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## Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Thermal Comfort Evaluation Of A Mixed-Mode Ventilated Office Building With Advanced Natural Ventilation And Underfloor Air Distribution Systems, Xiang Deng, Georgios Kokogiannakis, Zhenjun Ma, Paul Cooper

#### Thermal Comfort Evaluation Of A Mixed-Mode Ventilated Office Building With Advanced Natural Ventilation And Underfloor Air Distribution Systems, Xiang Deng, Georgios Kokogiannakis, Zhenjun Ma, Paul Cooper

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

This study uses field monitoring and post occupancy evaluation (POE) surveys to investigate the indoor thermal comfort of an office building that is located in subtropical zone. The building is special as it combines advanced natural ventilation (ANV) strategies and underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems. A comparison between a static thermal comfort model and a dynamic thermal comfort model is also conducted. The results show that the thermal comfort conditions in the case study building are satisfactory in summer while in winter there is evidence of thermal discomfort. For the case study building, the static thermal comfort model gives outputs …

Online Coordinated Voltage Control In Distribution Systems Subjected To Structural Changes And Dg Availability, Dothinka Ranamuka Rallage, Ashish P. Agalgaonkar, Kashem M. Muttaqi

#### Online Coordinated Voltage Control In Distribution Systems Subjected To Structural Changes And Dg Availability, Dothinka Ranamuka Rallage, Ashish P. Agalgaonkar, Kashem M. Muttaqi

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

The responses of multiple DG units and voltage regulating devices such as tap changers and capacitor banks for correcting the voltage may lead to operational conflicts and oscillatory transients, where distribution systems are subjected to network reconfiguration and changes in availability of the DG units. Therefore, coordinated voltage control is required to minimize control interactions while accounting for the impact of structural changes associated with the network. This paper proposes a strategy for coordinating the operation of multiple voltage regulating devices and DG units in medium voltage (MV) distribution systems, under structural changes and DG availability, for effective voltage control. …

A Review Of Protection Systems For Distribution Networks Embedded With Renewable Generation, Joel Kennedy, Philip Ciufo, Ashish P. Agalgaonkar

#### A Review Of Protection Systems For Distribution Networks Embedded With Renewable Generation, Joel Kennedy, Philip Ciufo, Ashish P. Agalgaonkar

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

The rapid growth of grid-connected embedded generation is changing the operational characteristics of power distribution networks. Amongst a range of issues being reported in the research, the effect of these changes on so-called 'traditional protection systems' has not gone without attention. Looking to the future, the possibility of microgrid systems and deliberate islanding of sections of the network will require highly flexible distribution management systems and a re-design of protection strategies. This paper explores the envisaged protection issues concerned with large penetrations of embedded generation in distribution networks extending into auto-reclosure and protection device coordination. A critical review of recently …

Optimal Distribution Control Of Non‐Linear Tire Force Of Electric Vehicles With In‐Wheel Motors, Boyuan Li, Haiping Du, Weihua Li

#### Optimal Distribution Control Of Non‐Linear Tire Force Of Electric Vehicles With In‐Wheel Motors, Boyuan Li, Haiping Du, Weihua Li

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

An over-actuated control system has the advantage of being able to use redundant actuators to reconfigure the control system and it can realize fault tolerant control. In order to achieve improved vehicle stability and handling performance for electric vehicles with in-wheel steering and driving motors, the control of the vehicle body slip angle and yaw rate is actually an over-actuated control problem. To obtain the optimal solution for this control problem, this study proposes a two-level tire force distribution control method, where the upper level controller calculates the desired lateral and longitudinal forces generated by friction on the tire of …

The Optimisation Of The Secondary Cooling Water Distribution With Improved Genetic Algorithm In Continuous Casting Of Steels, Yu-Chun Zhai, Ying Li, Beiyue Ma, C Yan, Zhengyi Jiang

#### The Optimisation Of The Secondary Cooling Water Distribution With Improved Genetic Algorithm In Continuous Casting Of Steels, Yu-Chun Zhai, Ying Li, Beiyue Ma, C Yan, Zhengyi Jiang

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

An improved genetic algorithm is presented for the water consumption of the secondary cooling zone based on the heat transfer model of the off-line bloom caster. This study is to control the existing cooling systems and the steel casting practises in order to produce steel with best possible quality. The fitness function of improved genetic algorithm is founded according to the metallurgical criteria. This algorithm coupled with heat transfer model and metallurgical criteria, added dynamic coding method and self-adapting mutation on the original genetic algorithm can increase water distribution adaptively and improve the process efficiency. The simulation results of T91 …

Attenuation And Propagation Of Voltage Unbalance In Radial Distribution Networks, Devinda Perera, Philip Ciufo, Lasantha G. Meegahapola, Sarath Perera

#### Attenuation And Propagation Of Voltage Unbalance In Radial Distribution Networks, Devinda Perera, Philip Ciufo, Lasantha G. Meegahapola, Sarath Perera

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

Recently published International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC) technical reports IEC 61000-3-13 provides detailed methodologies for managing voltage unbalance (VU) in electric power systems. A key aspect in the VU emission allocation process is the estimation of VU propagation in different parts of the network. Although the VU propagation from upstream networks to downstream networks is adequately addressed, the attenuation of VU when propagating from downstream to upstream networks at the same voltage level has not been properly taken into account in the aforementioned methodologies. Furthermore, mains connected three-phase induction motors are known to attenuate VU, and there is no methodology currently …

Simulink Model For Examining Dynamic Interactions Involving Electro-Mechanical Oscillations In Distribution Systems, Dothinka Ranamuka Rallage, Ashish P. Agalgaonkar, Kashem M. Muttaqi

#### Simulink Model For Examining Dynamic Interactions Involving Electro-Mechanical Oscillations In Distribution Systems, Dothinka Ranamuka Rallage, Ashish P. Agalgaonkar, Kashem M. Muttaqi

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

In Australian medium voltage (MV) distribution networks, the majority of embedded local generation (LG) uses synchronous machine based technology. LG units with a synchronous generator can easily be dispatched and controlled to provide or absorb reactive power and thereby locally supporting the system voltage and increasing the voltage stability margin. The fast response from a synchronous machine based LG unit exciter will ensure fast voltage recovery. This will significantly improve the transient voltage stability. Also, the synchronous machine based LG units can provide inertial support to the system. Furthermore, some of these LG technologies work as standby power supplies all …

Application Of Saturated Core Fault Current Limiters To Interconnected Distribution Networks, Sasareka Gunawardana Mudalige, Sarath Perera, Jeffrey W. Moscrop

#### Application Of Saturated Core Fault Current Limiters To Interconnected Distribution Networks, Sasareka Gunawardana Mudalige, Sarath Perera, Jeffrey W. Moscrop

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

There is an increasing need for electricity utilities to limit fault levels in critical locations in power systems so that existing switchgear can continue to function as expected. This is particularly true in electrical distribution systems, where the increased penetration of renewable and decentralised generation is forcing the network to be highly interconnected in order to allow for higher integration capacity and reliable operation. Consequently, the short-circuit currents in distribution systems have increased significantly. In this background, application of fault current limiting devices is one of the solutions that is being considered by the Distribution Network Service Providers (DNSPs). A …

Control Issues Of Distribution System Automation In Smart Grids, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Ali Esmaeel Nezhad, Jamshid Aghaei, Velappa Ganapathy

#### Control Issues Of Distribution System Automation In Smart Grids, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Ali Esmaeel Nezhad, Jamshid Aghaei, Velappa Ganapathy

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

In recent years, the world has been exposed to many developments in different areas esp. computer technology, resulting in computers with high power of processing to be built. Among these devices, intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) have the capability to process considerable volume of data at high speed. Since, real-time data processing is vital in distribution networks as the largest users during their operation, IEDs would be applicable in such systems. In addition to IEDS, communication systems have improved during recent decades, providing the desired conditions for a concept known as distribution system automation (DSA) which has been discussed in this …

Molecular Weight Distribution Of Network Strands In Double Network Hydrogels Estimated By Mechanical Testing, Hai Xin, Hugh Ralph Brown, Geoffrey M. Spinks

#### Molecular Weight Distribution Of Network Strands In Double Network Hydrogels Estimated By Mechanical Testing, Hai Xin, Hugh Ralph Brown, Geoffrey M. Spinks

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

The remarkably high toughness of double network (DN) hydrogels is related to the energy dissipation that occurs due to the scission of network strands in the most tightly crosslinked of its two interpenetrating networks. The loading curve during tensile testing of DN hydrogels usually takes a complex shape and sometimes shows yielding. Wang and Hong recently proposed a model [1] based on the successive scission of the shortest remaining elastically active strands during tensile loading that predicts the shape of the loading curve of one DN hydrogel reasonably well. In the present study, the model was modified slightly and applied …

Voltage Unbalance Emission Allocation Using Constrained Bus Voltage Method In Radial Distribution Networks, Devinda Perera, Philip Ciufo, Sarath Perera, Lasantha Meegahapola

#### Voltage Unbalance Emission Allocation Using Constrained Bus Voltage Method In Radial Distribution Networks, Devinda Perera, Philip Ciufo, Sarath Perera, Lasantha Meegahapola

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

The International Electrotechnical Committee Technical Report IEC 61000-3-13 is focused on the coordination of voltage unbalance (VU) in power systems by prescribing a methodology to determine individual VU emission allocation limits to installations. This paper provides an alternative VU emission allocation process to that of the IEC Technical Report, which is based on the concept of constrained bus voltage (CBV) method. The proposed methodology can be used in relation to radial distribution networks with symmetrical distribution lines. Several application examples of the proposed methodology are presented. It is shown that the proposed methodology is superior in comparison to the VU …

Online Voltage Control In Distribution Systems With Multiple Voltage Regulating Devices, Dothinka Ranamuka Rallage, Ashish Agalgaonkar, Kashem Muttaqi

#### Online Voltage Control In Distribution Systems With Multiple Voltage Regulating Devices, Dothinka Ranamuka Rallage, Ashish Agalgaonkar, Kashem Muttaqi

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

Voltage regulation in distribution systems is typically performed with the aid of multiple voltage regulating devices, such as on-load tap changer and step voltage regulators. These devices are conventionally tuned and locally coordinated using Volt/VAR optimization strategies in accordance with the time-graded operation. However, in case of distribution systems with distributed generation (DG), there could be a possibility of simultaneous responses of DG and multiple voltage regulators for correcting the target bus voltage, thereby resulting in operational conflicts. This paper proposes an online voltage control strategy for a realistic distribution system containing a synchronous machine-based renewable DG unit and other …

An Algebraic Approach For Determination Of Dg Parameters To Support Voltage Profiles In Radial Distribution Networks, Kashem M. Muttaqi, An D. T Le, Michael Negnevitsky, Gerard Ledwich

#### An Algebraic Approach For Determination Of Dg Parameters To Support Voltage Profiles In Radial Distribution Networks, Kashem M. Muttaqi, An D. T Le, Michael Negnevitsky, Gerard Ledwich

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

Rapidly increasing electricity demands and capacity shortage of transmission and distribution facilities are the main driving forces for the growth of Distributed Generation (DG) integration in power grids. One of the reasons for choosing a DG is its ability to support voltage in a distribution system. Selection of effective DG characteristics and DG parameters is a significant concern of distribution system planners to obtain maximum potential benefits from the DG unit. This paper addresses the issue of improving the network voltage profile in distribution systems by installing a DG of the most suitable size, at a suitable location. An analytical …

Distribution Expansion Planning Considering Reliability And Security Of Energy Using Modified Pso (Particle Swarm Optimization) Algorithm, Jamshid Aghaei, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Ali Azizivahed, Mohsen Gitizadeh

#### Distribution Expansion Planning Considering Reliability And Security Of Energy Using Modified Pso (Particle Swarm Optimization) Algorithm, Jamshid Aghaei, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Ali Azizivahed, Mohsen Gitizadeh

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

Distribution feeders and substations need to provide additional capacity to serve the growing electrical demand of customers without compromising the reliability of the electrical networks. Also, more control devices, such as DG (Distributed Generation) units are being integrated into distribution feeders. Distribution networks were not planned to host these intermittent generation units before construction of the systems. Therefore, additional distribution facilities are needed to be planned and prepared for the future growth of the electrical demand as well as the increase of network hosting capacity by DG units. This paper presents a multiobjective optimization algorithm for the MDEP (Multi-Stage Distribution …

Over-Voltage Mitigation Within Distribution Networks With A High Renewable Distributed Generation Penetration, Joel Kennedy, Philip Ciufo, Ashish Agalgaonkar

#### Over-Voltage Mitigation Within Distribution Networks With A High Renewable Distributed Generation Penetration, Joel Kennedy, Philip Ciufo, Ashish Agalgaonkar

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

The rapid growth of grid-connected distributed generation has increased the likelihood of over-voltage occurrences in distribution networks. In recent times, much research has taken place in order to develop a control strategy to mitigate the voltage rise problem. However, most of the published strategies require re-tuning when additional resources are connected, or have a strong dependence on network parameters, such as fault level. This paper proposes a novel over-voltage mitigation scheme that has many advantages not observed in literature. Firstly, the control scheme can integrate with an existing feeder in a plug-and-play fashion. No prior analysis is necessary to configure …

Characterisation Of Flicker Emission And Propagation In Distribution Networks With Bi-Directional Power Flows, D Perera, L Meegahapola, S Perera, P Ciufo

#### Characterisation Of Flicker Emission And Propagation In Distribution Networks With Bi-Directional Power Flows, D Perera, L Meegahapola, S Perera, P Ciufo

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

With the increasing penetration levels of intermittent and fluctuating energy sources such as wind generating systems in the electricity grid, resulting voltage fluctuations and flicker can be expected to become an important power quality considerations. Due to significant bidirectional power flows resulting from large renewable power generation systems connected to downstream, voltage fluctuations may propagate from downstream to upstream. The work presented in this paper investigates and characterises flicker emission and propagation resulting from fluctuating generating sources connected to a distribution network. Mathematical models are developed for flicker emission under different generator control strategies and flicker propagation to upstream network. …

A Sensitivity Analysis Toolkit For The Simplification Of Mv Distribution Network Voltage Management, Fabian Tamp, Philip Ciufo

#### A Sensitivity Analysis Toolkit For The Simplification Of Mv Distribution Network Voltage Management, Fabian Tamp, Philip Ciufo

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

As distribution networks become increasingly variable and generation becomes increasingly decentralised, voltage standards are becoming more liable to violation. Accordingly, intelligent voltage management strategies are required to enable standards compliance without unduly increasing network maintenance or infrastructure costs. The relationship between network power and voltages, however, is complex, non-linear and interdependent, and thus is difficult to conceptualise and use for decision-making and control purposes. This paper introduces a software toolkit that simplifies the development of voltage management strategies by the application of sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis reduces complex network relationships to simple linear equations, and thus enables easy and comprehensive …

An Approach For Online Assessment Of Rooftop Solar Pv Impacts On Low-Voltage Distribution Networks, Md Jan-E- Alam, Kashem Muttaqi, Darmawan Sutanto

#### An Approach For Online Assessment Of Rooftop Solar Pv Impacts On Low-Voltage Distribution Networks, Md Jan-E- Alam, Kashem Muttaqi, Darmawan Sutanto

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

Assumption-based offline analysis tools may not be able to provide sufficient and accurate information for the corrective decision making to mitigate solar photovoltaic (PV) impacts in the future distribution grids. This is mainly due to the increasing penetration level of intermittent power generation resources and also the fluctuating behavior of consumer demand. Online assessment tools can assist to manage PV impacts and aid to mitigate those on a real-time basis. This paper proposes an approach for online assessment of rooftop PV impacts on low-voltage (LV) networks using real-time network data. A variable-width sliding window will be used to provide the …

99mtc-Dtpa Volume Of Distribution, Half-Life And Glomerular Filtration Rate In Normal Adults, Jennifer L. Holness, John S. Fleming, Alessandra Malaroda, James M. Warwick

#### 99mtc-Dtpa Volume Of Distribution, Half-Life And Glomerular Filtration Rate In Normal Adults, Jennifer L. Holness, John S. Fleming, Alessandra Malaroda, James M. Warwick

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

Assessment of volume of distribution (VD) and half-life (T1/2) values during glomerular filtration rate (GFR) investigations is a useful quality control check. The aim of this study was to derive reference data for VD and T1/2 and also to provide reference data for GFR fro studies performed using 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid.

Thermal Defect Analysis On Distribution Transformer Using A Rlc Network And Thermography, Geoffrey O. Asiegbu, Ahmed M. A Haidar, Kamarul Hawari

#### Thermal Defect Analysis On Distribution Transformer Using A Rlc Network And Thermography, Geoffrey O. Asiegbu, Ahmed M. A Haidar, Kamarul Hawari

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

Electrical transformers are vital components found virtually in most power-operated equipments. These transformers spontaneously radiate heat in both operation and steady-state mode. Should this thermal radiation inherent in transformers rises above allowable threshold a reduction in efficiency of operation occurs. In addition, this could cause other components in the system to malfunction. The aim of this work is to detect the remote causes of this undesirable thermal rise in transformers such as oil distribution transformers and ways to control this prevailing thermal problem. Oil transformers consist of these components: windings usually made of copper or aluminum conductor, the core normally …

A Multiagent Approach For Decentralized Voltage Regulation In Power Distribution Networks Within Dgs, Fenghui Ren, Minjie Zhang, Danny Sutanto

#### A Multiagent Approach For Decentralized Voltage Regulation In Power Distribution Networks Within Dgs, Fenghui Ren, Minjie Zhang, Danny Sutanto

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

Voltage regulation (VR) is a procedure to keep voltages in a distribution network (DN) within normal limits. Conven- tionally, a voltage regulator can read voltage levels from pre- dened measures, and regulate the voltages. However, due to lacking of a distributed generator's (DG) information, the unexpected electricity from a DG will mislead readings on voltages levels, so as to disturb the VR in a DN. Adjust- ing a DG's reactive power output is an alternative way for VR. However, because of limited penetration levels, DGs need to collaborate with other devices in order to provide an eective voltage regulation. Therefore, …

Distribution Of Reynolds Shear Stress In Steady And Unsteady Flows, Ishraq Alfadhli, Shu-Qing Yang, Muttucumaru Sivakumar

#### Distribution Of Reynolds Shear Stress In Steady And Unsteady Flows, Ishraq Alfadhli, Shu-Qing Yang, Muttucumaru Sivakumar

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

This study investigates the Reynolds shear stress distribution in steady and unsteady non-uniform flows. Specifically, it deals with how to express the deviation of this turbulence characteristic from that of uniform flow line; it is found that flow acceleration can well represent the deviation of Reynolds shear stress from its standard linear distribution. By connecting the flow acceleration with Reynolds shear stress, the study demonstrates empirically that the linear distrubiton of Reynolds shear stress can be observed when the flow acceleration is zero; the concave distribution of Reynolds shear stress can be observed when the flow acceleration is negative or …

Velocity Distribution In Non-Uniform/Unsteady Flows And The Validity Of Log Law, Ishraq Alfadhli, Shu-Qing Yang, Muttucumaru Sivakumar

#### Velocity Distribution In Non-Uniform/Unsteady Flows And The Validity Of Log Law, Ishraq Alfadhli, Shu-Qing Yang, Muttucumaru Sivakumar

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

This study investigates the longitudinal velocity profiles in steady and unsteady non-uniform open channel flows by analyzing the data available in the literature. It was found that for steady/unsteady flow in the Log law is applicable only in the inner region where y/hg

Power Sharing Among Multiple Solar Photovoltaic (Pv) Systems In A Radial Distribution Feeder, Brian K. Perera, Philip Ciufo

#### Power Sharing Among Multiple Solar Photovoltaic (Pv) Systems In A Radial Distribution Feeder, Brian K. Perera, Philip Ciufo

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

With an increasing penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, power distribution grids are becoming more susceptible to network voltage rise. As per applicable standards for grid-integrated PV systems, a PV system must be automatically disconnected from the grid when the terminal voltage of the PV system exceeds a defined maximum voltage. With this directive, in certain situations, PV systems connected at nodes at which the voltage sensitivity is high, may be disconnected from the grid while PV systems connected at less sensitive nodes are continuing to operate. In such a situation, owners whose PV systems are connected at nodes at …

Three-Dimensional Measurement Of Object Surfaces With Complex Shape And Color Distribution Based On Projection Of Color Fringe Patterns, Ke Chen, Jiangtao Xi, Yanguang Yu, Sheng Tong, Qinghua Guo

#### Three-Dimensional Measurement Of Object Surfaces With Complex Shape And Color Distribution Based On Projection Of Color Fringe Patterns, Ke Chen, Jiangtao Xi, Yanguang Yu, Sheng Tong, Qinghua Guo

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

A challenging issue associated with three-dimensional (3D) fringe patterns profilometry (FPP) is the unwrapping of phase maps resulting from color object surfaces. This paper proposes a new colorprojection-based 3D FPP, making use of the three primary color channels [i.e., red, green, and blue (RGB)] associated with digital projectors. One channel (e.g., red) is used for projecting sinusoidal fringes required by phase shift profilometry (PSP); the other two channels are employed for generating binary stripe patterns. In order to achieve reliable phase unwrapping, each fringe of the sinusoidal patterns is identified by a unique binary sequence. These sequences are then encoded …

Performance Analysis Of Distribution Networks Under High Penetration Of Solar Pv, M J. E Alam, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Darmawan Sutanto, L Elder, A Baitch

#### Performance Analysis Of Distribution Networks Under High Penetration Of Solar Pv, M J. E Alam, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Darmawan Sutanto, L Elder, A Baitch

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) resources into distribution networks changes the normally expected network behaviour by injecting real power into the point of connection. Depending on the characteristics and setup of the PV inverter, reactive power could also be injected into the network. The impact will depend on the control strategy adopted for reactive power injection. Typically, solar PV units are installed at low voltage (LV) level in distribution networks. Cluster based installation of numerous PV inverters in the LV level will impact the operation of both the host LV network and the upstream medium voltage network. With random variations …

Comparison Of Some Tests Of Fit For The Inverse Gaussian Distribution, D J. Best, John C. W Rayner, Olivier Thas

#### Comparison Of Some Tests Of Fit For The Inverse Gaussian Distribution, D J. Best, John C. W Rayner, Olivier Thas

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

This paper gives an empirical investigation of some tests of goodness of fit for the inverse Gaussian distribution.

Non-Uniform Stress Distribution In Frp-Wrapped Circular Concrete Columns Under Uniform Axial Deformation, S Q. Li, J F. Chen, Tao Yu, J G. Teng

#### Non-Uniform Stress Distribution In Frp-Wrapped Circular Concrete Columns Under Uniform Axial Deformation, S Q. Li, J F. Chen, Tao Yu, J G. Teng

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

The confinement of concrete columns using bonded FRP wraps has become a popular retrofit technique. Through extensive research in the last two decades, many stress-strain models have been developed for concrete in FRP-wrapped circular columns. All these models assume that the stress state is axisymmetric in an FRP-wrapped circular concrete column under concentric axial compression. This implies that the FRP wrap is assumed to be axisymmetric in geometry, but in reality such axisymmetry is not realised due to the existence of an overlapping zone. This paper presents a finite element investigation into the stress state in FRP-wrapped circular concrete columns …

A Multi-Agent Solution To Distribution System Management By Considering Distributed Generators, Fenghui Ren, Minjie Zhang, Darmawan Sutanto

#### A Multi-Agent Solution To Distribution System Management By Considering Distributed Generators, Fenghui Ren, Minjie Zhang, Darmawan Sutanto

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

A traditional distribution network carries electricity from a central power resource to consumers, and the power dispatch is controlled centrally. Distributed generators (DGs) emerge as an alternative power resource to distribution networks at a smaller and distributed scale, which will bring benefits such as reduced voltage drop and loss. However, because most of high penetration DGs are not utility owned and characterized by high degree of uncertainty such as solar and wind, the distribution network may perform differently from the conventionally expected behaviors. How to dynamically and efficiently manage the power dispatch in a distribution network to balance the supply …

Flicker Propagation Analysis In Distribution Networks With Embedded Generation, D Perera, L Meegahapola, S Perera, P Ciufo

#### Flicker Propagation Analysis In Distribution Networks With Embedded Generation, D Perera, L Meegahapola, S Perera, P Ciufo

*Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A*

Embedded generators such as wind generators can produce observable voltage fluctuations during variable wind conditions hence flicker. The flicker produced by such intermittent and fluctuating generating sources can propagate to other parts of the distribution network while creating power quality issues in distribution feeders. This study presents a flicker emission analysis for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farm and investigate the pertinent factors which influence flicker propagation and attenuation in distribution feeders. Study has shown that voltage fluctuations are significantly influenced by the attenuation characteristics of various load types (i.e. constant power, impedance and current loads) connected to …