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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Time To Stop Worrying: A Correlational Study On Individualist Versus Collectivist Time Perspectives And Anxiety, Anna Waldron May 2022

Time To Stop Worrying: A Correlational Study On Individualist Versus Collectivist Time Perspectives And Anxiety, Anna Waldron

ELAIA

Purpose Research has indicated a significant relationship between anxiety and time perspective (TP), which is the way one views life in terms of the past, present or future. TP is broken down into five facets based on the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), including past negative (PN), past positive (PP), present fatalistic (PF), present hedonistic (PH), and future (F) time perspectives (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). Time perspective is thought to be impacted by one’s culture, although there is a lack of representation in studies on TP cross-culturally, which makes it difficult to generalize. In order to add to the research on time perspective’s relationship to anxiety and to fill the gap on the role of culture in this phenomenon, the variable of individualism was included in this present study.

Procedure A total of 525 participants were obtained from 22 countries including the United States, India, Brazil, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Upon confirmation of informed consent, we distributed a survey to participants measuring each individual on time perspective, using the ZTPI; individualism, using the Individualism and Collectivism scale (Singelis et al., 1995); and anxiety, using a subcategory of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Goldberg et al., 2006).

Results We found that individualism showed a positive relationship with F and ...


Religiosity And Relational Anxiety: A Cross-Denominational Study, Timothy Steininger May 2022

Religiosity And Relational Anxiety: A Cross-Denominational Study, Timothy Steininger

ELAIA

Background: Prior research has provided evidence for a correlation between religiosity and anxiety, quantifiable differences between denominations, and a somewhat equivocal link between religiosity and social trust. Methods: This present study seeks to extend the existing body of knowledge by assessing the relationship between intrinsic religiosity and both trait and relational anxiety across denominational groups and by measuring the relationship between relational anxiety and social trust. Participants (N = 1,905) were asked to provide their informed consent as well as basic demographic information and answers to four surveys. Results: Analysis revealed a modest negative relationship between intrinsic religiosity and trait ...


The Reliability And Validity Of The Open Enneagram Of Personality Scales, Kayleigh Kastelein May 2022

The Reliability And Validity Of The Open Enneagram Of Personality Scales, Kayleigh Kastelein

ELAIA

The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and validity of the thirty-six-item Open Enneagram of Personality Scales (OEPS). Our general hypothesis was that the OEPS would show adequate reliability evidence but not validity evidence. Participants were acquired through a small denominationally affiliated Midwest university, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and social media. Test-retest reliability was done with 249 participants, whereas internal consistency reliability, factor analysis, and correlations with the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) were done using 1,039 participants. An average Pearson’s correlation of .68 (range: 0.54 - 0.75) showed inadequate test-retest reliability ...


Experiencing History: A Roundtable Discussion Of Architecture, Theatre, And Culture Of England, Elyse Lamszus, Andrew Hoag, Riley Basick, Katherine Bosma, Autumn Bruens, Alaina Durr, Cynthia Morales, Madelynn Norton, Laura Rankin, Benjamin Ridler, Remington Ross, Lia Shomaly, Anna Shoup, Kaitlyn Tibbetts, Becca Witvoet, Emily Yerge Apr 2022

Experiencing History: A Roundtable Discussion Of Architecture, Theatre, And Culture Of England, Elyse Lamszus, Andrew Hoag, Riley Basick, Katherine Bosma, Autumn Bruens, Alaina Durr, Cynthia Morales, Madelynn Norton, Laura Rankin, Benjamin Ridler, Remington Ross, Lia Shomaly, Anna Shoup, Kaitlyn Tibbetts, Becca Witvoet, Emily Yerge

Scholar Week 2016 - present

This presentation features a roundtable discussion among students who traveled to England during Spring Break, March 5-11, 2022. This presentation seeks to share primary and secondary research about England’s architecture and theatre, as well as additional insights about England’s culture and history gained through first-hand experiences of traveling within the city of London and to Stonehenge and Bath.


Kankakee In Deindustrialization: An Oral History Approach, Rachel Shepard Apr 2022

Kankakee In Deindustrialization: An Oral History Approach, Rachel Shepard

Scholar Week 2016 - present

The City of Kankakee was an industrialized city which prospered economically for decades. Throughout the late 1970s and 1980s, economic trends shifted for Kankakee and the surrounding communities. The major factories, such as Roper Corporation and A.O. Smith, migrated their source of production from Kankakee to other regions of the United States and abroad during the 1970s and 1980s. As a result, the declining industrial economic activity led to changing community perceptions. Kankakee is an example of the “Rust Belt” region, a region in the Midwestern and Northeastern States of the United States where declining industrial activity occurred throughout ...


What Are We Teaching In Spirituality And Social Work Elective Courses? A Qualitative Content Analysis Of Bsw Syllabi, Hillary Cole Apr 2022

What Are We Teaching In Spirituality And Social Work Elective Courses? A Qualitative Content Analysis Of Bsw Syllabi, Hillary Cole

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Religion and spirituality (RS) are vital aspects of client identity and well-being, yet social work professionals are often ill-equipped to address these in practice due to a lack of specialized training. The National Association of Social Work (NASW) and Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) support spirituality integration, but existing research focuses on Master of Social Work (MSW)-level elective courses. This qualitative study addresses Bachelor of Social Work (BSW)-level integration by (a) exploring how many accredited BSW programs offer an elective course on RS and (b) analyzing syllabi from these courses to determine pedagogical best practices. BSW programs ...


Commanding Heights 20 Years On: What Remains In Light Of Recent Events?, Paul R. Koch Apr 2022

Commanding Heights 20 Years On: What Remains In Light Of Recent Events?, Paul R. Koch

Scholar Week 2016 - present

In the spring of 2002, the Public Broadcasting System in the United States aired a three-part, six-hour series entitled, “Commanding Heights: The Battle for the World Economy.” These programs, which were based on the book of the same title by Daniel Yergin and Joseph Stanislaw, covered the debate over economic theories in the 20th century (“The Battle of Ideas”), the transition from state-dominated to market-oriented economies in the last two decades of this century (“The Agony of Reform”), and the various dimensions of the latest wave of globalization (“The New Rules of the Game”). This series is a reflection ...


After Writing 730 Newspaper Columns Over 13 Years –Important Lessons Learned And Advice To Others, Don Daake, Edward Piatt Apr 2022

After Writing 730 Newspaper Columns Over 13 Years –Important Lessons Learned And Advice To Others, Don Daake, Edward Piatt

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Dr. Don Daake, Ph.D. (Florida State 1995), Business Professor Emeritus, and Dr. Edward Piatt, Ed.D. (ONU 2011), MBA Adjunct, share their secrets about writing and actually getting published. They are particularly interested in faculty and students who would like to join them as co-authors or anyone who enjoys writing and wants to get published. To paraphrase an old adage, "If a tree falls in the forest with no ears to hear, does it make a sound. It matters not for the tree has fallen." Our version “If you write something and practically no one reads it, have you ...


Witches, Wizards And Potions: The Christian Nature Of The Harry Potter Best Selling Novels, Craighton T. Hippenhammer, Debra Mattingly, Laura Ladwig Jun 2021

Witches, Wizards And Potions: The Christian Nature Of The Harry Potter Best Selling Novels, Craighton T. Hippenhammer, Debra Mattingly, Laura Ladwig

Faculty Scholarship – Library Science

The magic in Harry Potter is not “sorcery” or invocational magic; it is incantational magic. Most of the objections of the Harry Potter novels are from people who have not read the books. The author, J. K. Rowling is more interested in alchemy than magic and uses Christian symbols and careful naming throughout the books, thereby delivering difficult truths to a postmodern audience in a way that they accept as givens, ideas they would otherwise laugh at. Harry's devotion to the truth and to what is right leads him to disregard the pain he may encounter in pursuing these ...


The Relationship Between Leadership Behaviors, Trust In Leadership And Teacher Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Tonia Y. Havard-Dew May 2021

The Relationship Between Leadership Behaviors, Trust In Leadership And Teacher Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Tonia Y. Havard-Dew

Ed.D. Dissertations

As greater accountability is placed on school districts, in response to the increased demands of federal and state policies and mandates, teacher workloads and responsibilities have been increased to meet those demands. School districts rely on teachers’ commitment to students’ educational pursuits and their willingness to demonstrate behaviors that exceed their formal role expectations to facilitate student success. These behaviors, known as organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB), cannot be required, but play a critical role in ensuring a district’s success. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between teachers’ trust in their administrator and teachers’ OCB ...


The Effects Of Parent Training And Information Centers On Parent Empowerment, Hayden A. O. Lewis May 2021

The Effects Of Parent Training And Information Centers On Parent Empowerment, Hayden A. O. Lewis

Ed.D. Dissertations

Parents of children who receive special education services from the public school are considered equal partners in their child’s education with school professionals on the Individual Education Program team. Each state has a Parent Training and Information Center (PTIC) that seeks to empower parents to fulfill their right as an equal partner. The current study compared the advocacy, knowledge, competence, self-efficacy, and empowerment of two groups of parents of children with disabilities who received special education services in Tennessee. The experimental group of parents (n=36) had attended a workshop provided by a PTIC and the control group (n ...


Impact Of Organizational Fairness On Ethical Policing In The Community, David P. Cepiel May 2021

Impact Of Organizational Fairness On Ethical Policing In The Community, David P. Cepiel

Ed.D. Dissertations

Since 2015, policing has suffered from negative publicity due to unfortunate and often deadly interactions between police officers and people of color. As a result of these sad events, various programs have been incorporated into many police departments to increase professionalism among officers. One such program focuses on increasing legitimacy by teaching procedural justice concepts to officers. This study examined the impacts of organizational fairness on officers from the perspective of procedural justice. Building on previous research, this study focused on the officers and sergeants employed in two small municipal police departments in the Midwestern United States. Ninety-eight participants from ...


Assessment Of Strengths-Based Interventions On First-Year Medical Students, Linnette C. G. White May 2021

Assessment Of Strengths-Based Interventions On First-Year Medical Students, Linnette C. G. White

Ed.D. Dissertations

In the quest for a doctoral degree many candidates fail to meet their milestone accomplishment. It is estimated that approximately 30% of individuals who pursue a doctoral degree will not finish. Medical school has been found to be a very intensive program to pursue for many who begin the journey. Despite its difficulty, 81.6% to 84.1% of medical students achieve the status of medical practitioner, within a three-to-four year program. Despite the seemingly high completion rate, the achievement gap has further implications on physician shortages. The researcher conducted a quantitative study to determine the impact training first-year medical ...


Time To Stop Worrying: A Correlational Study On Individualist Versus Collectivist Time Perspectives And Anxiety, Anna Waldron May 2021

Time To Stop Worrying: A Correlational Study On Individualist Versus Collectivist Time Perspectives And Anxiety, Anna Waldron

Honors Program Projects

Purpose

Research has indicated a significant relationship between anxiety and time perspective (TP), which is the way one views life in terms of the past, present or future. TP is broken down into five facets based on the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), including past negative (PN), past positive (PP), present fatalistic (PF), present hedonistic (PH), and future (F) time perspectives (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). These are seen to be impacted by one’s culture as well, although there is a lack of representation in studies on TP cross-culturally which makes it difficult to generalize. In order to add to the ...


The Reliability And Validity Of The Open Enneagram Of Personality Scales, Kayleigh Kastelein May 2021

The Reliability And Validity Of The Open Enneagram Of Personality Scales, Kayleigh Kastelein

Honors Program Projects

The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and validity of the 36-item Open Enneagram of Personality Scales (OEPS). Our general hypothesis was that the OEPS would show adequate reliability evidence but not validity evidence. Participants were acquired through a small denominationally affiliated Midwest university, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and social media. Test-retest reliability was done with 249 participants while internal consistency reliability, factor analysis, and correlations with the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, & Kentle) were done using 1039 participants. An average Pearson’s correlation of .68 (range: 0.54 - 0.75) showed inadequate test-retest reliability for the ...


Augustine Of Hippo: A Historical Theology Critique, Zachary Monte May 2021

Augustine Of Hippo: A Historical Theology Critique, Zachary Monte

Honors Program Projects

This study evaluates how current historical theology survey texts understand and present the theology of Augustine. The texts are examined to assess the following: accuracy of presentation on discussed topics, specific theological topics Augustine addressed excluded in the surveys, and theological bias on the part of the authors. The historical theology surveys include Gregg Allison’s Historical Theology: An Introduction to Christian Doctrine, Justo González’s A History of Christian Thought, and Alister McGrath’s Historical Theology: An Introduction to the History of Christian Thought. The three major topics treated include Augustine’s Trinitarian thought, the Donatist Controversy, and the ...


Impact Of Organizational Fairness On Ethical Policing In The Community, David Cepiel Apr 2021

Impact Of Organizational Fairness On Ethical Policing In The Community, David Cepiel

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Since 2015, policing has suffered from negative publicity due to unfortunate and often deadly interactions between police officers and people of color. As a result of these sad events, various programs have been incorporated into many police departments to increase professionalism among officers. One such program focuses on increasing legitimacy by teaching procedural justice concepts to officers. This study examined the impacts of organizational fairness on officers from the perspective of procedural justice. Building on previous research, this study focused on the officers and sergeants employed in two small municipal police departments in the Midwestern United States. Ninety-eight participants from ...


The Effects Of Work-Family Conflict On The Career Of Police Officers, Melvina Calvin-Edwards Apr 2021

The Effects Of Work-Family Conflict On The Career Of Police Officers, Melvina Calvin-Edwards

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Work-family conflict can cause conflict for police officers due to stress and danger on the job. Stress from home can make work difficult and work-place stress can affect life at home. Three forms of work-family conflict (time-based, strain based, and behavior-based conflict) were examined. This quantitative study examined how work-family conflict affects job satisfaction, intention to stay employed in the field of law enforcement, and whether there was a difference in work-family conflict between male and female police officers. Data were collected from 178 (n=178) full- time, sworn police officers in the law enforcement field. Data analysis included Pearson ...


Time To Stop Worrying: A Correlational Study On Individualist Versus Collectivist Time Perspectives And Anxiety, Anna Waldron Apr 2021

Time To Stop Worrying: A Correlational Study On Individualist Versus Collectivist Time Perspectives And Anxiety, Anna Waldron

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Weber Center, Room 101

Abstract

Purpose

Research has indicated a significant relationship between anxiety and time perspective (TP), which is the way one views life in terms of the past, present or future. TP is broken down into five facets based on the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), including past negative (PN), past positive (PP), present fatalistic (PF), present hedonistic (PH), and future (F) time perspectives (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999). Time perspective is thought to be impacted by one’s culture, although there is a lack of representation in studies on TP cross-culturally which makes it difficult to generalize ...


The Reliability And Validity Of The Open Enneagram Of Personality Scales, Kayleigh Kastelein Apr 2021

The Reliability And Validity Of The Open Enneagram Of Personality Scales, Kayleigh Kastelein

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Weber Center, Room 101

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and validity of the 36-item Open Enneagram of Personality Scales (OEPS). Our general hypothesis was that the OEPS would show adequate reliability evidence but not validity evidence. Participants were acquired through a small denominationally affiliated Midwest university, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and social media. Test-retest reliability was done with 249 participants while internal consistency reliability, factor analysis, and correlations with the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John, Donahue, & Kentle) were done using 1039 participants. An average Pearson’s correlation of .68 (range: 0.54 - 0 ...


Attitudes Toward Persons With Intellectual Disabilities In The Public Workplace., Brooklyn Shaw Apr 2021

Attitudes Toward Persons With Intellectual Disabilities In The Public Workplace., Brooklyn Shaw

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Weber Center, Room 101

Abstract

Disability advocacy agencies have been pushing for more community integrated employment opportunities for individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study’s aim was to investigate attitudes toward individuals with ID working in the public workplace. A sample of 131 undergraduate students at Olivet Nazarene University were randomly assigned to read one of two different scenarios. One scenario depicted an individual as the co-worker of someone with ID. The other scenario depicted an individual as a customer being helped by someone with ID. Participants then completed the Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward Persons With Disabilities ...


A Self-Study Of Frn Olivet: A Student-Led Food Recovery Model On A University Campus, Madeira Sherwood Apr 2021

A Self-Study Of Frn Olivet: A Student-Led Food Recovery Model On A University Campus, Madeira Sherwood

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Weber Center, Room 101

Abstract

An alarming amount of unserved food is thrown away daily on university campuses, which emits carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. In those same college communities, there is likely a large food insecure population that is going to bed hungry every night. The Food Recovery Network (FRN) is a network of colleges/universities across the United States that seeks to bridge this gap. The FRN chapter at Olivet Nazarene University, established in October 2017, encountered challenges in its first couple years of operation because there were not yet many resources that laid out best ...


What’S Your Natural Next Question? The Inquiry Approach To Learning Economics, Paul R. Koch, Rachel Carlassare Apr 2021

What’S Your Natural Next Question? The Inquiry Approach To Learning Economics, Paul R. Koch, Rachel Carlassare

Scholar Week 2016 - present

During the current academic year, both introductory and upper-division economics courses at Olivet have used an app in Canvas, developed by Beagle Learning, for the purpose of engaging students in critical thinking using an inquiry learning process. Students iteratively cycle through: 1) posing a goal question, 2) finding a resource which provides an answer to that question, at least in part, which then 3) prompts an additional question whose answer increases the degree of certainty regarding the original goal question.

This presentation will concentrate on how this process has been incorporated into the Principles of Economics class, which is a ...


An Exploratory Study Of Emotional Intelligence Characteristics Between Disciplines In Higher Education And Suggested Curriculum Adjustments, Brad Thomas Apr 2021

An Exploratory Study Of Emotional Intelligence Characteristics Between Disciplines In Higher Education And Suggested Curriculum Adjustments, Brad Thomas

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Emotional Intelligence (EI) may be more important to the success of college students than cognitive intelligence and technical skills combined. Recent research has primarily focused on EI in the workplace. However, implications for improving EI skills of college undergraduate students before they enter the workforce appears to be lacking. This quantitative research examined the Emotional Intelligence levels of five different majors to identify differences based on area of study, gender, or other demographic factors. Subsequently, the study aimed to provide suggestions for curriculum development with a goal to better expose students to EI themes. An online survey was offered to ...


Intersecting Social Work Practice, Education, And Spirituality: A Conceptual Model, Hillary Cole Apr 2021

Intersecting Social Work Practice, Education, And Spirituality: A Conceptual Model, Hillary Cole

Scholar Week 2016 - present

The relationship between spirituality, social work, and social work education is complicated and often difficult to teach. Though social work has significant religious roots, it distanced itself at the turn of the 20th century in pursuit of professionalism and scientific respectability. Today the National Association of Social Work (NASW) and the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) recognize spirituality and religion as aspects of client diversity; however, few strategies exist for integrating this content into social work curriculum. This presentation offers a conceptual framework for understanding the spirituality-social work relationship based on the Ecological Model and the concept of ...


Situational Versus Characterological Factors In Relation To Loneliness, Lukas Dale Apr 2021

Situational Versus Characterological Factors In Relation To Loneliness, Lukas Dale

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Warming House, Olivet Nazarene University

Abstract

Loneliness levels were evaluated based on various characterological and situational factors in 146 college-aged students, the majority of which (75.5%) were Caucasian. Using a quasi-experimental/correlational design, participants completed measures assessing personality (neuroticism and extroversion), perceived social support (PSS), fatherlessness, and resident assistant (RA) status. Multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the characterological factors and PSS were significantly correlated with loneliness (all p’s < .005), while fatherlessness and RA status were not significantly correlated with loneliness. Characterological factors accounted for more variance (R2 = .56) than did situational factors (R2 = .25).


Impact Of Mindfulness Training On Test Anxiety In College Students, Lindsay Alcock Apr 2021

Impact Of Mindfulness Training On Test Anxiety In College Students, Lindsay Alcock

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Presentation Location: Warming House, Olivet Nazarene University

Abstract

A considerable number of studies have investigated the relationship between mindfulness techniques and the reduction of anxiety; a smaller number of these studies have looked at test anxiety. Previous studies have used multiple mindfulness techniques to measure the impacts on test anxiety, but few have isolated mindfulness trainings to compare the relative impact of each type on anxiety. The present study isolated two different types of mindfulness trainings to analyze their impact on test anxiety compared to each other and a control group. Three sections of biblical scripture classes were used. Students ...


Monetary Policy And Income Inequality In The United States And Spain, Brooke Whetstone Oct 2020

Monetary Policy And Income Inequality In The United States And Spain, Brooke Whetstone

ELAIA

Background Contractionary monetary policy has long-term effects on inequality (Feldkircher & Kakamu, 2018). However, other forms of monetary policy do not have a clear effect on income inequality. Central banks defend the position that other factors are the driving forces behind income inequality (Powell, 2018).

Methodology This investigation utilized ANOVA regression analysis to determine if income inequality, as measured by wage growth by sector, is related to interest rates in the United States and Spain. If applicable, slopes of the regression lines for each sector were compared to see if they were significantly different in a statistical sense.

Results At interest ...


Parent Perspectives Of Perceived Racial Bias In Their Adolescent’S Healthcare Experience In Emergency Rooms, Ashleigh Godby Oct 2020

Parent Perspectives Of Perceived Racial Bias In Their Adolescent’S Healthcare Experience In Emergency Rooms, Ashleigh Godby

ELAIA

Background Research reports that health outcomes are not equal among individuals in the United States. For instance, maternal death rates are higher for Black women than for White (Rabin, 2019). Such healthcare disparities are not limited to adult healthcare. Some research indicates evidence of disparity in pediatric prescriptions and diagnoses of certain illnesses in Black children versus non-Black children (Gerber et al., 2013). Additionally, research has been published discussing the prevalence of implicit bias in health care and how such bias impacts implementation of medical care (Gerber et al., 2013; Wisniewski & Walker, 2020; Sabin & Greenwald, 2012). A review of literature found no qualitative studies discussing the parent perspectives of perceived racial bias in their child’s healthcare in emergency departments. This study seeks to fill this gap in the research by using a qualitative method of interviewing mothers of minority children and mothers of White children to investigate the levels of perceived racial bias in their adolescents’ previous emergency room visits.

Methods Perceived bias was assessed by interviewing 10 mothers of minority children and 9 mothers of White children. Participants included mothers from Illinois, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. An 11-item semi-structured interview guide was used in order to discover participants’ perceptions of their child’s emergency room care. Two questions from the Commonwealth Fund’s 2001 Health Quality survey were used to assess participants’ views on discrimination in healthcare and life in the United States. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed utilizing in-vivo and general inductive coding methods.

Results Mothers of minority children did not perceive negative medical treatment of their children; however, 40% of mothers of minority children felt ...


Personality Traits As Covariates Of Rock-Climbing Performance In Novice Rock Climbers, Courtney Gearhart Oct 2020

Personality Traits As Covariates Of Rock-Climbing Performance In Novice Rock Climbers, Courtney Gearhart

ELAIA

Background Existing literature has connected heightened levels of conscientiousness and grit and lowered levels of neuroticism to greater general athletic performance (Courneya & Hellsten, 1998; McEwan, Boudreau, Curran, & Rhodes, 2019; Steca et al., 2018). Rockclimbing is a growing field of interest and the question of whether conscientiousness, neuroticism, and grit are correlated with rock-climbing performance and improvement remains unexplored.

Methods To assess relationships among conscientiousness, neuroticism, grit, and rock-climbing performance, twenty-three undergraduate students with no significant climbing experience participated in a two-part study at a small religious university in the Midwest. Participants were recruited through professors known by the researcher, who passed sign-up sheets to ...