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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Synthesis Of Mn3o4-Encapsulated Graphene Sheet Nanocomposites Via A Facile, Fast Microwave Hydrothermal Method And Their Supercapacitive Behaviour, Li Li, Kuok Hau Seng, Zhixin Chen, Hua-Kun Liu, Ivan P. Nevirkovets, Zaiping Guo Dec 2012

Synthesis Of Mn3o4-Encapsulated Graphene Sheet Nanocomposites Via A Facile, Fast Microwave Hydrothermal Method And Their Supercapacitive Behaviour, Li Li, Kuok Hau Seng, Zhixin Chen, Hua-Kun Liu, Ivan P. Nevirkovets, Zaiping Guo

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Well-crystallized Mn3O4-anchored reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized via a facile, effective, energy-saving, and scalable microwave hydrothermal technique for potential application as supercapacitor material. Integrating these nanostructures resulted in a strong synergistic effect between the two materials, consequently leading to a hybrid composite with higher specific capacitance compared to the bare Mn3O4 nanoparticles. The results from different sorts of characterization indicate that the Mn3O4 particles were deposited and anchored on graphene sheets. The capacitance value of the rGO(31.6%)–Mn3O4 nanocomposite reached 153 F/g, much higher than that of the bare Mn3O4 (87 F/g) at a scan rate of …


Purely Infinite C-Algebras Arising From Crossed Products, Mikael Rordam, Adam Sierakowski Jan 2012

Purely Infinite C-Algebras Arising From Crossed Products, Mikael Rordam, Adam Sierakowski

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

We study conditions that will ensure that a crossed product of a C-algebra by a discrete exact group is purely infinite (simple or non-simple). We are particularly interested in the case of a discrete non-amenable exact group acting on a commutative C-algebra, where our sufficient conditions can be phrased in terms of paradoxicality of subsets of the spectrum of the abelian C-algebra. As an application of our results we show that every discrete countable non-amenable exact group admits a free amenable minimal action on the Cantor set such that the corresponding crossed product C-algebra is a Kirchberg algebra in the …


Chen's Conjecture And E-Superbiharmonic Submanifolds Of Riemannian Manifolds, Glen Wheeler Jan 2012

Chen's Conjecture And E-Superbiharmonic Submanifolds Of Riemannian Manifolds, Glen Wheeler

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

B.-Y. Chen famously conjectured that every submanifold of Eu- clidean space with harmonic mean curvature vector is minimal. In this note we prove a much more general statement for a large class of submanifolds sat- isfying a growth condition at innity. We discuss in particular two popular competing natural interpretations of the conjecture when the Euclidean back- ground space is replaced by an arbitrary Riemannian manifold. Introducing the notion of "-superbiharmonic submanifolds, which contains each of the pre- vious notions as special cases, we prove that "-superbiharmonic submanifolds of a complete Riemannian manifold which satisfy a growth condition at innity …


Comparison Of 16 Mm Osu-Nag And Coms Eye Plaques, Hualin Zhang, Frederick Davidorf, Yujin Qi Jan 2012

Comparison Of 16 Mm Osu-Nag And Coms Eye Plaques, Hualin Zhang, Frederick Davidorf, Yujin Qi

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

OSU-NAG eye plaques use fewer sources than COMS-plaques of comparable size, and do not employ a Silastic seed carrier insert. Monte Carlo modeling was used to calculate 3D dose distributions for a 16 mm OSU-NAG eye plaque and a 16 mm COMS eye plaque loaded with either Iodine-125 or Cesium-131 brachytherapy sources. The OSU-NAG eye plaque was loaded with eight sources forming two squares, whereas the COMS eye plaque was loaded with thirteen sources approximating three isocentric circles. A spherical eyeball 24.6 mm in diameter and an ellipsoid-like tumor 6 mm in height and 12 mm in the major and …


Thermodynamic Analysis Of A High-Yield Biochemical Process For Biofuel Production, M Imroz Sohel, Michael W. Jack Jan 2012

Thermodynamic Analysis Of A High-Yield Biochemical Process For Biofuel Production, M Imroz Sohel, Michael W. Jack

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of a high-yield biochemical process for biofuel production from lignocelluosic biomass based on a previously proposed process. Unlike the standard biochemical process, which ferments sugar intermediates to ethanol, the process under consideration converts sugars to acetic acid which is esterified and hydrogenated to produce ethanol. This process has a significantly higher yield and produces no carbon dioxide. However, we find that the thermodynamic efficiency of the process is not increased in proportion to the yield gain. An additional survey of various biofuel production processes showed no direct correlation between yield and thermodynamic efficiency. This …


Self-Mixing Interferometry Used For Instrumentations And Measurements(Invited), Silvano Donati, Zhao Wang, Yanguang Yu Jan 2012

Self-Mixing Interferometry Used For Instrumentations And Measurements(Invited), Silvano Donati, Zhao Wang, Yanguang Yu

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper reviews the development of a new configuration of interferometry, Self-mixing Interferometry(SMI). SMI is attractive because it doesn't require any optical part external to the laser and can be employed in a variety of measurements, ranging from the traditional measurements related to optical path length like displacements, small-amplitude vibrations, velocity; to sensing of weak optical echoes, like return loss and isolation factor measurements; and also to a special feature for the interaction with the medium, measurements of physical parameters, like laser line width, coherence length, and the alfa factor. Because it is also a coherent detection scheme, the SMI …


Performance Of A Reinforced Embankment On A Sensitive Champlain Clay Deposit, Chalermpol Taechakumthorn, R K. Rowe Jan 2012

Performance Of A Reinforced Embankment On A Sensitive Champlain Clay Deposit, Chalermpol Taechakumthorn, R K. Rowe

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

An existing elastoviscoplastic constitutive model is modified using concepts of the state-dependent fluidity parameters and the damage law, to incorporate the effect of soil structure and its destructuration. The model is employed to simulate the performance of a well-documented case study of the reinforced test embankment constructed over a sensitive Champlain clay deposit at Saint Alban, Quebec. The finite element calculations, using both the original (nonstructured) and modified (structured) elastoviscoplastic soil models, are compared with the observed field data from a test embankment brought to failure. The results from the structured elastoviscoplastic soil model show better agreements with the field …


Round-Optimal Id-Based Blind Signature Schemes Without Ros Assumption, Wei Gao, Guilin Wang, Xueli Wang, Fei Li Jan 2012

Round-Optimal Id-Based Blind Signature Schemes Without Ros Assumption, Wei Gao, Guilin Wang, Xueli Wang, Fei Li

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper presents two Identity-Based Blind Signature (IBBS) schemes based on bilinear pairings. Both of them enjoy the following features. First, they achieve the optimal bound of round complexity for blind signatures, i.e., each signature can be blindly generated with one round (or two moves) of message exchanges between the signature requesting user and signer. Second, their security is proved without the ROS assumption, which assumes that it is infeasible to find an overdetermined, solvable system of linear equations modulo q with random inhomogenities. Due to this reason, the order of underlying group does not need to be very large …


Marginalized Exponential Random Graph Models, Thomas F. Suesse Jan 2012

Marginalized Exponential Random Graph Models, Thomas F. Suesse

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Exponential random graph models (ERGMs) are a popular tool for modeling social networks representing relational data, such as working relationships or friendships. Data on exogenous variables relating to participants in the network, such as gender or age, are also often collected. ERGMs allow modeling of the effects of such exogenous variables on the joint distribution, specified by the ERGM, but not on the marginal probabilities of observing a relationship. In this article, we consider an approach to modeling a network that uses an ERGM for the joint distribution of the network, but then marginally constrains the fit to agree with …


Horadam Functions And Powers Of Irrationals, Martin W. Bunder Jan 2012

Horadam Functions And Powers Of Irrationals, Martin W. Bunder

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper generalizes a result of Gerdemann to show (with slight variations in some special cases) that, for any real number m and Horadam function Hn(A, B, P,Q), mHn(A, B, P, Q) = i=h k∑(t,Hn+i(A, B, P, Q)), for two consecutive values of n, if and only if, m= i=h k∑ (tiai)= i=h k∑ (t ibi) where a =(P+(P2-4Q) 1/2)/2 and b = (P-(P2-4Q) 1/2)/2. (Horadam functions are defined by: H 0(A, B, P, Q) = A, H1(A,B,P,Q) = B, Hn+1(A, B, P,Q) = PHn(A,B, P,Q)-QHn-1(A, B, P,Q).) Further generalizations to the solutions of arbitrary linear recurrence relations are also …


Riemannian Manifolds In Noncommutative Geometry, Steven Lord, Adam Rennie, Joseph C. Varilly Jan 2012

Riemannian Manifolds In Noncommutative Geometry, Steven Lord, Adam Rennie, Joseph C. Varilly

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

We present a definition of Riemannian manifold in noncommutative geometry. Using products of unbounded Kasparov modules, we show one can obtain such Riemannian manifolds from noncommutative spinc manifolds; and conversely, in the presence of a spinc structure. We also show how to obtain an analogue of Kasparov's fundamental class for a Riemannian manifold, and the associated notion of Poincaré duality. Along the way we clarify the bimodule and first-order conditions for spectral triples.


Ethics In Engineering: Student Perceptions And Their Professional Identity Development, Brad Stappenbelt Jan 2012

Ethics In Engineering: Student Perceptions And Their Professional Identity Development, Brad Stappenbelt

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Professional ethics instruction in engineering is commonly conducted by examining case studies in light of the code of conduct of a suitable professional body. Although graphical presentations of spectacular failures, sobering stories of the repercussions and the solid framework provided by the tenets of a code of ethics may leave a lasting impression, students generally gain their professional identity from relatives and colleagues. Their professional ethics tend to be mostly an extension of their personal ethics. Instruction on ethics generally serves only to reinforce students' inclination to act ethically and provides encouragement to act on these beliefs. In this study …


Experimental Investigation Of Cable Catcher Systems For Office Building Blast Protection, Alexander Remennikov, L S. Brodie Jan 2012

Experimental Investigation Of Cable Catcher Systems For Office Building Blast Protection, Alexander Remennikov, L S. Brodie

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

High performance cable catcher systems are an effective means of protecting office building windows and façades from effects of explosive blast. This paper presents experimental results for the response a simple cable catcher system subject to impact loads delivered using a drop-hammer testing facility. The objectives of this experimental programme were to investigate the loaddeformation behaviour of steel strand cables and to evaluate the dynamic performance of cable catcher systems in reference to their ability to absorb blast energy. Two steel cable arrangements (compacted and normal spiral strand) have been tensile tested in order to provide load-deformation curves as well …


Estimation Of Regression Parameters From Noise Multiplied Data, Yan-Xia Lin, Phillip Wise Jan 2012

Estimation Of Regression Parameters From Noise Multiplied Data, Yan-Xia Lin, Phillip Wise

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This paper considers the scenario that all data entries in a confidentialised unit record file were masked by multiplicative noises, regardless of whether unit records are sensitive or not and regardless of whether the masked variables are dependent or independent variables in the underlying regression analysis. A technique is introduced in this paper to show how to estimate parameters in a regression model, which is originally fitted by unmasked data, based on masked data. Several simulation studies and a real-life data application are presented.


Science's Stagnant Thinking: Our Rivers Need A Revolution, Graham Harris Jan 2012

Science's Stagnant Thinking: Our Rivers Need A Revolution, Graham Harris

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

I've been away in the UK for a few years - and what do I find when I come back? In the Murray Darling we are still arguing over inputs (the amount of water to be returned to the river) instead of focusing on the state we actually want the river system to be in, and how to make it so.


Synthetic Populations: Review Of The Different Approaches, Johan Barthelemy, Eric Cornelis Jan 2012

Synthetic Populations: Review Of The Different Approaches, Johan Barthelemy, Eric Cornelis

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Microsimulations may involve a large number of agents. It is then practically impossible or too expensive to obtain a fully and complete disaggregated data set about these agents of interest. Moreover, if such a dataset was available, its use would be potentially problematic in view of stringent privacy laws. To address this problem one may build an articial population starting from known aggregate data. Most of the known generation methods are explained in this paper. Their advantages and limitations are discussed and references are given for further details.


Investigation Of The Effects Of Pipe Wall Roughness And Pipe Diameter On The Decompression Wave Speed In Natural Gas Pipelines, Cheng Lu, Guillaume Michal, Alhoush Elshahomi, Ajit R. Godbole, Phillip Venton, K K. Botros, Leigh Fletcher, B Rothwell Jan 2012

Investigation Of The Effects Of Pipe Wall Roughness And Pipe Diameter On The Decompression Wave Speed In Natural Gas Pipelines, Cheng Lu, Guillaume Michal, Alhoush Elshahomi, Ajit R. Godbole, Phillip Venton, K K. Botros, Leigh Fletcher, B Rothwell

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The shock tube experimental results have shown clearly that the decompression wave was slowed down in a pipe with a rough inner surface relative to that in a smooth pipe under comparable conditions. In the present paper a one-dimensional dynamic simulation model, named EPDECOM, was developed to investigate the effects of pipe wall roughness and pipe diameter on the decompression wave speed. Comparison with experimental results showed that the inclusion of frictional effects led to a better prediction than that of the widely used model implemented in GASDECOM. EPDECOM simulation results showed that the effect of roughness on the decompression …


Comparing The Formability Of Aisi 304 And Aisi 202 Stainless Steel, Madeleine Du Toit, Herman G. Steyn Jan 2012

Comparing The Formability Of Aisi 304 And Aisi 202 Stainless Steel, Madeleine Du Toit, Herman G. Steyn

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The formability of AISI 202 austenitic stainless steel was compared with that of type AISI 304 stainless steel. Type 202 is a low-nickel austenitic stainless steel alloyed with manganese and nitrogen. In this study, the formability of the two grades was examined using Erichsen cupping tests and room temperature uniaxial tensile tests performed at various angles to the rolling direction. AISI 202 appears to work-harden at a slightly higher rate than AISI 304, even though the austenite in type 202 is more stable than that in 304 with respect to the formation of deformation-induced a¢ martensite. Although both grades are …


Effect Of The Austenitising Heat Treatment On The Microstructure And Hardness Of Martensitic Stainless Steel Aisi 420, Lilian D. Barlow, Madeleine Du Toit Jan 2012

Effect Of The Austenitising Heat Treatment On The Microstructure And Hardness Of Martensitic Stainless Steel Aisi 420, Lilian D. Barlow, Madeleine Du Toit

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The effect of austenitizing on the microstructure and hardness of two martensitic stainless steels was examined with the aim of supplying heat-treatment guidelines to the user that will ensure a martensitic structure with minimal retained austenite, evenly dispersed carbides and a hardness of between 610 and 740 HV (Vickers hardness) after quenching and tempering. The steels examined during the course of this examination conform in composition to medium-carbon AISI 420 martensitic stainless steel, except for the addition of 0.13% vanadium and 0.62% molybdenum to one of the alloys. Steel samples were austenitized at temperatures between 1000 and 1200 C, followed …


Acoustic Emission Monitoring Of Split Formation During Charpy Impact Testing Of High Strength Steel, Andrii Kostryzhev, R B. Punch, Claire L. Davis, Martin Strangwood Jan 2012

Acoustic Emission Monitoring Of Split Formation During Charpy Impact Testing Of High Strength Steel, Andrii Kostryzhev, R B. Punch, Claire L. Davis, Martin Strangwood

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring has been used to detect split formation during room temperature low blow Charpy impact testing of high strength thick strip steels. The AE signal analysis identified separate signals originating from hammer impact, plastic deformation (verified using Charpy impact testing on mild steel with no splits) and split initiation/growth. The presence of splits was confirmed by sectioning and fractography, and the splits were brittle in nature. A possible correlation between the AE signal features and fracture mode is presented.


Performance Analysis Of Distribution Networks Under High Penetration Of Solar Pv, M J. E Alam, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Darmawan Sutanto, L Elder, A Baitch Jan 2012

Performance Analysis Of Distribution Networks Under High Penetration Of Solar Pv, M J. E Alam, Kashem M. Muttaqi, Darmawan Sutanto, L Elder, A Baitch

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) resources into distribution networks changes the normally expected network behaviour by injecting real power into the point of connection. Depending on the characteristics and setup of the PV inverter, reactive power could also be injected into the network. The impact will depend on the control strategy adopted for reactive power injection. Typically, solar PV units are installed at low voltage (LV) level in distribution networks. Cluster based installation of numerous PV inverters in the LV level will impact the operation of both the host LV network and the upstream medium voltage network. With random variations …


Editorial Introduction, Raymond Chambers Jan 2012

Editorial Introduction, Raymond Chambers

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

This issue of Survey Research Methods contains four papers that were presented at the ITACOSM11 conference held in Pisa, Italy, June 27-29, 2011. ITACOSM is an Italian scientific conference on the development, testing, and application of survey sampling methodologies in the fields of economics, social and demographic sciences and ocial statistics and in studies of biological and environmental phenomena. It is organized by the Permanent Working Group on Sample Survey Methodology of the Italian Statistical Society.


Translating Evidence-Based Guidelines Into Practice: A Survey Of Practices Of Commissioners And Managers Of The English Stop Smoking Services, Mairtin S. Mcdermott, Heather Thomson, Robert West, Jennifer A. M Kenyon, Andy Mcewen Jan 2012

Translating Evidence-Based Guidelines Into Practice: A Survey Of Practices Of Commissioners And Managers Of The English Stop Smoking Services, Mairtin S. Mcdermott, Heather Thomson, Robert West, Jennifer A. M Kenyon, Andy Mcewen

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Background: The English National Health Service's (NHS) Stop Smoking Services (SSSs) constitute one of the most highly developed behavioural support programmes in the world. However, there is significant variation in success rates across the approximately 150 services, some of which may be due to variation in practice. This study aimed to assess these differences in practice.

Methods: Two online surveys were administered. All commissioners (people who purchase services for the NHS) and managers (those who run the services) of NHS SSSs in England were invited to participate. Items included details of current practices and services provided, what informed the …


Self-Reported Practices, Attitudes And Levels Of Training Of Practitioners In The English Nhs Stop Smoking Services, Mairtin S. Mcdermott, Robert West, Leonie S. Brose, Andy Mcewen Jan 2012

Self-Reported Practices, Attitudes And Levels Of Training Of Practitioners In The English Nhs Stop Smoking Services, Mairtin S. Mcdermott, Robert West, Leonie S. Brose, Andy Mcewen

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The primary aim of the current study is to investigate the self-reported practices, attitudes and levels of training of stop smoking practitioners (SSPs) working at the English National Health Service's (NHS) Stop Smoking Services (SSSs). A secondary aim was to investigate differences between 'Specialist' and 'Community' SSPs. An online survey was conducted with 484 SSPs. Most (94%) SSPs offered one-to-one appointments to smokers, only 43% always used the abrupt quit model and 30% reported ever recommending particular medication to clients. SSPs reported an average of 3.7 days training when starting work and 26% reported never observing an experienced practitioner before …


Risk-Adaptive Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Using Biological Objective Functions For Subvolume Boosting In Radiotherapy, Nicholas G. Hardcastle, Wolfgang Tome Jan 2012

Risk-Adaptive Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Using Biological Objective Functions For Subvolume Boosting In Radiotherapy, Nicholas G. Hardcastle, Wolfgang Tome

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) for prostate cancer allows increases in tumor control probability while respecting normal tissue dose constraints. Biological optimization functions that optimize based on treatment outcome can be used to create SIB prostate plans. This study investigates the feasibility of biologically optimized volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for SIB prostate radiotherapy. Methods. Five prostate cancer patients with diffusion-weighted MR images were selected for analysis. A two-step VMAT optimization was performed, which consisted of an initial biological optimization of a static gantry angle delivery followed by conversion of the static delivery to a single arc VMAT plan. A dosimetric …


Isometric Representations Of Totally Ordered Semigroups, M A. Aukhadiev, V H. Tepoyan Jan 2012

Isometric Representations Of Totally Ordered Semigroups, M A. Aukhadiev, V H. Tepoyan

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

Let S be a subsemigroup of an abelian torsion-free group G. If S is a positive cone of G, then all C*-algebras generated by faithful isometrical non-unitary representations of S are canon- ically isomorphic. Proved by Murphy, this statement generalized the well-known theorems of Coburn and Douglas. In this note we prove the reverse.


Self-Shape Optimisation Of Cold-Formed Steel Columns, Timothee Savoyat, Benoit Gilbert, Lip H. Teh Jan 2012

Self-Shape Optimisation Of Cold-Formed Steel Columns, Timothee Savoyat, Benoit Gilbert, Lip H. Teh

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

One of the main advantages of cold-formed steel profiles is the great flexibility of cross-sectional shapes, attributable to the manufacturing process allowing achievement of almost any desired cross-section. The cross-sectional shape is the key element in enhancing the strength of coldformed steel profiles as it controls the three fundamental buckling modes: local, distortional (for open profiles) and global. However, research on optimisation of cold-formed steel profiles has been mainly restricted to the conventional C, Z or Σ cross-sectional shapes and seldom new crosssectional shapes have been considered. This report presents the optimisation of cold-formed open columns using the recently developed …


Lateral Vibration Of Caisson-Pile Composite Foundation In Layered Soils, Maosong Huang, Rui Zhong, Qing Ren Jan 2012

Lateral Vibration Of Caisson-Pile Composite Foundation In Layered Soils, Maosong Huang, Rui Zhong, Qing Ren

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

The improvement of vibration characteristics of caisson foundation due to the piles added at the bottom is studied. Firstly, dynamic equilibriums for lateral vibration of caisson-pile composite foundation are created through the displacement coordination and internal force equilibrium s at the interface between the two parts of the caisson and piles. Vibration equilibriums for the part of caisson are created by external force balance with the utilization of dynamic Winkler model, and vibration characteristics of the part of piles are defined by the existing literatures. Secondly, the coefficients of dynamic Winkler model in vibration of caisson are studied, and improved …


Apocalypse Not: Doomsday Thinkers Of Oz Should Get Out More, Graham Harris Jan 2012

Apocalypse Not: Doomsday Thinkers Of Oz Should Get Out More, Graham Harris

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

I sometimes wonder what planet this country of ours is on. The environmental debate we are having seems to be in a parallel universe to the rest of the world. Having spent the last four years running one of Europe's biggest environmental research laboratories, the Lancaster Environment Centre, I find Australia strangely out of kilter. All I hear here is apocalyptic gloom and doom: either the planet is done for if we don't act, or the economy is done for if we do! We have a highly polarised debate and even more polarised reporting; with too much hand-wringing and head-banging …


Don't Wait For Sciene To 'Settle': Decide What Society Needs, Graham Harris Jan 2012

Don't Wait For Sciene To 'Settle': Decide What Society Needs, Graham Harris

Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences - Papers: Part A

If you listen to the debate between science and society in most of the West, you get one version or another of the linear model. Science comes first. When it is "settled", society will know what to do. This is as true in the climate debate as it is in innovation. First comes the "breakthrough" and then the widget gets commercialised. Much of the economic development of the West has been driven by this "knowledge based" worldview. It worked quite well when the problems were simple and the benefits easily captured - from steam engines to early antibiotics - but …