. Here we report on results from the Billasurgam Cave complex near Kurnool in southern India. Although this cave complex has been investigated archaeologically since the late 1800s, it was not until 2008 that a large petroglyph, consisting of the remains of three nested diamond designs on a stalactite, was noted. In order to determine if this petroglyph had been made recently, flowstone was sampled from on …


Caecal Abnormality In A Layer Hen (Gallus Gallus Forma Domestica) Not Accompanied By Deficits In Digestive Performance Or Egg Productivity, Stephanie K. Courtney Jones, Adam J. Munn Jan 2013

Caecal Abnormality In A Layer Hen (Gallus Gallus Forma Domestica) Not Accompanied By Deficits In Digestive Performance Or Egg Productivity, Stephanie K. Courtney Jones, Adam J. Munn

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

We report a case of a layer hen (Gallus gallus forma domestica) with deviation in the morphology of the caecum, and unique opportunity to investigate the digestive performance of the animal compared with normal hens. In a study investigating digestive and reproductive performance, an atypical caecal arrangement was found in a hen that was unremarkable in regards to body mass, digestive performance and egg productivity in comparison to other hens fed a similar diet. Examination of the gastrointestinal tract revealed a singular tubular outgrowth from the ileo-caecal junction, rather than the typical paired outgrowths. The single caecal duct bifurcated into …


Sediment Disturbance Associated With Trampling By Humans Alters Species Assemblages On A Rocky Intertidal Seashore, Todd E. Minchinton, Katie J. Fels Jan 2013

Sediment Disturbance Associated With Trampling By Humans Alters Species Assemblages On A Rocky Intertidal Seashore, Todd E. Minchinton, Katie J. Fels

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Our observations reveal that species living on rocky intertidal reefs can be positively and negatively associated with increasing sediment load. We therefore tested the hypothesis that sediment disturbance, including increased sediment loads associated with trampling by humans, alters the abundance of macroinvertebrates on a sheltered rocky intertidal platform in southern Australia. First we trampled the reef in shallow water at several disturbance intensities, simulating different numbers of people walking on the platform on a rising tide, and determined that sediment load was directly related to trampling intensity. Trampling displaced sediment, and up to an order of magnitude more sediment accumulated …


Decreased Photochemical Efficiency Of Photosystem Ii Following Sunlight Exposure Of Shade-Grown Leaves Of Avocado: Because Of, Or In Spite Of, Two Kinetically Distinct Xanthophyll Cycles?, Husen Jia, Britta Forster, W S Chow, Barry James Pogson, C Barry Osmond Jan 2013

Decreased Photochemical Efficiency Of Photosystem Ii Following Sunlight Exposure Of Shade-Grown Leaves Of Avocado: Because Of, Or In Spite Of, Two Kinetically Distinct Xanthophyll Cycles?, Husen Jia, Britta Forster, W S Chow, Barry James Pogson, C Barry Osmond

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

This study resolved correlations between changes in xanthophyll pigments and photosynthetic properties in attached and detached shade-grown avocado (Persea americana) leaves upon sun exposure. Lutein epoxide (Lx) was deepoxidized to lutein (L), increasing the total pool by ΔL over 5 h, whereas violaxanthin (V) conversion to antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) ceased after 1 h. During subsequent dark or shade recovery, de novo synthesis of L and Z continued, followed by epoxidation of A and Z but not of L. Light-saturated nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) was strongly and linearly correlated with decreasing [Lx] and increasing [∆L] but showed a biphasic correlation …


N-Nitrosamine Rejection By Nanofiltration And Reverse Osmosis Membranes: The Importance Of Membrane Characteristics, Takahiro Fujioka, Stuart J. Khan, James A. Mcdonald, Annalie Roux, Yvan Poussade, Jorg E. Drewes, Long D. Nghiem Jan 2013

N-Nitrosamine Rejection By Nanofiltration And Reverse Osmosis Membranes: The Importance Of Membrane Characteristics, Takahiro Fujioka, Stuart J. Khan, James A. Mcdonald, Annalie Roux, Yvan Poussade, Jorg E. Drewes, Long D. Nghiem

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The influence of membrane characteristics on the rejection of eight N-nitrosamines was investigated using one nanofiltration (NF), one seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) and six low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes. The rejection of the two lowest molecular weight N-nitrosamines, namely N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), varied in the range from 8-82% to 23-94%, respectively. In general, the rejection of NDMA and NMEA increased with decreasing membrane permeability. The impact of membrane characteristics became less important for higher molecular weight N-nitrosamines. Among the four LPRO membranes (i.e. ESPA2, LFC3, TFC-HR and 70LW) that are commonly used for water reclamation applications, similar …


Effect Of Doll Therapy In Managing Challenging Behaviours In People With Dementia: A Systematic Review Protocol, Ritin Fernandez, Bronwyn Arthur, Richard Fleming Jan 2013

Effect Of Doll Therapy In Managing Challenging Behaviours In People With Dementia: A Systematic Review Protocol, Ritin Fernandez, Bronwyn Arthur, Richard Fleming

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Review question/objective What is the effect of doll therapy on challenging behaviors (including agitation and verbal or physical aggression) in patients with dementia? Inclusion criteria Types of participants Adults (age >18years) diagnosed with dementia and living in any care setting will be included. Adults with dementia receiving antipsychotics will also be included and analyzed separately. Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest This review will include studies that evaluate the effects of giving dolls to persons with dementia for the management of BPSD. The review will include doll therapy delivered by either health professionals or carers. Studies will be included irrespective of …


Review Of Optical-Based Remote Sensing For Plant Trait Mapping, Lucie Homolova, Zbynek Malenovsky, Jan G. P. W Clevers, Glenda Garcia-Santos, Michael E. Schaepman Jan 2013

Review Of Optical-Based Remote Sensing For Plant Trait Mapping, Lucie Homolova, Zbynek Malenovsky, Jan G. P. W Clevers, Glenda Garcia-Santos, Michael E. Schaepman

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

Plant trait data have been used in various studies related to ecosystem functioning, community ecology, and assessment of ecosystem services. Evidences are that plant scientists agree on a set of key plant traits, which are relatively easy to measure and have a stable and strong predictive response to ecosystem functions. However, the field measurements of plant trait data are still limited to small area, to a certain moment in time and to certain number of species only. Therefore, remote sensing (RS) offers potential to complement or even replace field measurements of some plant traits. It offers instantaneous spatially contiguous information, …


Interpreting The Possible Ecological Role(S) Of Cyanotoxins: Compounds For Competitive Advantage And/Or Physiological Aide?, Aleicia Holland, Susan H. W Kinnear Jan 2013

Interpreting The Possible Ecological Role(S) Of Cyanotoxins: Compounds For Competitive Advantage And/Or Physiological Aide?, Aleicia Holland, Susan H. W Kinnear

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

To date, most research on freshwater cyanotoxin(s) has focused on understanding the dynamics of toxin production and decomposition, as well as evaluating the environmental conditions that trigger toxin production, all with the objective of informing management strategies and options for risk reduction. Comparatively few research studies have considered how this information can be used to understand the broader ecological role of cyanotoxin(s), and the possible applications of this knowledge to the management of toxic blooms. This paper explores the ecological, toxicological, and genetic evidence for cyanotoxin production in natural environments. The possible evolutionary advantages of toxin production are grouped into …


Exploring Attitudes And Barriers Toward The Use Of Evidence-Based Nursing Among Nurse Managers In Taiwanese Residential Aged Care Facilities, Hui Chen Chang, Mairwen Jones, Cherry Russell Jan 2013

Exploring Attitudes And Barriers Toward The Use Of Evidence-Based Nursing Among Nurse Managers In Taiwanese Residential Aged Care Facilities, Hui Chen Chang, Mairwen Jones, Cherry Russell

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

This article reports findings from a qualitative study on nurse managers' perspectives of evidence-based practice (EBP) in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) in Taiwan. Six RACFs were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. The sample consisted of the nurse manager from each facility (N = 6) who participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic qualitative content analysis was used to identify patterns of experience. The majority of managers expressed positive attitudes toward research and EBP but reported little experience in its implementation. Barriers to EBP included individual barriers such as lack of motivation and confidence to embrace change. Research-related barriers …


Coastal Evolution On Volcanic Oceanic Islands: A Complex Interplay Between Volcanism, Erosion, Sedimentation, Sea-Level Change And Biogenic Production, Ricardo S. Ramalho, Rui Quartau, Alan S. Trenhaile, Neil C. Mitchell, Colin D. Woodroffe, Sergio P. Avila Jan 2013

Coastal Evolution On Volcanic Oceanic Islands: A Complex Interplay Between Volcanism, Erosion, Sedimentation, Sea-Level Change And Biogenic Production, Ricardo S. Ramalho, Rui Quartau, Alan S. Trenhaile, Neil C. Mitchell, Colin D. Woodroffe, Sergio P. Avila

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: part A

The growth and decay of oceanic hotspot volcanoes are intrinsically related to a competition between volcanic construction and erosive destruction, and coastlines are at the forefront of such confrontation. In this paper, we review the several mechanisms that interact and contribute to the development of coastlines on oceanic island volcanoes, and how these processes evolve throughout the islands' lifetime. Volcanic constructional processes dominate during the emergent island and subaerial shield-building stages. During the emergent island stage, surtseyan activity prevails and hydroclastic and pyroclastic structures form; these structures are generally ephemeral because they can be rapidly obliterated by marine erosion. With …