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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Reinstatement Candidate Credentialing Exam Performance: Evaluating The Persistence Of Misinformed Responses On Multiple Choice Items, Ben Babcock, Zachary D. Siegel Apr 2022

Reinstatement Candidate Credentialing Exam Performance: Evaluating The Persistence Of Misinformed Responses On Multiple Choice Items, Ben Babcock, Zachary D. Siegel

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Research about repeated testing has revealed that retaking the same exam form generally does not advantage or disadvantage failing candidates in selected response-style credentialing exams. Feinberg, Raymond, and Haist (2015) found a contributing factor to this phenomenon: people answering items incorrectly on both attempts give the same incorrect response about 2/3 of the time. They concluded that examinees are misinformed, rather than uninformed, about these items. The current research investigated whether reinstatement candidates followed similar patterns. Reinstatement candidates are people that obtain a credential, later discontinue the credential, then retake the exam to regain the credential. Data came from ...


An Introduction To The Analysis Of Ranked Response Data, Holmes Finch Apr 2022

An Introduction To The Analysis Of Ranked Response Data, Holmes Finch

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Researchers in many disciplines work with ranking data. This data type is unique in that it is often deterministic in nature (the ranks of items k-1 determine the rank of item k), and the difference in a pair of rank scores separated by k units is equivalent regardless of the actual values of the two ranks in the pair. Given its unique qualities, there are specific statistical analyses and models designed for use with ranking data. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate a strategy for analyzing ranking data from sample description through the modeling of relative ranks ...


Counting Sequences Are Processed Across Multiple Levels Of Cortical Hierarchy, Eli Zaleznik Mar 2022

Counting Sequences Are Processed Across Multiple Levels Of Cortical Hierarchy, Eli Zaleznik

Masters Theses

Learning the count list (one, two, three, …) is a critical stepping-stone for the acquisition of number concepts. Most research about counting, however, is done in the behavioral domain, and little is known about the neural representations underlying counting sequences. Here, we test the hypothesis that transitional knowledge within a counting sequence exist both at sensory and conceptual (ordinal and magnitude) levels. To test this hypothesis, we employed a passive-listening violation-to-expectation fMRI paradigm where adult participants heard auditory count sequences that were correct (4 5 6 7) or violated at the end (4 5 6 8; consecutiveness) and, orthogonally, that were ...


Slavery, Colonialism, And Other Ghosts: Presence And Absence In The Rise Of American Sociology, 1895-1905, Aaron Yates Mar 2022

Slavery, Colonialism, And Other Ghosts: Presence And Absence In The Rise Of American Sociology, 1895-1905, Aaron Yates

Masters Theses

US sociology has historically denied slavery and colonialism as demanding of sociological study. The roots of this can be examined at the turn of the twentieth century in the early years of the institutionalization of the discipline in American universities. The inattention stems from a white supremacist racial ontology that underpins US sociology in general (embedded in the category of modernity and the category of sociology itself). There are traces or identifiable ‘moments of silencing’ during the first ten years of the American Journal of Sociology (AJS), the discipline’s first professional journal in the US, in which early (white ...


Behavior Or Diagnosis? Effects Of Irritable Patient Behavior And Diagnostic Labels On Mental Illness Stigma, Nathan R. Huff Mar 2022

Behavior Or Diagnosis? Effects Of Irritable Patient Behavior And Diagnostic Labels On Mental Illness Stigma, Nathan R. Huff

Masters Theses

Although research demonstrates significant stigma towards individuals with mental illness, the relative importance of observed behavior and a psychiatric diagnosis in eliciting stigma remains poorly understood. Using video vignettes, three experiments (ns = 195, 749, and 791) examined the effect of irritable (vs. calm) behavior and the presence (vs. absence) of a psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia in Studies 1 and 2; schizophrenia and depression in Study 3) on attitudinal, emotional, and behavioral dimensions of stigma towards a fictitious emergency room patient seeking migraine treatment. In line with labeling theory, irritable behavior resulted in greater blameworthy attributions for behavior, greater fear and anger ...


Superstar Firms And The State: Amazon In The U.S. And France During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Priscilla Hernandez Mar 2022

Superstar Firms And The State: Amazon In The U.S. And France During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Priscilla Hernandez

Masters Theses

This article explores the relationships between superstar firms, states, and labor during a period of sharp challenge to normal functioning of capitalist societies. My working definition of superstar firms includes firms that have amassed a formidable economic power in their home markets, but also hold a large amount of social, economic, and political influence in societies more generally. They are powerful enough to maneuver within the global capitalist field to side-step challenges from the state and labor as well as market competitors. This paper is focused on superstar firm Amazon in the United States and France during the height of ...


Alt-Education: Gender, Language, And Education Across The Right, Catherine Tebaldi Mar 2022

Alt-Education: Gender, Language, And Education Across The Right, Catherine Tebaldi

Doctoral Dissertations

I explore the ideologies of gender, language and education in conservative, Christian Nationalist, and White nationalist mothers groups. I draw on my own family history, as well as on two years of blended ethnographic research in online right wing communities and one year of fieldwork in New Orleans, Louisiana, to look at homeschooling, online schools, and public teachers’ social, linguistic, and educational practices -- what I call Alt-Education. Alt-education is of course a play on alt-right, and refers to the far-right ideology; but it also refers to an alternative to mainstream education, and to education through a broader range of materials ...


The Linearization Of V(P)-Doubling Constructions, Rong Yin Mar 2022

The Linearization Of V(P)-Doubling Constructions, Rong Yin

Doctoral Dissertations

When an item moves, it is usually pronounced once but in some cases, it is pronounced multiple times. So, a question is: What determines whether a moved item gets pronounced in only one of its positions or in multiple positions? This dissertation aims at providing an answer to this question by designing a linearization process that yields the correct phonetic realization of a moved item, with a focus on V(P) movement. In particular, this dissertation provides a detailed analysis of how V(P)-doubling cases are linearized and thus show how a V(P) ends up being pronounced multiple ...


By The Numbers: How Academic Capitalism Shapes Graduate Student Experiences Of Work And Training In Material Sciences, Timothy Sacco Mar 2022

By The Numbers: How Academic Capitalism Shapes Graduate Student Experiences Of Work And Training In Material Sciences, Timothy Sacco

Doctoral Dissertations

The neoliberal reorganization of higher education has reshaped the research and education missions of university science. Much of the scholarship examining this shift focuses on faculty experiences. This dissertation centers the experiences of student scientists to explore: (1) how entrepreneurial universities manage marginal academic knowledge workers, including students, through processes that shift responsibility onto individual workers; (2) how universities use mechanisms like internships and Individual Development Plans to shift educational responsibilities onto students; and (3) how performances of masculinity in commercial spaces of university science contribute to durable gender inequalities among students under academic capitalism. Longitudinal qualitative methods were employed ...


Quiet Ego And Well-Being: The What, Why, And How -- An Investigation Of The Implications Of The Quiet Ego For Psychological Well-Being, Guanyu Liu Mar 2022

Quiet Ego And Well-Being: The What, Why, And How -- An Investigation Of The Implications Of The Quiet Ego For Psychological Well-Being, Guanyu Liu

Doctoral Dissertations

Ego is that which constructs and evaluates the concept of self in that it processes information and interprets objects (e.g., people, experiences) and labels them as part of the self (or not). To put it another way, ego is an active experiencer, perceiver, and doer that constructs, maintains, and regulates our sense of self and our relationships with others. Ego processes information in different modes. The mode that has been most extensively studied is the egotistical-narcissistic one because it fits well with the predominant cultural ideology of being individualistic and being motivated by self-interest. Thus, what has largely been ...


Reclaiming The Future Through Small-Scale Agriculture: Autonomy And Sustainability In The Caribbean, Dana M. Conzo Mar 2022

Reclaiming The Future Through Small-Scale Agriculture: Autonomy And Sustainability In The Caribbean, Dana M. Conzo

Doctoral Dissertations

My dissertation, “Reclaiming the future through Small-Scale Agriculture: Autonomy and Sustainability in the Caribbean,” is a political-economic analysis of land politics, foodscapes and foodsheds, and small-scale agricultural activities in plantation economies on the Caribbean island of St Kitts. Using ethnographic and geographic methods, such as participant observation, interviews, social network analysis, and foodshed mapping, I investigate the cultural and economic niche of local farmers, documented and analyzed the island’s foodshed, and provide a historical and economic background of St Kitts to link historical processes to contemporary spatial organization and agricultural practices. I consider the complexities of food inequalities and ...


Evaluation Of A Remote Implementation Of The Well-Being Promotion Program With Middle School Students During Covid-19, Emily C. Barry Mar 2022

Evaluation Of A Remote Implementation Of The Well-Being Promotion Program With Middle School Students During Covid-19, Emily C. Barry

Doctoral Dissertations

The COVID-19 pandemic and pivot to emergency remote teaching changed the way in which many students access school-based mental health interventions. Furthermore, the effects of the pandemic heightened distress and decreased life satisfaction amongst many youth, increasing the need for schools to provide targeted mental health supports (Lazarus et al, 2021; Magson et al., 2021). Empirically supported Tier 2 mental health interventions exist (i.e., the Well-Being Promotion Program; Suldo, 2016), but little is known about how these interventions can be adapted and feasibly implemented in remote school contexts. This retrospective case study evaluated the implementation of a remote version ...


Digital Indigeneity: Digital Media's Uses For Identity Formation, Education, And Activism By Indigenous People In The Northeastern United States, Virginia A. Mclaurin Mar 2022

Digital Indigeneity: Digital Media's Uses For Identity Formation, Education, And Activism By Indigenous People In The Northeastern United States, Virginia A. Mclaurin

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation seeks to examine the types of digital media being produced in the Northeastern United States, its content, the goals and motivations of its creators, the processes underlying Indigenous digital media creation, and the desired and projected audiences of Indigenous digital artists and content creators. Resulting findings from this study illuminate long histories of Indigenous use of digital media tied to digital media's development in Indigenous lands. I argue that Native people have been producers and influencers in film and later, digital media, and have underwritten digital production due to its development on Indigenous lands. Through interviews and ...


What Drives The Fracking Boom Crime Relationship? A Fixed-Effects Analysis Of Crime During The Pennsylvania Fracking Boom, Webster Batista-Lin Mar 2022

What Drives The Fracking Boom Crime Relationship? A Fixed-Effects Analysis Of Crime During The Pennsylvania Fracking Boom, Webster Batista-Lin

Masters Theses

The rapid expansion of hydraulic fracturing(fracking) over the past two decades has led to an increasing interest in the relationship between natural resource booms and crime. Since the onset of the fracking boom, numerous anecdotal accounts and an increasing body of empirical studies have suggested that fracking has a significant, positive impact on crime. However, the mechanisms behind this relationship are poorly understood. This study uses a high-resolution dataset and a unique, fixed-effects approach to decompose the effect that fracking has on crime into increases due to the introduction of new wells and increases due to the presence of ...


Autocorrelation Screening: A Potentially Efficient Method For Detecting Repetitive Response Patterns In Questionnaire Data, Jaroslav Gottfried, Stanislav Ježek, Maria Králová, Tomáš Řiháček Feb 2022

Autocorrelation Screening: A Potentially Efficient Method For Detecting Repetitive Response Patterns In Questionnaire Data, Jaroslav Gottfried, Stanislav Ježek, Maria Králová, Tomáš Řiháček

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Valid data are essential for making correct theoretical and practical implications. Hence, efficient methods for detecting and excluding data with dubious validity are highly valuable in any field of science. This paper introduces the idea of applying autocorrelation analysis on self-report questionnaires with single-choice numbered, preferably Likert-type, scales in order to screen out potentially invalid data, specifically repetitive response patterns. We explain mathematical principles of autocorrelation in a simple manner and illustrate how to efficiently perform detection of invalid data and how to correctly interpret the results. We conclude that autocorrelation screening could be a valuable screening tool for assessing ...


Gauging Teaching Performance: Observational Sampling Opportunity, Reliability, And The Manifestation Of True-Response Data, Jeffrey N. Howard Feb 2022

Gauging Teaching Performance: Observational Sampling Opportunity, Reliability, And The Manifestation Of True-Response Data, Jeffrey N. Howard

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

The Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) instrument provides insight for instructors and administrators alike, often touting high response-rates to endorse their validity and reliability. However, response-rate alone omits consideration for adequate quantity of ‘observational sampling opportunity’ (OSO) data points (e.g., high student attendance). The current paper endorses that quantity of OSO data points is critical to validity/reliability of longitudinal SET paradigms. It is reasoned ethically-challenged to rely on SET via basic surface-measures such as simple ‘response-rate’, when specific higher-quality data reflecting adequate quantity of OSO data points, can be filtered for from the same dataset. In addition, ethical ...


Looking Back Looking Forward: Isccl 50th Anniversary Symposium, Abstracts And Presentations, Elizabeth Brabec, Betina Adams, Haeedeh Laleh Feb 2022

Looking Back Looking Forward: Isccl 50th Anniversary Symposium, Abstracts And Presentations, Elizabeth Brabec, Betina Adams, Haeedeh Laleh

ISCCL Scientific Symposia // Symposiums scientifiques de l'ISCCL // Simposios científicos de ISCCL

During the past 50 years, the ISCCL has experienced great shifts in an understanding of cultural landscapes, the approaches to their conservation and protection, and the foundational concept of cultural landscapes themselves. The starting point was in 1971, in a meeting of Fontainebleau, where M. René Pechère led an international group of historic garden landscape architects and other professionals in the creation of a joint ICOMOS / IFLA Committee of Historic Gardens and Sites. While the focus of the original Committee was on classical gardens and their maintenance and protection, this was an important first step in the understanding of broader ...


Representing Multiple Dependencies In Prosodic Structures, Kristine M. Yu Feb 2022

Representing Multiple Dependencies In Prosodic Structures, Kristine M. Yu

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Association of tones to prosodic trees was introduced in Pierrehumbert and Beckman (1988). This included: (i) tonal association to higher-level prosodic nodes such as intonational phrases, and (ii) multiple association of a tone to a higher-level prosodic node in addition to a tone bearing unit such as a syllable. Since then, these concepts have been broadly assumed in intonational phonology without much comment, even though Pierrehumbert and Beckman (1988)'s stipulation that tones associated to higher-level prosodic nodes are peripherally realized does not fit all the empirical data. We show that peripherally-realized tones associated to prosodic nodes can be naturally ...


Learning Constraints On Wh-Dependencies By Learning How To Efficiently Represent Wh-Dependencies: A Developmental Modeling Investigation With Fragment Grammars, Niels Dickson, Lisa Pearl, Richard Futrell Feb 2022

Learning Constraints On Wh-Dependencies By Learning How To Efficiently Represent Wh-Dependencies: A Developmental Modeling Investigation With Fragment Grammars, Niels Dickson, Lisa Pearl, Richard Futrell

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

It’s hotly contested how children learn constraints on wh-dependencies, called syntactic islands. When learning this knowledge, a prerequisite is knowing how to represent wh-dependencies so that constraints can be hypothesized over those representations. Previous work has explained disparate sets of syntactic island constraints by assuming different wh-dependency representations, without a unified dependency representation capturing all these constraints. We implement a modeled learner who learns a Fragment Grammar (FG) representation of wh-dependencies–a representation comprised of potentially different-sized fragments that combine to form full dependencies–that best accounts for the input while being as compact as ...


Can Language Models Capture Syntactic Associations Without Surface Cues? A Case Study Of Reflexive Anaphor Licensing In English Control Constructions, Soo-Hwan Lee, Sebastian Schuster Feb 2022

Can Language Models Capture Syntactic Associations Without Surface Cues? A Case Study Of Reflexive Anaphor Licensing In English Control Constructions, Soo-Hwan Lee, Sebastian Schuster

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

We examine GPT-2 (Radford et al., 2019), which is trained only on surface strings, to see whether or not the model makes correct predictions about the agreement patterns of a reflexive anaphor in English control constructions. Our findings show that GPT-2 struggles with transitive subject control constructions, but does well on transitive object control constructions. One reason might be that the model tries to associate the anaphor with the closest noun phrase. Moreover, while we find that a model with a larger number of parameters shows higher accuracy on the tasks related to subject control constructions, performance remains below chance.


Incremental Acquisition Of A Minimalist Grammar Using An Smt-Solver, Sagar Indurkhya Feb 2022

Incremental Acquisition Of A Minimalist Grammar Using An Smt-Solver, Sagar Indurkhya

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

We introduce a novel procedure that uses the Z3 SMT-solver, an interactive theorem prover, to incrementally infer a Minimalist Grammar (MG) from an input sequence of paired interface conditions, which corresponds to the primary linguistic data (PLD) a child is exposed to. The procedure outputs an MG lexicon, consisting of a set of (word, feature-sequence) pairings, that yields, for each entry in the PLD, a derivation that satisfies the listed interface conditions; the output MG lexicon corresponds to the Knowledge of Language that the child acquires from processing the PLD. We use the acquisition procedure to infer an MG lexicon ...


Masked Language Models Directly Encode Linguistic Uncertainty, Cassandra Jacobs, Ryan J. Hubbard, Kara D. Federmeier Feb 2022

Masked Language Models Directly Encode Linguistic Uncertainty, Cassandra Jacobs, Ryan J. Hubbard, Kara D. Federmeier

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Large language models (LLMs) have recently been used as models of psycholinguistic processing, usually focusing on lexical or syntactic surprisal. However, this approach casts away representations of utterance meaning (e.g., hidden states), which are used by LLMs to predict upcoming words. The present work explores whether hidden state representations of LLMs encode human language processing-relevant uncertainty. We specifically assess this possibility using sentences from Federmeier et al. (2007) that are either strongly or weakly predictive of a final word. Using a machine learning approach, we tested and confirmed that LLMs encode uncertainty in their hidden states.


Learning Argument Structures With Recurrent Neural Network Grammars, Ryo Yoshida, Yohei Oseki Feb 2022

Learning Argument Structures With Recurrent Neural Network Grammars, Ryo Yoshida, Yohei Oseki

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

In targeted syntactic evaluations, the syntactic competence of LMs has been investigated through various syntactic phenomena, among which one of the important domains has been argument structure. Argument structures in head-initial languages have been exclusively tested in the previous literature, but may be readily predicted from lexical information of verbs, potentially overestimating the syntactic competence of LMs. In this paper, we explore whether argument structures can be learned by LMs in head-final languages, which could be more challenging given that argument structures must be predicted before encountering verbs during incremental sentence processing, so that the relative weight of syntactic information ...


Inferring Inferences: Relational Propositions For Argument Mining, Andrew Potter Feb 2022

Inferring Inferences: Relational Propositions For Argument Mining, Andrew Potter

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Inferential reasoning is an essential feature of argumentation. Therefore, a method for mining discourse for inferential structures would be of value for argument analysis and assessment. The logic of relational propositions is a procedure for rendering texts as expressions in propositional logic directly from their rhetorical structures. From rhetorical structures, relational propositions are defined, and from these propositions, logical expressions are then generated. There are, however, unsettled issues associated with Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), some of which are problematic for inference mining. This paper takes a deep dive into some of these issues, with the aim of elucidating the problems ...


Learning Stress Patterns With A Sequence-To-Sequence Neural Network, Brandon Prickett, Joe Pater Feb 2022

Learning Stress Patterns With A Sequence-To-Sequence Neural Network, Brandon Prickett, Joe Pater

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

We present the first application of modern neural networks to the well studied task of learning word stress systems. We tested our adaptation of a sequence-to-sequence network on the Tesar and Smolensky test set of 124 "languages", showing that it acquires generalizable representations of stress patterns in a very high proportion of runs. We also show that it learns restricted lexically conditioned patterns, known as stress windows. The ability of this model to acquire lexical idiosyncracies, which are very common in natural language systems, sets it apart from past, non-neural models tested on the Tesar and Smolensky data set.


Maxent Learners Are Biased Against Giving Probability To Harmonically Bounded Candidates, Charlie O'Hara Feb 2022

Maxent Learners Are Biased Against Giving Probability To Harmonically Bounded Candidates, Charlie O'Hara

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

One of the major differences between MaxEnt Harmonic Grammar (Goldwater and Johnson, 2003) and Noisy Harmonic Grammar (Boersma and Pater, 2016) is that in MaxEnt harmonically bounded candidates are able to get some probability, whereas in most other constraint-based grammars they can never be output (Jesney, 2007). The probability given to harmonically bounded candidates is taken from other candidates, in some cases allowing Max- Ent to model grammars that subvert some of the universal implications that are true in NoisyHG (Anttila and Magri, 2018). Magri (2018) argues that the types of implicational universals that remain valid in MaxEnt are phonologically ...


Horse Or Pony? Visual Typicality And Lexical Frequency Affect Variability In Object Naming, Eleonora Gualdoni, Thomas Brochhagen, Andreas Mädebach, Gemma Boleda Feb 2022

Horse Or Pony? Visual Typicality And Lexical Frequency Affect Variability In Object Naming, Eleonora Gualdoni, Thomas Brochhagen, Andreas Mädebach, Gemma Boleda

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Often we can use different names to refer to the same object (e.g., pony vs. horse) and naming choices vary among people. In the present study we explore factors that affect naming variation for visually presented objects. We analyse a large dataset of object naming with realistic images and focus on two factors: (a) the visual typicality of objects and their context for the names used by human annotators and (b) the lexical frequency of these names. We use a novel computational approach to estimate visual typicality by calculating the visual similarity of a given object (or context) and ...


The Interaction Between Cognitive Ease And Informativeness Shapes The Lexicons Of Natural Languages, Thomas Brochhagen, Gemma Boleda Feb 2022

The Interaction Between Cognitive Ease And Informativeness Shapes The Lexicons Of Natural Languages, Thomas Brochhagen, Gemma Boleda

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Lexical ambiguity is pervasive in language, and often systematic. Previous work shows that systematic ambiguities involve related meanings. This is attributed to cognitive pressure towards simplicity in language, as it makes lexicons easier to learn and use. The present study examines the interplay between this pressure and competing pressure for languages to support accurate information transfer. We hypothesize that ambiguity is shaped by a balance of the two pressures; and find support for this idea in data from over 1200 languages and 1400 meanings. Our results thus suggest that universal forces shape the lexicons of natural languages.


Typological Implications Of Tier-Based Strictly Local Movement, Thomas Graf Feb 2022

Typological Implications Of Tier-Based Strictly Local Movement, Thomas Graf

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Earlier work has shown that movement, which forms the backbone of Minimalist syntax, belongs in the subregular class of TSL-2 dependencies over trees. The central idea is that movement, albeit unbounded, boils down to local mother-daughter dependencies on a specific substructure called a tree tier. This reveals interesting parallels between syntax and phonology, but it also looks very different from the standard view of movement. One may wonder, then, whether the TSL-2 characterization is linguistically natural. I argue that this is indeed the case because TSL-2 furnishes a unified analysis of a variety of phenomena: multiple wh-movement, expletive constructions, the ...


Remodelling Complement Coercion Interpretation, Frederick G. Gietz, Barend Beekhuizen Feb 2022

Remodelling Complement Coercion Interpretation, Frederick G. Gietz, Barend Beekhuizen

Proceedings of the Society for Computation in Linguistics

Existing (experimental and computational) linguistic work uses participant paraphrases as a stand-in for event interpretation in complement coercion sentences (e.g. she finished the coffee > she finished drinking the coffee). We present crowdsourcing data and modelling that supports broadening this conception. In particular, our results suggest that sentences where many participants do not give a paraphrase, or where many different paraphrases are given, are informative about to how complement coercion is interpreted in naturalistic contexts.