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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Analysing Mobile Instant Messaging User Satisfaction And Loyalty: An Integrated Perspective, Pu Huang, Mengxiang Li Jan 2013

Analysing Mobile Instant Messaging User Satisfaction And Loyalty: An Integrated Perspective, Pu Huang, Mengxiang Li

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Mobile instant messaging (mobile IM) is a cutting edge technology of the P2P communication. The prevalence of the mobile IM boosts the research of the perceived satisfaction and loyalty towards mobile IM long-term usage. In the era of 4G, individuals use mobile IM to communicate with their friends in every-day life. However, prior studies neglected a holistic view of users' roles and then yielded insufficient explanation about the usage satisfaction of mobile IM. Based on the integrated users' role framework, this research-in-progress explores the determinants of mobile IM satisfaction and loyalty with the consideration of the triangulation perspective of users' …


A Literature Review On Business Process Management, Business Process Reengineering, And Business Process Innovation, Abhijith Anand, Samuel Fosso Wamba, Denis Gnanzou Jan 2013

A Literature Review On Business Process Management, Business Process Reengineering, And Business Process Innovation, Abhijith Anand, Samuel Fosso Wamba, Denis Gnanzou

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Business process management (BPM), business process reengineering (BPR), and business process innovation (BPI) have been the primary strategies adopted by several organizations to manage their business successfully along with IT. In the last few years, the concept of BPM, BPR, and BPI has been a hot topic among the IS community, which is evident in the degree of literatures devoted to it. Due to the dynamic nature of this research area, this paper aims to add knowledge to the existing ones by answering (1) what is the current level of development on BPM, BPR, and BPI within AIS basket of …


Modeling The Positioning Of Trichomes On The Leaves Of Plants, Robert S. Anderssen, Maureen P. Edwards, Sergiy Pereverzyev Jr Jan 2013

Modeling The Positioning Of Trichomes On The Leaves Of Plants, Robert S. Anderssen, Maureen P. Edwards, Sergiy Pereverzyev Jr

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

A continuing and future challenge in plant science is the "genetics of geometry" [3]: the recovery of information about the dynamics of the genetic mechanisms by which plants control the development of various features of their geometry. Some representative publications dealing with such issues include: (i) the modelling of plant architecture using L- systems and rewriting [18], (ii) the genetic control of floral development [10, 4], and (iii) the positioning of the trichomes (hairs) on the leaves of plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana [25, 23]. It is the positioning of trichomes which is examined in this chapter. The use of …


Group Effects Of Piles Due To Lateral Soil Movement, Hongyu Qin, Wei Dong Guo Jan 2013

Group Effects Of Piles Due To Lateral Soil Movement, Hongyu Qin, Wei Dong Guo

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Laboratory model tests have been conducted to investigate the responses of piles subjected to lateral soil movement. The results of a single pile test and four tests on two piles arranged in a row perpendicular to the direction of soil movement are presented. The development of maximum bending moment, maximum shear force, and pile deflection with soil movement and the largest pile response profiles for the single pile and pile groups are compared. Group effect was evaluated using group factor which is defined in terms of the measured maximum bending moment. The major findings are (1) the pile head conditions …


Security Analysis Of A Single Sign-On Mechanism For Distributed Computer Networks, Guilin Wang, Jiangshan Yu, Qi Xie Jan 2013

Security Analysis Of A Single Sign-On Mechanism For Distributed Computer Networks, Guilin Wang, Jiangshan Yu, Qi Xie

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Single sign-on (SSO) is a new authentication mechanism that enables a legal user with a single credential to be authenticated by multiple service providers in a distributed computer network. Recently, Chang and Lee proposed a new SSO scheme and claimed its security by providing well-organized security arguments. In this paper, however, we demonstrative that their scheme is actually insecure as it fails to meet credential privacy and soundness of authentication. Specifically, we present two impersonation attacks. The first attack allows a malicious service provider, who has successfully communicated with a legal user twice, to recover the user's credential and then …


Should Users Pay The Toll For Australia's Infrastructure Problem?, Garry Bowditch Jan 2013

Should Users Pay The Toll For Australia's Infrastructure Problem?, Garry Bowditch

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Australia spends more on infrastructure today than at any stage in its history. Yet governments are unable to meet demand and don't expect ever to do so. What can governments do to keep up with escalating demand and community expectations for infrastructure? Reserve Bank assistant governor Philip Lowe says tolls and levies could be the answer to more efficiently funding the transport infrastructure we need - infrastructure he says would boost productivity and improve living standards. Tolls are just one issue likely to be debated as part of the Productivity Commission's current inquiry into infrastructure costs, which is considering how …


Net Section Tension Capacity Of Cold-Reduced Sheet Steel Channel Braces Bolted At The Web, Lip H. Teh, Benoit P. Gilbert Jan 2013

Net Section Tension Capacity Of Cold-Reduced Sheet Steel Channel Braces Bolted At The Web, Lip H. Teh, Benoit P. Gilbert

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper examines the accuracy of equations specified by the North American and Australasian steel structures codes for determining the net section tension capacity of a channel brace. It points out that there are three distinct factors affecting the net section efficiency of a cold-formed steel channel brace bolted at the web. These factors are the in-plane shear lag associated with stress concentration around a bolt hole that is also present in flat sheets, the out-of-plane shear lag that is also present in an I-section bolted at the flanges only, and the bending moment arising from the connection eccentricity with …


An Equivalence Theorem For Reduced Fell Bundle C*-Algebras, Aidan Sims, Dana P. Williams Jan 2013

An Equivalence Theorem For Reduced Fell Bundle C*-Algebras, Aidan Sims, Dana P. Williams

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

We show that if E is an equivalence of upper semicontinu- ous Fell bundles B and C over groupoids, then there is a linking bundle L(E ) over the linking groupoid L such that the full cross-sectional alge- bra of L(E ) contains those of B and C as complementary full corners, and likewise for reduced cross-sectional algebras. We show how our re- sults generalise to groupoid crossed-products the fact, proved by Quigg and Spielberg, that Raeburn's symmetric imprimitivity theorem passes through the quotient map to reduced crossed products.


Suitability Assessment Framework Of Agent-Based Software Architectures, Ghassan Beydoun, Graham Low, Paul Bogg Jan 2013

Suitability Assessment Framework Of Agent-Based Software Architectures, Ghassan Beydoun, Graham Low, Paul Bogg

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Context: A common distributed intelligent system architecture is Multi Agent Systems (MASs). Creating systems with this architecture has been recently supported by Agent Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) methodologies. But two questions remain: how do we determine the suitability of a MAS implementation for a particular problem? And can this be determined without AOSE expertise? Objective: Given the relatively small number of software engineers that are AOSE experts, many problems that could be better solved with a MAS system are solved using more commonly known but not necessarily as suitable development approaches (e.g. object-oriented). The paper aims to empower software engineers, …


The Response Of Axially Restrained Non-Composite Steel-Concrete-Steel Sandwich Panels Due To Large Impact Loading, Alex M. Remennikov, Sih Ying Kong, Brian Uy Jan 2013

The Response Of Axially Restrained Non-Composite Steel-Concrete-Steel Sandwich Panels Due To Large Impact Loading, Alex M. Remennikov, Sih Ying Kong, Brian Uy

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

In conventional steel-concrete-steel (SCS) construction, the external steel plates are connected to the concrete infill by welded shear stud connectors. This paper describes a programme of experimental and numerical investigations on reduced-scale non-composite SCS panels with axially restrained connections. The experimental results have demonstrated that the non-composite SCS panels are capable of developing enhanced load-carrying capacity through the tensile membrane resistance of the steel faceplates. This type of construction was found to exhibit highly ductile response and be able to sustain large end rotations of up to 18° without collapse. High fidelity finite element models for SCS panels under impact …


The Effect Of Degradation On Seismic Damage Of Rc Buildings, Ali Khoshraftar, Reza Abbasnia, Farhad Fakheri Raof Jan 2013

The Effect Of Degradation On Seismic Damage Of Rc Buildings, Ali Khoshraftar, Reza Abbasnia, Farhad Fakheri Raof

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The severity of seismic damage of reinforced concrete buildings depends on the tectonic characteristics of area, seismic features of ground motion, quality and quantity of buildings. One of the most important factor's, affecting the seismic damage, is the degrading rate of building. Degradation of stiffness and strength are the parameters, which their effect on the seismic damage of buildings are investigated, using an inelastic dynamic analysis. The buildings which are studied are moment resisting RC frames. In order to study the inelastic dynamic behavior of these buildings, IDARC software is used. Based on the obtained results, 40% degradation of strength …


Twisted Cyclic Cohomology And Modular Fredholm Modules, Adam Rennie, Andrzej Sitarz, Makoto Yamashita Jan 2013

Twisted Cyclic Cohomology And Modular Fredholm Modules, Adam Rennie, Andrzej Sitarz, Makoto Yamashita

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Connes and Cuntz showed in [Comm. Math. Phys. 114 (1988), 515-526] that suitable cyclic cocycles can be represented as Chern characters of finitely summable semifinite Fredholm modules. We show an analogous result in twisted cyclic cohomology using Chern characters of modular Fredholm modules. We present examples of modular Fredholm modules arising from Podles sphereś and from SUq (2).


Simplified Analytical Method For Seismic Response Of Composite Caisson-Piles Foundations, Rui Zhong, Maosong Huang Jan 2013

Simplified Analytical Method For Seismic Response Of Composite Caisson-Piles Foundations, Rui Zhong, Maosong Huang

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Seismic response of a new type of foundation,the composite caisson-piles foundation,is studied through a simplified analytical method. The focus is the contribution of the piles beneath the caisson in increasing the earthquake resistance of the foundation-superstructure system. Firstly,considering the interaction between the soil and foundation with dynamic Winkler model,the equation of kinematic response of the composite foundation under S-wave is derived. Secondly,a simplified model for the seismic response of the foundation-column-lumped mass system in frequency domain is built;and with Fourier transformation this method is applied to transient seismic problems. Thirdly,with an example of soil-foundation-superstructure seismic behavior,this proposed method is validated …


Fabrication And Characterization Of A Polymer Micro-Fiber Bragg Grating, Ginu Rajan, Gang-Ding Peng Jan 2013

Fabrication And Characterization Of A Polymer Micro-Fiber Bragg Grating, Ginu Rajan, Gang-Ding Peng

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Polymer micro-fibers with inscribed Bragg gratings are reported in this paper. By implementing a two-stage fabrication process a 16 μm diameter micro-fiber is fabricated with an inscribed 10 mm long Bragg grating which exhibits a peak reflected wavelength circa 1530 nm. The growth dynamics of the polymer micro-fiber Bragg grating are also observed and analyzed. A maximum reflectivity of 5% is obtained after an exposure time of 3 minutes to a 50 mW power He-Cd laser of 325 nm wavelength. The temperature characterization of the micro-fiber Bragg grating with different diameters is also presented. The fabricated micro-fiber Bragg grating can …


Two-Dimensional Cfd Modelling Of Gas-Decompression Behaviour, Alhoush Elshahomi, Cheng Lu, Guillaume Michal, Xiong Liu, Ajit R. Godbole, K K. Botros, Phillip Venton, Philip Colvin Jan 2013

Two-Dimensional Cfd Modelling Of Gas-Decompression Behaviour, Alhoush Elshahomi, Cheng Lu, Guillaume Michal, Xiong Liu, Ajit R. Godbole, K K. Botros, Phillip Venton, Philip Colvin

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

ONE OF THE key issues in the design and construction of any gas pipeline is the prevention of material fracture. Since the gas is generally transported under high operating pressures, it must be ensured that the gas pipeline is sufficiently tough to arrest the propagation of any potential fracture. For several decades, control of gas pipeline fracture propagation has been under scrutiny due to economic considerations and ecological and safety hazards related to pressurised pipe failure. The Battelle Two Curve approach has been widely used to determine the minimum material arrest toughness by comparing the gas decompression wave velocity with …


Angular Rebinning For Geometry Independent Spect Reconstruction, Alexandre Bousse, Kjell Erlandsson, Stefano Pedemonte, Sebastien Ourselin, Simon Arridge, Brian F. Hutton Jan 2013

Angular Rebinning For Geometry Independent Spect Reconstruction, Alexandre Bousse, Kjell Erlandsson, Stefano Pedemonte, Sebastien Ourselin, Simon Arridge, Brian F. Hutton

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This work proposes a novel approach to model the collimator response in SPECT. The approach consists of projecting the activity volume on a high number of virtual projection planes that are then averaged with an angular point spread function. It was motivated by the new possibilities offered by GPU for 3-D projection/backprojection. This approach also allows to model a wide range of SPECT imaging systems. Results show that reconstruction using our resolution modelling method is consistent with standard blurring. As an example, we show how to implement a convergent collimator response.


A Novel Method Of Embedding Additional Information Into Tensor Diffusion Filtering As An Application For Multi-Modal Reconstruction In Et, D Kazantsev, Sebastien Ourselin, Brian F. Hutton, W. R B. Lionheart, Simon Arridge Jan 2013

A Novel Method Of Embedding Additional Information Into Tensor Diffusion Filtering As An Application For Multi-Modal Reconstruction In Et, D Kazantsev, Sebastien Ourselin, Brian F. Hutton, W. R B. Lionheart, Simon Arridge

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The fast development of hybrid imaging modalities in tomography, such as SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography)/CT (computed tomography), PET (positron emission tomography)/MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and PET/CT, have increased an interest for reconstruction algorithms which are able to utilize a functional and anatomical information at the same time. In this paper a new method proposed for iterative reconstruction with anatomical prior in emission tomography (ET). The introduced regularization term is a modified anisotropic tensor diffusion filter which has shape-adapted smoothing properties. The filter accommodates available anatomical information which results in enhanced position and image dependent spatial resolution of emission …


Improving Graph Matching Via Density Maximization, Chao Wang, Lei Wang, Lingqiao Liu Jan 2013

Improving Graph Matching Via Density Maximization, Chao Wang, Lei Wang, Lingqiao Liu

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Graph matching has been widely used in various applications in computer vision due to its powerful performance. However, it poses three challenges to image sparse feature matching: (1) The combinatorial nature limits the size of the possible matches, (2) It is sensitive to outliers because the objective function prefers more matches, (3) It works poorly when handling many-to-many object correspondences, due to its assumption of one single cluster for each graph. In this paper, we address these problems with a unified framework-Density Maximization. We propose a graph density local estimator (DLE) to measure the quality of matches. Density Maximization aims …


Is 'Community' Important For Community Information Systems?, Alison E. Freeman, Peter Hyland, Mark Freeman, Karlheinz Kautz Jan 2013

Is 'Community' Important For Community Information Systems?, Alison E. Freeman, Peter Hyland, Mark Freeman, Karlheinz Kautz

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Community information systems have the power to transform communities. However, without fully understanding the pre-requisite factors affecting community information system viability, and the complex relationships between these factors, communities struggle to manage such projects in a way that leads to viable systems that deliver real benefits. This paper develops and presents a Model of Community Information System Viability Pre-requisite Factors, based on both existing literature and the study of three community information system projects. This Model represents the generic factors that inform viability (i.e. leadership, active membership, funding, awareness, and system design and functionality), and also considers the impact of …


Transition Of Ductile And Brittle Fracture During Dwtt By Fem, Youyou Wu, Hailiang Yu, Cheng Lu, A Kiet Tieu, Ajit Godbole, Guillaume Michal Jan 2013

Transition Of Ductile And Brittle Fracture During Dwtt By Fem, Youyou Wu, Hailiang Yu, Cheng Lu, A Kiet Tieu, Ajit Godbole, Guillaume Michal

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Globally, steel pipelines are widely used to transport energy in the form of liquid petroleum and natural gas. The steel used in the manufacture of these pipelines must have high strength and toughness, and high resistance to fracture. The Drop Weight Tear Test (DWTT) is the most widely used test to assess brittle fracture characteristics in steel. The zones of ductile and brittle fracture during DWTT characterize the quality of pipeline steels. In this paper, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) fracture models are coupled in a Finite Element model. The ductile and brittle fracture zones in the samples are analyzed under different …


Are You Smart Enough For Your Smart Phone? A Cognitive Load Comparison, Fayez Alshehri, Mark Freeman, Alison E. Freeman Jan 2013

Are You Smart Enough For Your Smart Phone? A Cognitive Load Comparison, Fayez Alshehri, Mark Freeman, Alison E. Freeman

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The popularity of mobile devices, and particularly smart phones, has been driven by rapid developments in their power, capabilities and features. However, these developments create new and additional demands on users. Increased attention and more complex thought patterns are required to interact with such technology. Testing three popular smart phones, this research applies the principles of Cognitive Load Theory to evaluate the impact of varied operating systems and interaction modes on users' cognitive load. NASA Task Load Index was used to measure participants' perceptions of the cognitive load imposed by interaction with these mobile devices. While different operating systems were …


A Scalable Unsupervised Feature Merging Approach To Efficient Dimensionality Reduction Of High-Dimensional Visual Data, Lingqiao Liu, Lei Wang Jan 2013

A Scalable Unsupervised Feature Merging Approach To Efficient Dimensionality Reduction Of High-Dimensional Visual Data, Lingqiao Liu, Lei Wang

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

To achieve a good trade-off between recognition accuracy and computational efficiency, it is often needed to reduce high-dimensional visual data to medium-dimensional ones. For this task, even applying a simple full-matrix-based linear projection causes significant computation and memory use. When the number of visual data is large, how to efficiently learn such a projection could even become a problem. The recent feature merging approach offers an efficient way to reduce the dimensionality, which only requires a single scan of features to perform reduction. However, existing merging algorithms do not scale well with high-dimensional data, especially in the unsupervised case. To …


Stainlessness, Etienne Turpin Jan 2013

Stainlessness, Etienne Turpin

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

To accompany the book Stainlessness, published this Spring by the Journal of Aesthetics and Protest Press (Leipzig and Los Angeles), Sound & Language Distribution is pleased to announce the release of a Limited Edition set of prints. The etched plates on view in the Convenience Gallery - and the set of prints they produced - tell the story of labor movements in North America and show how they have shaped the cities of Sudbury, Chicago, Pittsburgh, and Detroit. While processes of urbanization have all but erased these struggles from our cities and left only ambivalent monuments to mark the past, …


Another Atlas, Etienne Turpin Jan 2013

Another Atlas, Etienne Turpin

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Another Atlas builds on the work of Lize Mogel and Alexis Bhagat's 2007 compendium of cartographic investigations into power, networks and social justice. The book and subsequent touring exhibition brought together work from artists, designers, geographers and activists all focusing on the role mapping has in our shared social structures. The different works lead to questions of; Who has the right to map? What do they have the right to map? How mapping changes our world. Each of the artists selected represent ways information can be gathered and how forms of mapping can be challenged.


For A Minor Ornithology, Etienne Turpin Jan 2013

For A Minor Ornithology, Etienne Turpin

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

As part of the 15th Jakarta Biennale - Siasat - we curated the performance and installation piece For a Minor Ornithology at the Pasar Burumg Pramuka in Jakarta, Indonesia. Accompanying the performances are a series of diagrams designed with Jono Sturt of HTCHBCK (below), and an essay written with curator Anna-Sophie Springer. The essay, "Some Notes For a Minor Ornithology," considers the remarkable role of avifauna in the history of European scientific experiments, public museum displays, and taxidermy practices.


A Reflective Closed Loop Approach For Implementing A New Authentic Assessment-Based Teaching Facility For Electric Motor And Drive Systems, Craig Mclauchlan, Philip Ciufo, Sarath Perera Jan 2013

A Reflective Closed Loop Approach For Implementing A New Authentic Assessment-Based Teaching Facility For Electric Motor And Drive Systems, Craig Mclauchlan, Philip Ciufo, Sarath Perera

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

BACKGROUND A new teaching facility with a focus on electric motor and drive systems has been implemented at the University of Wollongong. This facility aspires to use authentic assessment principles to assist in preparing students to properly utilise electric motor and drive systems in professional practice. In an attempt to realise this aim, the implementation of this facility was undertaken using a reflective closedloop approach, addressing the educational outcomes achieved by the students. Setting a holistic scope for the implementation beyond technical concerns to include educational outcomes was critical to the success achieved and has laid the foundation for further …


Size And Power Of Cointegration Tests With Non-Normal Garch Error Distributions, Chaiwat Kosapattarapim, Yan-Xia Lin, Michael Mccrae Jan 2013

Size And Power Of Cointegration Tests With Non-Normal Garch Error Distributions, Chaiwat Kosapattarapim, Yan-Xia Lin, Michael Mccrae

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Several tests for cointegration among non-stationary financial time series have been developed including the Dicky Fuller (1979) unit root tests, the Cointegration Regression Durbin-Watson test (1983), the Wild Bootstrap test (2003) and the Johansen likelihood ratio tests (1988). The Johensen's tests appeared to provide superior results when the tests were originally applied to situations where the cointegration errors were normally distributed. However, substantial empirical evidences show that financial time series tend to be nonnormal in their distribution which may, in turn, lead to non-normal GARCH type cointegration error distributions. The question addressed in this paper is whether the Johansen's tests …


Innovations Of The Assessment System In Introductory Statistics Subject, Norhayati Baharun, Anne Porter Jan 2013

Innovations Of The Assessment System In Introductory Statistics Subject, Norhayati Baharun, Anne Porter

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper presents the results of a study investigating the innovations in the assessment system implemented in an introductory statistics subject (STAT131) at the University of Wollongong (UOW). For several years, innovations have been introduced to STAT131 particularly in the assessment system. These included the approaches of assignments, summary and mid-session test in 2003; assignments, laboratory work and midsession test from 2004 to 2005; four tests and three make-up tests in 2006; six tests with three compulsory and two optional tests in 2007; four tests (the best of three test marks were chosen) and opportunity to re-sit the tests in …


An Investigation Of The Effectiveness Of Interdiction Regimes Against Terrorist Attacks In An Urban Transport Hub, D Keep, I Piper, A Green Jan 2013

An Investigation Of The Effectiveness Of Interdiction Regimes Against Terrorist Attacks In An Urban Transport Hub, D Keep, I Piper, A Green

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper examines the effect of varying attack and interdiction strategies, both alone and in combination, in an urban transport hub. Particular attention is paid to the potential disruption to normal commuter services resulting from an intrusive stop and search regime. The work presented here represents a qualitative investigation in that many parameters relating to the details of the interdiction mechanisms are first-order approximations. However, the background against which the investigation is conducted has been constructed to be as realistic as possible. The simulation is performed using our generalised microsimulation framework Simulacron , along with a reper- toire of simulation …


Microsimulation Study Of The Release Of Pneumonic Plague And Smallpox On A Synthetic Civilian Population, A Green, I Piper, D Keep Jan 2013

Microsimulation Study Of The Release Of Pneumonic Plague And Smallpox On A Synthetic Civilian Population, A Green, I Piper, D Keep

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The confrontation in Syria is a cause for concern over the use of chemical and biological weapons. There have been reports of the use of chemical weapons including Sarin. While both sides accuse each other, there is very little ground evidence at this time (August 2013) to substantiate claims or to determine who is involved. Their use would demonstrate a total disregard for civilian casualties and UN conventions. Syria is thought to have stockpiles of a number of agents including anthrax, plague, tularaemia, botulinium, smallpox and cholera (Gordon, 2007). Some groups sympathetic to Al Qaeda might also have access to …