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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Older Peoples’ Willingness To Delay Social Security Claiming, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell Jan 2023

Older Peoples’ Willingness To Delay Social Security Claiming, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

We have designed and fielded an experimental module in the 2014 HRS which seeks to measure older persons’ willingness to voluntarily defer claiming of Social Security benefits. In addition, we evaluate the stated willingness of older individuals to work longer, depending on the Social Security incentives offered to delay claiming their benefits. Our project extends previous work by analyzing the results from our HRS module and comparing findings from other data sources which included very much smaller samples of older persons. We show that half of the respondents would delay claiming if no work requirement were in place under the …


Time Discounting And Economic Decision-Making Among The Elderly, David Huffman, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell Jan 2023

Time Discounting And Economic Decision-Making Among The Elderly, David Huffman, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

This research project evaluates the extent of heterogeneity in time discounting among elderly Americans, as well as its role in explaining older peoples’ key behaviors. We first show how older Americans evaluate simple (hypothetical) intertemporal choices in which payments now are compared with payments in the future. This adds to the literature on time horizon experiments by focusing on a nationally representative sample of persons age 70+. Using the indicators derived from this experiment, we show how differences in discounting patterns are associated with characteristics of particular importance in elderly populations, such as serious health and mental conditions. We then …


Putting The Pension Back In 401(K) Plans: Optimal Versus Default Longevity Income Annuities, Vanya Horneff, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell Jan 2023

Putting The Pension Back In 401(K) Plans: Optimal Versus Default Longevity Income Annuities, Vanya Horneff, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

Most retirees take payouts from their defined contribution pensions as lump sums, but the US Treasury recently moved to encourage firms and individuals to convert some of the $15 trillion in plan balances into longevity income annuities paying lifetime benefits from age 85 onward. We evaluate the welfare implications of this reform using a calibrated lifecycle consumption and portfolio choice model embodying realistic institutional considerations. We show that defaulting a fixed fraction of workers’ 401(k) assets over a dollar threshold is a cost-effective and appealing way to enhance retirement security, enhancing welfare by up to 20% of retiree plan accruals.


Optimal Social Security Claiming Behavior Under Lump Sum Incentives: Theory And Evidence, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell, Ralph Rogalla, Tatjana Schimetschek Jan 2023

Optimal Social Security Claiming Behavior Under Lump Sum Incentives: Theory And Evidence, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell, Ralph Rogalla, Tatjana Schimetschek

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

People who delay claiming Social Security receive higher lifelong benefits upon retirement. We survey individuals on their willingness to delay claiming later, if they could receive a lump sum in lieu of a higher annuity payment. Using a moment-matching approach, we calibrate a lifecycle model tracking observed claiming patterns under current rules and predict optimal claiming outcomes under the lump sum approach. Our model correctly predicts that early claimers under current rules would delay claiming most when offered actuarially fair lump sums, and for lump sums worth 87% as much, claiming ages would still be higher than at present.


Fixed And Variable Longevity Annuities In Defined Contribution Plans: Optimal Retirement Portfolios Taking Social Security Into Account, Vanya Horneff, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell Jan 2023

Fixed And Variable Longevity Annuities In Defined Contribution Plans: Optimal Retirement Portfolios Taking Social Security Into Account, Vanya Horneff, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S. Mitchell

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

This paper investigates retirees’ optimal purchases of fixed and variable longevity income annuities using their defined contribution (DC) plan assets and given their expected Social Security benefits. As an alternative, we also evaluate using plan assets to boost Social Security benefits through delayed claiming. We determine that including deferred income annuities in DC accounts is welfare enhancing for all sex/education groups examined. We also show that providing access to well-designed variable deferred annuities with some equity exposure further enhances retiree wellbeing, compared to having access only to fixed annuities. Nevertheless, for the least educated, delaying claiming Social Security is preferred, …


Household Investment In 529 College Savings Plans And Information Processing Frictions, James J. Li, Olivia S. Mitchell, Christina Zhu Jan 2023

Household Investment In 529 College Savings Plans And Information Processing Frictions, James J. Li, Olivia S. Mitchell, Christina Zhu

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

We investigate how information processing frictions contribute to household suboptimal saving and investment behavior. We find that 60% of open accounts in college 529 savings plans are invested suboptimally due to high expenses and tax inefficiency. Such investments yield an expected loss of 9% over the accounts’ projected lifetimes. Consistent with information processing frictions contributing to inefficient investment, the extent of investment in suboptimal home-state accounts decreases with household financial literacy and increases with plan document disclosure complexity. Overall, our results suggest that information processing frictions shape households’ suboptimal investment in college savings plans and reduce their financial well-being.


Beyond Academics: A Correlational Study Of Social Emotional Learning Competency Growth And Student Demographic Data, Robert Wagner Dec 2022

Beyond Academics: A Correlational Study Of Social Emotional Learning Competency Growth And Student Demographic Data, Robert Wagner

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

A growing body of evidence highlights the relationship between youth attainment of social emotional learning (SEL) competencies and school outcomes such as academic performance, school attendance, school attainment, behavioral problems in school, and persistence of antisocial behavior. A lack of clear diversity in student populations in prior research leads to questions regarding growth in social emotional learning competencies in diverse populations. Given disparities in academic performance between low-income minority students and their affluent peers and the potential impact of SEL on student outcomes, this topic deserves further exploration. The present study explored social emotional learning competency growth in youth investigating …


In Defense Of Liberty: Social Order & The Role Of Government, Dylan J. Conrad Dec 2022

In Defense Of Liberty: Social Order & The Role Of Government, Dylan J. Conrad

Honors Theses (PPE)

This thesis seeks to address some of the most central questions to the fields of political philosophy and political economy. First, how can social order and government rationally develop out of anarchy? Next, what acts of force, if any, are morally permissible for the State to perform in its relations with individuals, so as to maintain political legitimacy? Lastly, what policies ought the State implement to achieve the best welfare outcomes for a society? This thesis will first show that a laissez-faire capitalist social order can spontaneously emerge from a purely self-interested State of Nature, with the institution of government …


Parental Engagement, Involvement, And Academic Success: Perspectives Of African American Single Parents Of Elementary And Middle School-Aged Children, Tauchiana J. Williams Dec 2022

Parental Engagement, Involvement, And Academic Success: Perspectives Of African American Single Parents Of Elementary And Middle School-Aged Children, Tauchiana J. Williams

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The largest academic achievement gap in the U.S. is between African American and White students. Parental engagement and involvement are two key factors that influence academic success and may help reduce the achievement gap; however, traditional definitions and strategies used remain highly racially biased. The research supported two papers with aims of exploring (1) definitions of parental engagement and involvement and (2) barriers to and facilitators of parental engagement and involvement among African American single parents of elementary and middle school students. Methods: Employing a phenomenological design, this qualitative study used purposive sampling to recruit 15 African American …


How Early Nutrition And Foundational Cognitive Skills Interconnect? Evidence From Two Developing Countries, Alan Sánchez, Marta Favara, Margaret Sheridan, Jere R. Behrman Dec 2022

How Early Nutrition And Foundational Cognitive Skills Interconnect? Evidence From Two Developing Countries, Alan Sánchez, Marta Favara, Margaret Sheridan, Jere R. Behrman

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

We use unique data collected in Ethiopia and Peru as part of the Young Lives Study to investigate the relationship between early undernutrition and four foundational cognitive skills, the first two of which measure executive functioning: working memory, inhibitory control, long-term memory, and implicit learning. We exploit the rich longitudinal data available to control for potential confounders at the household level and for time-invariant community characteristics. We also exploit the availability of data for paired-siblings to obtain household fixed-effects estimates. Overall, we find robust evidence that stunting is negatively related with the development of executive functions, predicting reductions in working …


Financial Regret At Older Ages And Longevity Awareness, Abigail Hurwitz, Olivia S. Mitchell Dec 2022

Financial Regret At Older Ages And Longevity Awareness, Abigail Hurwitz, Olivia S. Mitchell

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

Older people often express regret about financial decisions made earlier in life that left them susceptible to old-age insecurity. Prior work has explored one outcome, saving regret, or peoples’ expressed wish that they had saved more earlier in life. The present paper extends attention to five additional areas regarding financial decisions, examining whether older Americans also regret not having insured better, claimed benefits and quit working too early, and becoming financially dependent on others. Using a controlled randomized experiment conducted on 1,764 respondents age 50+ in the Health and Retirement Study, we show that providing people objective longevity information does …


How Occam’S Razor Guides Human Inference, Eugenio Piasini, Shuze Liu, Pratik Chaudhari, Vijay Balasubramanian, Joshua I. Gold Nov 2022

How Occam’S Razor Guides Human Inference, Eugenio Piasini, Shuze Liu, Pratik Chaudhari, Vijay Balasubramanian, Joshua I. Gold

Department of Physics Papers

Occam’s razor is the principle stating that, all else being equal, simpler explanations for a set of observations are preferred over more complex ones. This idea is central to multiple formal theories of statistical model selection and is posited to play a role in human perception and decision-making, but a general, quantitative account of the specific nature and impact of complexity on human decision-making is still missing. Here we use preregistered experiments to show that, when faced with uncertain evidence, human subjects bias their decisions in favor of simpler explanations in a way that can be quantified precisely using the …


Collation Model For Ms. Codex 917: De Regimine Principium ... [Etc.]., Dot Porter Nov 2022

Collation Model For Ms. Codex 917: De Regimine Principium ... [Etc.]., Dot Porter

Collation Models

Excerpt on the power of princes from the Latin translation by Joannes Hispalensis of the Secretum secretorum, attributed to Aristotle, with an unidentified commentary, followed by a poem of 215 lines on friendship attributed to Cicero, perhaps based on Cicero's De amicitia. A recipe in German for a laxative added by another hand (f. 1r).


Global Age Patterns Of Under-5 Mortality (Gapu5m) Site Profiles Series: Maternal And Child Health Surveillance System (Mchss), China, Francisco Villavicencio, Li Liu, Andrea Verhulst, Michel Guillot Oct 2022

Global Age Patterns Of Under-5 Mortality (Gapu5m) Site Profiles Series: Maternal And Child Health Surveillance System (Mchss), China, Francisco Villavicencio, Li Liu, Andrea Verhulst, Michel Guillot

Global Age Patterns of Under-5 Mortality (GAPU5M) Site Profiles Series

No abstract provided.


Information Avoidance And Image Concerns, Christine L. Exley, Judd B. Kessler Oct 2022

Information Avoidance And Image Concerns, Christine L. Exley, Judd B. Kessler

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

A rich literature finds that individuals avoid information and speculates that avoidance is driven by image concerns. This paper provides the first direct test of whether individuals avoid information because of image concerns. We build off of a classic paradigm, introducing a control condition that makes minimal changes to eliminate the role of image concerns while keeping other key features of the environment unchanged. Data from 6,421 experimental subjects shows that image concerns play a role in driving information avoidance, but a role that is substantially smaller-less than half of the magnitude-than the common approach in the literature would suggest.


“Not Nearly As Bad”: Social Comparisons And The Debt Experience, Ellen Bryer Sep 2022

“Not Nearly As Bad”: Social Comparisons And The Debt Experience, Ellen Bryer

Penn Education and Inequality Working Papers

Despite the growing awareness of the role that families play in the experience of student borrowing, debt is still understood as a private experience. As student debt becomes more widespread, individuals are increasingly likely to know others with student loans, yet questions remain about how others—friends, acquaintances, and colleagues—may shape the way student borrowers make sense of their debt. This study draws on interviews with recent master’s degree recipients to examine how young adults understand their educational debt in relation to others. The author finds that borrowers are enmeshed in “debt dense” social networks that both normalize debt and facilitate …


Late-Childhood Foundational Cognitive Skills Predict Educational Outcomes Through Adolescence And Into Young Adulthood: Evidence From Ethiopia And Peru, Jennifer Lopez, Jere R. Behrman, Santiago Cueto, Marta Favara, Alan Sánchez Sep 2022

Late-Childhood Foundational Cognitive Skills Predict Educational Outcomes Through Adolescence And Into Young Adulthood: Evidence From Ethiopia And Peru, Jennifer Lopez, Jere R. Behrman, Santiago Cueto, Marta Favara, Alan Sánchez

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

We estimate the associations between a set of foundational cognitive skills (inhibitory control, working memory, long-term memory, and implicit learning) measured at age 12 and educational outcomes measured at ages 15 and 19-20 in Ethiopia and Peru (the Young Lives study). The estimates adjust for a rich set of lagged controls and include measurements of children’s general abilities. For a subset of the outcomes, we exploit within-household variation. Working memory and long-term memory are consistently and positively associated with subsequent domain-specific cognitive achievement tests in both countries, university enrolment in Peru (working memory) and lower secondary-school completion in Ethiopia (long-term …


The Downward Spiral, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Karen A. Kopecky Sep 2022

The Downward Spiral, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Karen A. Kopecky

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

There have been more than 500,000 opioid overdose deaths since 2000. To analyze the opioid epidemic, a model is constructed where individuals, with and without pain, choose whether to misuse opioids knowing the probabilities of addiction and dying. These odds are functions of opioid use. Markov chains are estimated from the US data for the college and non-college educated that summarize the transitions into and out of opioid addiction as well as to a deadly overdose. A structural model is constructed that matches the estimated Markov chains. The epidemic's drivers, and the impact of medical interventions, are examined.


Collation Model For Ms. Codex 1134: [Instructions To Nicolaus Theupulo], Dot Porter Sep 2022

Collation Model For Ms. Codex 1134: [Instructions To Nicolaus Theupulo], Dot Porter

Collation Models

Instructions to Nicolaus Theupulo on his appointment by the Doge of Venice to govern Brescia for one year. At this time, Brescia had been under Venetian control for a century, but had experienced recent hostilities with the French; as such, the instructions mention events and governmental decisions from the 15th and early 16th centuries, as well as setting out specific guidelines for Theupulo's tenure in Brescia. Instructions are followed by a table of contents, listing the 76 parts of the instructions (each paragraph is numbered in the text). Notarized by Petrus Grafoldarius. Written in Venice, Italy (f. 2r), in 1525 …


Social Protection And Foundational Cognitive Skills During Adolescence: Evidence From A Large Public Works Programme, Richard Freund, Marta Favara, Catherine Porter, Jere R. Behrman Sep 2022

Social Protection And Foundational Cognitive Skills During Adolescence: Evidence From A Large Public Works Programme, Richard Freund, Marta Favara, Catherine Porter, Jere R. Behrman

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Many low- and middle-income countries have introduced Public Works Programmes (PWPs) to fight poverty. PWPs provide temporary cash-for-work opportunities to boost poor households’ incomes and to provide better infrastructure to local communities. While PWPs do not target children directly, the increased demand for adult labour may affect children’s development through increasing households’ incomes and changing household members’ time uses. This paper expands on a multidimensional literature showing the relationship between early life circumstances and learning outcomes and provides the first evidence that children from families who benefit from PWPs show increased foundational cognitive skills (FCS). We focus on four child …


The Impact Of The Juntos Conditional Cash Transfer Programme On Foundational Cognitive Skills: Does Age Of Enrollment Matter?, Douglas Scott, Jennifer Lopez, Alan Sánchez, Jere R. Behrman Sep 2022

The Impact Of The Juntos Conditional Cash Transfer Programme On Foundational Cognitive Skills: Does Age Of Enrollment Matter?, Douglas Scott, Jennifer Lopez, Alan Sánchez, Jere R. Behrman

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

This paper studies the relationship between the age of enrolment in Peru’s conditional cash transfer programme, JUNTOS, and the foundational cognitive skills of a sample of children aged between 5 and 12 years old. Using a difference-in-differences approach and exploiting within-household variation, we show that younger siblings in recipient households display significantly higher levels of inhibitory control than their older counterparts (0.11 standard deviations), having benefited from the programme for the first time at a relatively earlier age. In high-income countries, this behavioural trait has been linked to later-life outcomes such as job success, physical health, and even reduced risk …


Collation Model For Oversize Ms. Codex 1446: [Medici Contracts], Dot Porter Aug 2022

Collation Model For Oversize Ms. Codex 1446: [Medici Contracts], Dot Porter

Collation Models

A collection of contracts involving Carlo Bernardo Alamanni de' Medici, most concerning property and goods, but many also concerning debts, sales, purchasing of titles, and inheritances. Some regard ecclesiastical properties. The title page (f. i recto) contains a later list of revised deeds, organized by year and page number, dated 1656. Divided into sections based on date, from 1552 to 1569. Most of the interactions and goods described are located near or in Florence. Many concern Giovanni Baptista Detti, Camillo de' Medici, Francisco from the ship Decumano, and a Bartolomeo. Many of the properties have been entrusted to Carlo de' …


Building Belonging, Jacob M. Ross Aug 2022

Building Belonging, Jacob M. Ross

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

This project comes from a deep love of the idea of creating cultures of belonging, originating from my own relationship with community, in which my life was saved by the loving generosity of the 12-step community. This connects to contemporary research on both the nature of, and need for, a sense of belonging to something bigger than oneself. This project begins with a review of current literature on the experience of belonging in the workplace, and the influence that feeling a sense of belonging within one’s organization has on well-being. It then goes into an exploration of current interventions that …


Psychedelics, Positive Psychology, And Positive Humanities, Hamide Eygoren Aug 2022

Psychedelics, Positive Psychology, And Positive Humanities, Hamide Eygoren

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Public and scientific interest in the effect of psychedelic drugs on wellbeing has risen significantly. Preliminary data show that psychedelic drugs, specifically classic psychedelics (DMT, psilocybin, mescaline, and LSD), may have the potential to treat mood disorders and increase wellbeing through their acute subjective effects. The acute subjective effects and enduring effects of psychedelics on wellbeing seem to relate to positive psychological frameworks (e.g., resilience factors and PERMA) considerably. Moreover, optimizing acute subjective effects indicates the importance of set (individual’s internal (mental) factors) and setting (individual’s external factors) in psychedelics administration as moderating factors. A new subfield in positive psychology, …


Organizations As Agents For Well-Being: How An Organizational Orientation To “Do Good” Could Lead To Flourishing, Andrew Frick Aug 2022

Organizations As Agents For Well-Being: How An Organizational Orientation To “Do Good” Could Lead To Flourishing, Andrew Frick

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

It has been proposed that flourishing individuals enable flourishing organizations which leads to a flourishing world. However, is it also possible that by focusing on building a flourishing world a reciprocal elevation of organizational flourishing and individual flourishing can occur? This paper discusses well-being, the progression of research regarding organizational orientation to do good, and mirror flourishing. The amplification effect of virtuousness, along with the heliotropic effect, provide support to the theorized concept of mirror flourishing. In addition, this paper proposes a study design using appreciative inquiry to conduct interviews to better understand how an organization’s orientation to do good …


The Aspiring Entrepreneur Model For Flourishing - A Model Designed To Keep Aspiring Entrepreneurs Engaged, Committed, And Flourishing, Aaron Marcum Aug 2022

The Aspiring Entrepreneur Model For Flourishing - A Model Designed To Keep Aspiring Entrepreneurs Engaged, Committed, And Flourishing, Aaron Marcum

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The entrepreneurial experience is not for the faint of heart. Due to the stress associated with starting a new business, it can challenge the well-being of even the best intended entrepreneurs, especially those early on in their journey, whom I call aspiring entrepreneurs (AE). It is possible for an AE to flourish, where they thrive and continue to grow through the experience, as long as they invest in certain key well-being dimensions that positive psychology researchers and practitioners have identified as foundational to entrepreneurial flourishing. This paper explores three of these dimensions, (1) purpose in life, (2) autonomy, and (3) …


A Prescription Of Positive Psychology: Bridging The Intention-Behavior Gap In Social Prescribing In The Uk, Jill Rzym Aug 2022

A Prescription Of Positive Psychology: Bridging The Intention-Behavior Gap In Social Prescribing In The Uk, Jill Rzym

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Although people have intentions to change their behavior, many do not take any action, and this discrepancy is called the intention-behavior gap. Studies estimate the gap is as high as 50%, a figure of some significance in health behavior change. This paper explores the intention-behavior gap in the context of social prescribing in the UK. It looks at the current problems of measurement and evaluation within social prescribing and the potential impact of the intention-behavior gap. The paper also considers the current research addressing the gap and proposes an alternative solution based on a positive psychology framework and positive psychology …


Coping With The Unforeseen: An Investigation Of Character Strengths Of Parents Who Have Children With Life-Altering Diagnoses, Rabiya Karamali Aug 2022

Coping With The Unforeseen: An Investigation Of Character Strengths Of Parents Who Have Children With Life-Altering Diagnoses, Rabiya Karamali

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Parenting is a challenge role, and it is an even more challenging experience when you have a child with a life-altering diagnosis (LAD). In this investigation, the character strengths of parents of healthy children and parents of children with LADs were measured, as well as their sense of meaning and well-being. We hypothesized that parents of children with LADs might have a different profile of top strengths than parents of healthy children. However, the results revealed no significant differences in character strengths between the two groups of parents, except for the character strength of love of learning. There were significant …


Documentary As Discourse: Cultivating Narrative Agency Through Media Arts In Mental Health Practice With Youth, Cary Donaldson Aug 2022

Documentary As Discourse: Cultivating Narrative Agency Through Media Arts In Mental Health Practice With Youth, Cary Donaldson

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Over the past decade, and especially within the last three years marked by the COVID-19 pandemic, increases in major mental health concerns among youth have been noted by many experts on adolescent health and well-being (Racine et al., 2021). When these trends are considered relative to specific subpopulations of youth (i.e., those with histories of complex trauma and engagement with the child welfare system) an even more concerning story begins to take shape. Young people who entered the pandemic in vulnerable spaces with regard to many aspects of their lives (academic, social, emotional, physical health) have, by in large, become …


Parental "Sense Of Agency": A Qualitative Study Of Parents Experiences Assisting Their Children In Outpatient Community Mental Health Treatment., Eric G. Erickson Aug 2022

Parental "Sense Of Agency": A Qualitative Study Of Parents Experiences Assisting Their Children In Outpatient Community Mental Health Treatment., Eric G. Erickson

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Parental “Sense of Agency”: A Qualitative Study of Parents Experiences Assisting their Children in Outpatient Community Mental Health Treatment.

ABSTRACT

In the United States, there are approximately 17 million children under the age of 17 that have commonly diagnosed mental health disorders which include ADHD, behavior problems, anxiety, and depression (Bitsko et al., 2019). In efforts to provide access to mental health treatment, there are approximately 11,682 mental health facilities as of 2018, 62% of which are comprised of community mental health centers and outpatient mental health clinics that provide mental health services for children and families (SAMSHA, 2018).

The …