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Articles 1 - 30 of 187

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Multiperiod Consensus-Based Transactive Energy System For Unbalanced Distribution Networks, Rui Cheng, Leigh Tesfatsion, Zhaoyu Wang Apr 2021

A Multiperiod Consensus-Based Transactive Energy System For Unbalanced Distribution Networks, Rui Cheng, Leigh Tesfatsion, Zhaoyu Wang

Economics Working Papers

This study develops a consensus-based transactive energy system design managed by an independent distribution system operator (DSO) for an unbalanced radial distribution network. The network is populated by welfare-maximizing customers with price-sensitive and fixed (non-price-sensitive) demands who make multiple successive power decisions during each real-time operating period OP. The DSO and customers engage in an iterative negotiation process in advance of each OP to determine retail price-to-go sequences for OP that align customer power decisions with network reliability constraints in a manner that respects customer privacy. The convergence properties of a dual decomposition algorithm developed to implement this negotiation process ...


Willingness To Participate In Demand Response In The Us Midwest: A Market With Great Potential?, Abigail Morton, Yu Wang, Wendong Zhang Feb 2021

Willingness To Participate In Demand Response In The Us Midwest: A Market With Great Potential?, Abigail Morton, Yu Wang, Wendong Zhang

CARD Policy Briefs

Demand response uses smart technologies to lower peak electricity load by either shifting demand to non-peak hours or directly shaving peak demand. DR is a fast-growing market in which commercial and industrial customers are the primary providers of resources; however, DR helps heavy electrical consumers save energy and avoid demand charges, and it helps utilities save money and deter investment on expensive transmission and distribution lines. DR also has great potential to balance renewables by providing ramping and flexibility services to the electricity market. This capacity is increasingly important to electrical grids, as is the integration of more renewable energy.


The Economic And Environmental Costs And Benefits Of The Renewable Fuel Standard, Luoye Chen, Deepayan Debnath, Jia Zhong, Kelsie Ferin, Andy Vanloocke, Madhu Khanna Jan 2021

The Economic And Environmental Costs And Benefits Of The Renewable Fuel Standard, Luoye Chen, Deepayan Debnath, Jia Zhong, Kelsie Ferin, Andy Vanloocke, Madhu Khanna

Agronomy Publications

Mandates, like the renewable fuel standard (RFS), for biofuels from corn and cellulosic feedstocks, impact the environment in multiple ways by affecting land use, nitrogen (N)-leakage, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We analyze the differing trade-offs these different types of biofuels offer among these multi-dimensional environmental effects and convert them to a monetized value of environmental damages (or benefits) that can be compared with the economic costs of extending these mandates over the 2016–2030 period. The discounted values of cumulative net benefits (or costs) are then compared to those with a counterfactual level of biofuels that would have ...


Industrial Biotechnology—An Industry At An Inflection Point, Nathan Danielson, Sarah Mckay, Paul Bloom, Jennifer Dunn, Neal Jakel, Timothy Bauer, John Hannon, Michael C. Jewett, Brent H. Shanks Dec 2020

Industrial Biotechnology—An Industry At An Inflection Point, Nathan Danielson, Sarah Mckay, Paul Bloom, Jennifer Dunn, Neal Jakel, Timothy Bauer, John Hannon, Michael C. Jewett, Brent H. Shanks

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Industrial biotechnology is poised for dramatic growth. A confluence of consumer demand; attractive feedstock quantity, quality, and price; and technical innovation has created a perfect situation for the industry to significantly expand. Since the 2004 Werpy and Peterson paper, “Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass,” the biobased manufacturing industry and the technologies that make these processes and products possible has evolved significantly.1 New technology continues to advance, and there is increasing consumer and industry demand for biobased materials. Paired with increasing on-farm efficiency and sustainability considerations, these are all factors that are driving the bioeconomy forward. This paper reviews ...


Notes On The Gridlab-D Household Equivalent Thermal Parameter Model, Leigh Tesfatsion, Swathi Battula Jul 2020

Notes On The Gridlab-D Household Equivalent Thermal Parameter Model, Leigh Tesfatsion, Swathi Battula

Economics Working Papers

GridLAB-D (GLD) is an agent-based platform, developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, that permits users to accurately simulate the state dynamics of power distribution systems at time scales ranging from sub-seconds to years. The purpose of this study is to present, in careful comprehensive form, a complete analytical state-space control representation for a version of the GLD Household Equivalent Thermal Parameter Model as support documentation for model users. This model is a physically-based implementation of a household with multiple price-responsive and conventional appliances whose thermal dynamics are determined over successive days by resident appliance usage and external weather ...


Analytical Scuc/Sced Optimization Formulation For Ames V5.0, Leigh Tesfatsion, Swathi Battula Jul 2020

Analytical Scuc/Sced Optimization Formulation For Ames V5.0, Leigh Tesfatsion, Swathi Battula

Economics Working Papers

U.S. centrally-managed wholesale power markets currently rely on Security-Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) and Security Constrained Economic Dispatch (SCED) optimizations to determine unit commitments, reserve, and scheduled dispatch levels for generating units during future operating periods. AMES V5.0 is an open source Java/Python platform that implements a combined SCUC/SCED optimization capturing salient features of these actual market SCUC/SCED optimizations. This report provides extensive documentation for the analytical formulation of the AMES V5.0 SCUC/SCED optimization.


Will Urbanization In Developing Countries Reduce Carbon Emissions? Panel Data Evidence From Pakistani Household Surveys, Syed M. Hasan, Wendong Zhang May 2020

Will Urbanization In Developing Countries Reduce Carbon Emissions? Panel Data Evidence From Pakistani Household Surveys, Syed M. Hasan, Wendong Zhang

Economics Working Papers

Using four rounds of nationwide household survey data from the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey from 2005 to 2014, we provide the first empirical estimates of districts’ carbon emissions and their changes over time based on representative households’ energy consumption. We find that hotspots for carbon emissions in Pakistan tend to cluster around megacities—Islamabad has the highest per capita carbon emissions. This is contradictory to the compact city hypothesis that denser cities are greener, with lower per-capita carbon emissions, than remote cities, and suggest that urbanization in developing countries may not reduce carbon emissions. Our results also ...


A Test System For Ercot Market Design Studies: Development And Application, Swathi Battula, Leigh Tesfatsion, Thomas E. Mcdermott Dec 2019

A Test System For Ercot Market Design Studies: Development And Application, Swathi Battula, Leigh Tesfatsion, Thomas E. Mcdermott

Economics Working Papers

The ERCOT Test System developed in this study is an open-source library of Java/Python software classes, together with a synthetic grid construction method, specifically designed to facilitate the study of ERCOT market operations over successive days. In default form, these classes permit a high-level modeling of existing ERCOT market operations. Users can conduct a broad range of computational experiments under alternative parameter settings. In addition, users can readily extend these classes to model additional existing or envisioned ERCOT market features to suit different research purposes. An 8-bus test case is used to illustrate the capabilities of the test system ...


An Integrated Transmission And Distribution Test System For Evaluation Of Transactive Energy Designs, Hieu Trung Nguyen, Swathi Battula, Rohit Reddy Takkala, Zhaoyu Wang, Leigh Tesfatsion Apr 2019

An Integrated Transmission And Distribution Test System For Evaluation Of Transactive Energy Designs, Hieu Trung Nguyen, Swathi Battula, Rohit Reddy Takkala, Zhaoyu Wang, Leigh Tesfatsion

Economics Publications

This study presents an open-source software platform specifically tailored to permit careful dynamic performance evaluation of transactive energy designs for end-to-end electric power systems. The platform models a centrally-managed wholesale power market operating over a transmission grid linked to one or more distribution systems, where each distribution system consists of a collection of grid-edge resources operating over a distribution grid. Test case findings are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the platform. The test cases implement a transmission system linked to a distribution system populated by households that have smart price-responsive appliances as well as conventional loads. Transactions at the ...


Comparative Assessment Of The Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Food Waste Fermentation On Value-Added Products, Noor Intan Shafinas Muhammad Jan 2019

Comparative Assessment Of The Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Food Waste Fermentation On Value-Added Products, Noor Intan Shafinas Muhammad

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The increasing amount of food waste (FW) is one of the most challenging problems around the world. The remarkable amount of FW produced is driven by various factors such as population growth, modernization, safety policy, culture, lifestyle, and human behavior. FW commonly will end up in the landfills and create more problems to the environment, ecosystem, human health, and economy. This organic waste is easy to decompose and emits greenhouse gases which will increase the global warming effect. Additionally, leachate from the landfill has the potential to contaminate nearby groundwater systems. It is important to divert FW from landfills and ...


Designing Climate Policy: Lessons From The Renewable Fuel Standard And The Blend Wall, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith Nov 2018

Designing Climate Policy: Lessons From The Renewable Fuel Standard And The Blend Wall, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith

Economics Working Papers

Many policies mandate renewable energy production to combat global climate change. These policies often differ significantly from first-best policy prescriptions. Among the largest renewable energy mandates enacted to date is the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates biofuel consumption far beyond what is feasible with current technology and infrastructure. In this article, we critically review the methods used by the Environmental Protection Agency to project nearand long-term compliance costs under the RFS, and draw lessons from the RFS experience to date that would improve the program’s efficiency. The lessons are meant to inform both future RFS rulemaking and the ...


Transactive Energy Design For Integrated Transmission And Distribution Systems, Hieu Trung Nguyen, Swathi Battula, Rohit Reddy Takkala, Zhaoyu Wang, Leigh Tesfatsion Oct 2018

Transactive Energy Design For Integrated Transmission And Distribution Systems, Hieu Trung Nguyen, Swathi Battula, Rohit Reddy Takkala, Zhaoyu Wang, Leigh Tesfatsion

Economics Working Papers

The increasing deployment of distributed energy resources (DERs) is disrupting every aspect of power system operations, from retail distribution to wholesale production and transmission. This paper reports on the development of an agentbased test system enabling the study of new transactive energy system (TES) designs to ensure the reliable efficient operation of integrated transmission and distribution (ITD) systems with growing DER penetration. This ITD test system is used to explore the ability of a non-profit Distribution System Operator (DSO), participating within an ITD system, to use an innovative TES design to manage the power usage of DER devices in accordance ...


Estimating Willingness To Pay For E85 In The United States Using An Intercept Survey Of Flex Motorists, Sebastien Pouliot, Kenneth A. Liao, Bruce Babcock Jul 2018

Estimating Willingness To Pay For E85 In The United States Using An Intercept Survey Of Flex Motorists, Sebastien Pouliot, Kenneth A. Liao, Bruce Babcock

Economics Publications

Meeting US ethanol blending mandates proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency will require a substantial number of motorists with flex-fuel vehicles to switch from low ethanol-gasoline blends to high ethanol-gasoline blends. The lower the willingness to pay for high-ethanol blends, the greater the cost of complying with the proposed mandates. Existing estimates of the willingness to pay for high-ethanol blends use data from Brazil (where consumers have knowledge of and experience with high-ethanol blends), data generated when retail prices greatly favored low-ethanol blends, or stated data collected from mail and online surveys. To obtain more accurate estimates of US willingness ...


Policy Shocks And Market-Based Regulations: Evidence From The Renewable Fuel Standard, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith Apr 2018

Policy Shocks And Market-Based Regulations: Evidence From The Renewable Fuel Standard, Gabriel E. Lade, C.-Y. Cynthia Lin Lawell, Aaron Smith

Economics Publications

The Renewable Fuel Standard mandates large increases in U.S. biofuel consumption and is implemented using tradable compliance credits known as RINs. In early 2013, RIN prices soared, causing the regulator to propose reducing future mandates. We estimate empirically the effect of three ‘policy shocks’ that reduced the expected mandates in 2013. We find that the largest of these shocks decreased the value of the fuel industry’s 2013 compliance obligation by $7 billion. We then study the effects of the shocks on commodity markets and the market value of publicly traded biofuel firms. Results show that the burden of ...


Braided Cobwebs: Cautionary Tales For Dynamic Retail Pricing In End-To-End Power Systems, Auswin George Thomas, Leigh Tesfatsion Mar 2018

Braided Cobwebs: Cautionary Tales For Dynamic Retail Pricing In End-To-End Power Systems, Auswin George Thomas, Leigh Tesfatsion

Economics Working Papers

This study investigates the effects of dynamic-price retail contracting on end-to-end power system operations. Performance is evaluated by means of carefully defined metrics for system stability, market efficiency, and market participant welfare. The study is carried out for an Integrated Retail and Wholesale (IRW) Test Case for which households have smart (price-responsive) air-conditioning (A/C) systems. A simplified version of the IRW Test Case with a directly postulated linear household demand curve is first used to derive, analytically, a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for system stability under dynamic-price retail contracting. A key finding is that dynamicprice retail contracts ...


The Economics Of Canada Biofuel Policies, Sebastien Pouliot Jan 2018

The Economics Of Canada Biofuel Policies, Sebastien Pouliot

Economics Publications

Most developed countries and several developing ones have renewable policies for motor fuels. In Canada, federal regulation has required minimum renewable contents in gasoline and diesel since 2010. On average, gasoline and diesel produced or imported into Canada must have a renewable content of at least 5% and 2%, respectively. Fuel producers meet these requirements by blending ethanol into gasoline and biodiesel into diesel. Many provinces have blend mandates that exceed the federal requirements. Saskatchewan and Manitoba mandate 7.5% and 8.5%, respectively, of ethanol in gasoline. British Columbia and Ontario mandate 4% of biodiesel in diesel fuel.


Spillovers From Behavioral Interventions: Experimental Evidence From Water And Energy Use, Katrina Jessoe, Gabriel E. Lade, Frank Loge, Edward Spang Dec 2017

Spillovers From Behavioral Interventions: Experimental Evidence From Water And Energy Use, Katrina Jessoe, Gabriel E. Lade, Frank Loge, Edward Spang

Economics Working Papers

This paper provides experimental evidence that behavioral interventions spill over to untreated sectors by altering consumer choice. We use a randomized controlled trial and high-frequency data to test the effect of social norms messaging about residential water use on electricity consumption. Messaging induces a 1.3 to 2.2% reduction in summertime electricity use. Empirical tests and household survey data support the hypothesis that this nudge alters electricity choices. An engineering simulation suggests that complementarities between appliances that use water and electricity can explain only 26% of the electricity reduction. Incorporating the cross-sectoral spillover increases the cost-effectiveness of the intervention ...


On Farm Manure Anaerobic Digestion Economics, Aaron Dumez, Eric Bierwagen, Gavin Graupman Dec 2017

On Farm Manure Anaerobic Digestion Economics, Aaron Dumez, Eric Bierwagen, Gavin Graupman

TSM 325 Biorenewable Systems Posters

Controlling greenhouse gas emissions and producing energy from renewable sources are two key components of energy sustainability movement. Livestock manure is a large producer of greenhouse gases, but also has the potential to be a feedstock for energy production.


Costs Of Inefficient Regulation: Evidence From The Bakken, Gabriel E. Lade, Ivan Rudik Dec 2017

Costs Of Inefficient Regulation: Evidence From The Bakken, Gabriel E. Lade, Ivan Rudik

Economics Working Papers

Efficient pollution regulation equalizes marginal abatement costs across sources. Here we study a new flaring regulation in North Dakota's oil and gas industry and document its efficiency. Exploiting detailed well-level data, we find that the regulation reduced flaring 4 to 7 percentage points and accounts for up to half of the observed flaring reductions since 2015. We construct firm-level marginal flaring abatement cost curves and find that the observed flaring reductions could have been achieved at 20%lower cost by imposing a tax on flared gas equal to current public lands royalty rates instead of using firm-specific flaring requirements.


Swing Contracts With Dynamic Reserves For Flexible Service Management, Shanshan Ma, Zhaoyu Wang, Leigh Tesfatsion Sep 2017

Swing Contracts With Dynamic Reserves For Flexible Service Management, Shanshan Ma, Zhaoyu Wang, Leigh Tesfatsion

Economics Working Papers

The increasing penetration of variable energy resources in modern electric power systems requires additional flexibility in ancillary service provision to maintain reliable and efficient grid operations. However, full recognition and appropriate compensation of this flexibility is difficult to ensure within current power market designs due to rigidities in service definitions and requirements. For example, reserve requirements (RRs) are typically set in advance at administratively determined levels. If RRs are too large, wasteful expenditures result; and, if RRs are too small, high real-time costs are incurred for peak generation and/or load curtailment. To address these problems, this paper proposes a ...


Production And Spatial Distribution Of Switchgrass And Miscanthus In The United States Under Uncertainty And Sunk Cost, Jerome Dumortier, Nathan Kauffman, Dermot J. Hayes Sep 2017

Production And Spatial Distribution Of Switchgrass And Miscanthus In The United States Under Uncertainty And Sunk Cost, Jerome Dumortier, Nathan Kauffman, Dermot J. Hayes

Economics Publications

The U.S. cellulosic biofuel mandate has not been enforced in recent years. Uncertainty surrounding the enforcement of the mandate in addition to high production and harvest cost have contributed to a delay in the widespread planting of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass and miscanthus. Previous literature has shown that under uncertainty and sunk cost, an investment threshold is further increased due to the value associated from holding the investment option. In this paper, we extend the previous literature by applying a real option switching model to bioenergy crop production. First, we calculate the county-level break-even price which triggers a ...


A Swing-Contract Market Design For Flexible Service Provision In Electric Power Systems, Wanning Li, Leigh Tesfatsion Jul 2017

A Swing-Contract Market Design For Flexible Service Provision In Electric Power Systems, Wanning Li, Leigh Tesfatsion

Economics Working Papers

The need for flexible service provision in electric power systems has dramatically increased due to the growing penetration of variable energy resources, as has the need to ensure fair access and compensation for this provision. A swing contract (SC) facilitates flexible service provision because it permits multiple service attributes to be offered together in bundled form with each attribute expressed as a range of possible values rather than as a single point value. This paper discusses a new SC Market Design for electric power systems that permits SCs to be offered by any dispatchable resource. An analytical optimization formulation is ...


The Expanding Ethanol Market And Farmland Values: Identifying The Changing Influence Of Proximity To Agricultural Market Channels, Wendong Zhang, Elena G. Irwin Jun 2017

The Expanding Ethanol Market And Farmland Values: Identifying The Changing Influence Of Proximity To Agricultural Market Channels, Wendong Zhang, Elena G. Irwin

Economics Working Papers

We investigate the spatial capitalization of the expanding biofuels market in farmland values using parcel-level farmland sales data from 2001 to 2010 for a 50-county area within Ohio’s Corn Belt region. We construct two instruments by exploiting the spatial competition among agricultural markets to address the non-random ethanol plant site selection process. Our results reveal a positive capitalization of $19 per acre for each mile closer a farmland parcel is to the nearest ethanol plant post-construction. This translates into a $380 ($570) per acre premium—roughly 7 (10) percent of the average sales price—for parcels 20 (30) miles ...


What Role For The Bioeconomy In An Electrified Transportation Sector?, Tristan R. Brown, Robert C. Brown Mar 2017

What Role For The Bioeconomy In An Electrified Transportation Sector?, Tristan R. Brown, Robert C. Brown

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The growth of the bioeconomy has recently been slowed by over production of petroleum and natural gas from unconventional domestic reserves, which has reduced demand for biofuels. In the longer term, liquid transportation fuels, both petroleum- and bio-based, are threatened by electrification of the transportation sector, which will benefit from the use of low-cost natural gas to generate electricity for battery electric vehicles. Low-cost natural gas in the USA is attractive for other applications as well, including the production of certain petrochemicals. On the other hand, natural gas is not suitable for producing many high molecular weight petrochemicals. Cost-competitive biorenewable ...


Rin Pass-Through At Gasoline Terminals, Sebastien Pouliot, Aaron Smith, James H. Stock Feb 2017

Rin Pass-Through At Gasoline Terminals, Sebastien Pouliot, Aaron Smith, James H. Stock

Economics Working Papers

Wholesale suppliers at fuel terminals blend gasoline with ethanol to create finished gasoline. Under the US Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), this blending activity produces a renewable fuel credit, known as a RIN, which blenders can sell to oil refiners who need it for RFS compliance. We estimate whether these suppliers, known as rack sellers, pass through the value of RINS. Based on a population-weighted regression with 20 large cities, we estimate a 63% RIN pass through for branded fuel (95% confidence interval [0.23, 1.03]) and a 92% pass through for unbranded fuel (95% CI [0.70, 1.14 ...


An 8-Zone Iso-Ne Test System With Physically-Based Wind Power, Wanning Li, Leigh Tesfatsion Jan 2017

An 8-Zone Iso-Ne Test System With Physically-Based Wind Power, Wanning Li, Leigh Tesfatsion

Economics Working Papers

This study extends the agent-based 8-Zone ISO-NE Test System to include wind turbine agents, each characterized by location, physical type, and an output curve mapping local wind speed into wind power output. Increases in wind power penetration (WPP) are modeled as build-outs of investment queues for planned wind turbine installations. The extended system is used to study the effects of increasing WPP under both stochastic and deterministic day-ahead market (DAM) formulations for security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC).

For each tested WPP, the expected cost saving resulting from a switch from deterministic to stochastic DAM SCUC is found to display a U-shaped ...


Wind Ethanol Agriculture & Trump, Jessica Darland Jan 2017

Wind Ethanol Agriculture & Trump, Jessica Darland

Veritas

“I don’t just want to hope the wind blows,” said President Donald Trump. The U.S. Cellular Center in Cedar Rapids was ringing with cheers after many remarks made during Trump’s speech on June 21st, but the cheers after this remark were sparse.


Scoria: Poetry And Prose, Taylor Clinton Brorby Jan 2017

Scoria: Poetry And Prose, Taylor Clinton Brorby

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This hybrid thesis of poetry and prose examines the Bakken oil boom, an inheritance of coal, and explores the path of how to move forward given the state of climate change.


Fuel Subsidy Pass-Through And Market Structure: Evidence From The Renewable Fuel Standard, Gabriel E. Lade, James Bushnell Dec 2016

Fuel Subsidy Pass-Through And Market Structure: Evidence From The Renewable Fuel Standard, Gabriel E. Lade, James Bushnell

CARD Working Papers

The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is among the largest renewable energy mandates in the world. The policy is enforced using tradeable credits that implicitly subsidize biofuels and tax fossil fuels. The RFS relies on these taxes and subsidies to be passed through to consumers to stimulate demand for biofuels and decrease demand for gasoline and diesel. Using station-level prices for E85 (a high-ethanol blend fuel) from over 450 retail fuel stations, we show that pass-through of the ethanol subsidy is, on average, complete. However, we find that full pass-through takes four to six weeks and that local market structure of ...


Impact On Merchant Refiners And Blenders From Changing The Rfs Point Of Obligation, Bruce A. Babcock, Gabriel E. Lade, Sébastien Pouliot Dec 2016

Impact On Merchant Refiners And Blenders From Changing The Rfs Point Of Obligation, Bruce A. Babcock, Gabriel E. Lade, Sébastien Pouliot

CARD Policy Briefs

The Environmental Protection Agency has proposed to deny a request to move the point of obligation under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) from oil refiners to fuel blenders. Supporters of the request argue that those refiners who do not have the fuel blending capabilities of large, integrated oil companies are in danger of going out of business due to their need to buy RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) to show compliance with the RFS. We demonstrate that this claim is false and that moving the point of obligation would have no impact on refiner profits. The key point that is neglected ...