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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

New And Transferable Digital Skills In The Era Of The Covid-19 Pandemic: Mobilizing Social Support, Molly-Gloria Harper, Anabel Quan-Haase, William Hollingshead May 2022

New And Transferable Digital Skills In The Era Of The Covid-19 Pandemic: Mobilizing Social Support, Molly-Gloria Harper, Anabel Quan-Haase, William Hollingshead

Sociology Presentations

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global crisis that has had profound impacts on people’s lives. Under these circumstances, social support can buffer against pandemic-related stress. Yet, the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic with its stringent health guidelines have created unique challenges to the mobilization of social support. These challenges particularly affect vulnerable groups with limited digital life skills. Based on a qualitative study of 101 semi-structured interviews with East York residents in Toronto, Canada conducted in 2013–2014, we investigate what new and transferable digital life skills are needed in the pre- and post-pandemic era to mobilize social ...


Nine Ways Grandparenting Is Changing With The Covid-19 Pandemic, Madonna Harrington Meyer May 2022

Nine Ways Grandparenting Is Changing With The Covid-19 Pandemic, Madonna Harrington Meyer

Lerner Center for Public Health Promotion: Population Health Research Brief Series

Grandparents play a vital role in providing care for their grandchildren in the United States. However, long-term sociodemographic changes, including lower fertility rates and changes in employment and technology, along with massive upheavals prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic are changing grandparenting in important ways. This research brief describes these long-term sociodemographic changes and uses in-depth interviews conducted before the pandemic to illustrate nine specific ways grandparenting is shifting in the U.S. It concludes by calling for more supportive social welfare programs to support working families and reduce the reliance on grandparents for meeting childcare and financial needs.


Marriage Change And Fertility Decline In Sub-Saharan Africa, 1991-2019, Monica J. Grant, Hans-Peter Kohler May 2022

Marriage Change And Fertility Decline In Sub-Saharan Africa, 1991-2019, Monica J. Grant, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

The institutions of marriage and the family have undergone profound changes over recent decades in sub-Saharan Africa, following differentiated paths across and within countries. These changes, however, have not been systematically related to variation in fertility and its decline over time. We use Demographic and Health Survey data from 29 countries in sub-Saharan Africa to examine how nuptiality patterns have changed over the period 1991-2019, and how these changes are associated with changes in the total fertility rate and ideal family size. Using multi-level linear models, we find that our four marriage indicators are all significantly associated with the total ...


Change In Subjective Well-Being, Affluence And Trust In Judiciary In India, Vani S. Kulkarni, Veena S. Kulkarni, Katsushi S. Imai, Raghav Gaiha May 2022

Change In Subjective Well-Being, Affluence And Trust In Judiciary In India, Vani S. Kulkarni, Veena S. Kulkarni, Katsushi S. Imai, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

The present study tests the hypothesis that trust in the lower judiciary in India - comprising High Courts at the state level and District Courts at the lower level - is associated with improvement in subjective economic well-being. The analysis is based on the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) 1 and 2 in 2005 and 2012, a large nationally representative household panel dataset. Using 2SLS and Lewbel IV models to take into account the endogeneity of trust in the lower judiciary, our analysis confirms that trust in the lower judiciary has a positive association with the change in SWB. The policy significance ...


The Demorest Contest: Prohibition Leader In Conversation With Wctu And Martha Mcmillan, Grace E. Kohler May 2022

The Demorest Contest: Prohibition Leader In Conversation With Wctu And Martha Mcmillan, Grace E. Kohler

Martha McMillan Research Papers

This essay explains the history of the Demorest Contest and connects it to Martha McMillan and her journals. The Demorest Contest was a temperance advocacy event run by William Jennings Demorest and the Women's Christian Temperance Union that encouraged youths to pledge to Prohibition.


Martha Mcmillan & The Prohibition Party, Sarah L. Swanson May 2022

Martha Mcmillan & The Prohibition Party, Sarah L. Swanson

Martha McMillan Research Papers

This paper discusses the history of the Prohibition Party in America, as well as its significance and relevance to the life of Martha McMillan her community in rural Ohio.


Sociology Of The Family Textbook, Amy Traver May 2022

Sociology Of The Family Textbook, Amy Traver

Open Educational Resources

This OER textbook provides students with a brief introduction to: the perspective, methods, and theories that constitute the sociology of the family; research on patterns and processes of dating/mating, cohabitation/marriage, parenting. divorce/remarriage, and family stressors/strengths in the United States. It was created through the integration of various OER texts, including OpenStax, Sociology Wikibooks, and many more. It is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 license.


The Happiest Place On Earth: A Grounded Theory Of Fulfillment In Mixed-Orientation Marriages, Isadora Ferreira De Melo May 2022

The Happiest Place On Earth: A Grounded Theory Of Fulfillment In Mixed-Orientation Marriages, Isadora Ferreira De Melo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mixed-orientation marriages (MOMs) are often misunderstood. There is a general cynicism in research literature and in the broader culture regarding the relational viability of same-sex attracted (SSA) individuals who marry someone of the opposite sex. However, there exist couples in MOMs that are resilient and attain satisfaction. The purpose of this study is to better understand how MOMs might become successful. By interviewing maritally satisfied mixed-orientation couples, the Model of Relational Self- Determination in Mixed-Orientation Marriages was developed. This model is separated into five stages that are organized around the experience of disclosure of the SSA spouse’s sexuality. Depending ...


What Are The Economic Barriers For A More Efficient Adoption Equilibrium? Analyzing The Perceived Challenges Lgbtq+ Persons Face In The Adoption Process, Andrew Schoonover May 2022

What Are The Economic Barriers For A More Efficient Adoption Equilibrium? Analyzing The Perceived Challenges Lgbtq+ Persons Face In The Adoption Process, Andrew Schoonover

Economics Undergraduate Honors Theses

From understanding why adoption matters to drilling down why same sex male couples are not adopting at high rates, more questions are raised than answers found. But all of the complexities and intricacies boil down to one umbrella question: How can the economy shift the equilibrium (i.e., current state of adoption in America) to be more equitable, empowering, and efficient for everyone? Specifically, how can policy choices help increase the demand of gay couples to adopt -- helping to close the gap between gay and lesbian adoption rates? The “lowest hanging fruit” policy remedy for this problem is to alleviate ...


Adolescent Dating Violence: Attachment Style And Parents' Unhealthy Marital Relationship As Possible Predictors, Karli Spann May 2022

Adolescent Dating Violence: Attachment Style And Parents' Unhealthy Marital Relationship As Possible Predictors, Karli Spann

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study tests whether insecure attachment style and parents’ modeling of unhealthy relationships predict adolescent dating violence (ADV) victimization. Also tested was the possible moderating role of secure attachment on the relation between parental modeling of unhealthy relationships and ADV victimization. It was hypothesized that insecure attachment and parental modeling of unhealthy relationships would individually be associated with increased ADV victimization, and secure attachment would attenuate the predicted positive association between parental modeling of unhealthy relationships and ADV victimization. Participants were adolescents (N = 152, M age = 15.61 years, SD = 1.086, 74.3% girls), who completed a survey that ...


Examining Difference In Social Perceptions Between Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives And Naturally Cycling Women, Caroline B. Johnson May 2022

Examining Difference In Social Perceptions Between Women Using Hormonal Contraceptives And Naturally Cycling Women, Caroline B. Johnson

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The term “stress” refers to a person’s psychological and physiological response to the demands and pressures of the world around them (Farlex, 2021). Past research has shown that stress can have negative side effects on a person’s well-being (Aneshensel et al., 1991; Wunsch et al., 2017; Michie, 2002). Although people experience stress, some people perceive more stress than others. Perceptions are important because the way one understands certain conditions can elicit distinct emotional and physiological responses (Kemeny, 2003). An important factor that has not received a lot of attention is women’s use of hormonal contraceptives. In the ...


Girls On The Map: Mapping For Program Planning And Social Change, Eva Roca May 2022

Girls On The Map: Mapping For Program Planning And Social Change, Eva Roca

Adolescents and Young People

This guide explores ways in which maps can add depth to the learning process as practitioners design programs for girls. Mapping leads practitioners through a cycle of information collection and analysis. It supports decision-making about where, with whom, and when to work, and how programs can make a real difference in girls’ lives. Programs increasingly recognize the importance of household and community characteristics in shaping girls’ lives, yet it is relatively less common to measure or map community features as part of program planning. Mapping relevant populations of girls and the features of the communities they live in can inform ...


The Effects Of Hormonal Contraceptive Use On Perceptions Of Social Stress In Women, Ashton Jones May 2022

The Effects Of Hormonal Contraceptive Use On Perceptions Of Social Stress In Women, Ashton Jones

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hormonal contraceptives are widely used due to their efficiency in preventing pregnancy. Although women are often informed of the physical effects of hormonal contraceptives, there is little emphasis on mental effects, such as increased rates of depression and changes in social perception. The current study examined perceptions of social stress among women before beginning hormonal contraceptives, and two months after using hormonal contraceptives. I hypothesized that women would experience increased social stress after beginning hormonal contraceptives, compared to a control group of women who were also assessed twice. Results did not support this hypothesis; there was no difference in interpersonal ...


The Role Of Homeownership In Taiwan's Low Fertility Story, William Anderson May 2022

The Role Of Homeownership In Taiwan's Low Fertility Story, William Anderson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

With one of the lowest fertility rates on record, Taiwan is at the forefront of the global lowest-low fertility phenomenon. Policymakers in Taiwan and researchers around the world have a considerable interest in the reasons driving Taiwan’s depressed fertility and possible ways to alleviate the associated economic concerns. Properties of the housing market represent one suggested factor that may be contributing to this trend. Using individual panel data from Taiwan’s Panel Study of Family Dynamics, I test the correlation between homeownership and fertility outcomes. I find that other variables, such as marriage, age, generation, and socioeconomic status, can ...


Maternal Education And Changes In Parenting Beliefs, Values, And Practices, Becca E. Richards May 2022

Maternal Education And Changes In Parenting Beliefs, Values, And Practices, Becca E. Richards

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Mothers’ education level has been an important predictor of life outcomes across many different areas. Higher education in mothers has been associated with outcomes such as higher reading levels and decreased chances grade repetition for their child. Due to gaps in the research, this study emphasizes the importance of mothers’ beliefs about parenting, the practices they use, the amount of closeness they have with their child, and how they change when mothers return to school. This study used new mothers and their newborn children across time to understand whether mothers’ beliefs, practices, and values change when mothers return to school ...


Sewing And Dressmaking In Martha Mcmillan's Day (1891), Elizabeth G. Allen Apr 2022

Sewing And Dressmaking In Martha Mcmillan's Day (1891), Elizabeth G. Allen

Martha McMillan Research Papers

This paper describes the process of sewing and dressmaking in America from the mid 1800s to the early 1900s and provides historical context for Martha McMillan's discussion of sewing and dressmaking in her 1891 journal.


“Reverse Policies?” Reducing The Legal Minimum Age At Marriage Increases Child Marriage Among The Poorest In Mali, Ewa Batyra, Luca Maria Pesando Apr 2022

“Reverse Policies?” Reducing The Legal Minimum Age At Marriage Increases Child Marriage Among The Poorest In Mali, Ewa Batyra, Luca Maria Pesando

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Child marriage is associated with adverse outcomes related to women’s wellbeing. To curb child marriage, many countries introduced laws that ban child marriage, and a growing number of studies evaluated their impact. Scant research focused on instances where countries lowered the legal minimum age at marriage, even though such “reverse policies” could result in stalled progress in eradicating child marriage, thus threatening the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Using visualization techniques, regression analysis and a series of robustness checks, we document changes in the prevalence of child marriage in Mali where, with the introduction of the Family Code ...


Communities Of Water: An Examination Of Cooperation And Conflict In Water Management Practices In The Central Peruvian Andes, Sylvie D. Littledale Apr 2022

Communities Of Water: An Examination Of Cooperation And Conflict In Water Management Practices In The Central Peruvian Andes, Sylvie D. Littledale

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores two examples of water management in the highland Peruvian villages, San Pedro de Llancha and San Antonio de Chinchina. One example is of cooperation and union between the two communities. The other is of conflict between the same two villages just 40 years prior. I examine ethnographic and ethnohistorical data from both the collaborative period and the conflictive period of these two communities’ relations over water. The data suggest that, while the outcomes of these two periods were drastically different, the processes through which these communities came into relation with one another were quite similar. Their communal ...


Same-Gender Pathways To Parenthood, Sydney T. Inger Apr 2022

Same-Gender Pathways To Parenthood, Sydney T. Inger

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

LGBTQ+ individuals and couples who want children negotiate systemic inequalities in the United States of America. This literature review surveys America’s confusing legal map and the gaps in its enduring scholarly theories. The paper then examines the challenges that LGBTQ+ individuals and couples confront in working through the common pathways—same-gender adoption and fostering, in vitro fertilization, and surrogacy—to become parents. Dispersing information on the pathways will be a positive step towards breaking down the inequities for those in the LGBTQ+ community who want to start a family.


Outdoor Air Pollution And Psychological Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis, Jeremy Stanley Bekker Apr 2022

Outdoor Air Pollution And Psychological Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis, Jeremy Stanley Bekker

Theses and Dissertations

Human life takes place as part of a global ecosystem, meaning that human mental health is at least partially tied to the health of the planet. Health experts who seek to promote psychological well-being should consider how changes to the broad ecological system may impact their efforts. Given the potential impact of the environment on human well-being, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the impact of air pollution on subjective well-being. The goal of this project was to outline the current state of the research on these constructs and provide a clear framework for what research is still needed. Nonsignificant ...


Witches, Victims, And Villains: #Metoo And The Political Polarization Of Sexual Violence, Hannah Shoaf Apr 2022

Witches, Victims, And Villains: #Metoo And The Political Polarization Of Sexual Violence, Hannah Shoaf

Theses and Dissertations

The MeToo movement, which sought to combat sexual violence, evolved into a partisan problem, where support for or against the movement fell across party lines. This polarization negatively impacted the progress of the MeToo movement, fitting the larger pattern of increasing polarization in the United States. My thesis seeks to understand the politicized nature of sexual violence and to explore what language and themes are drawn on to politicize conversations around sexual violence by using the MeToo movement as a case study. My thesis found that the political polarization of sexual violence increased during the MeToo movement (and especially during ...


Psychometric Properties Of The Survey On Flourishing (Surf) In A Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample, Gus C. Salazar Apr 2022

Psychometric Properties Of The Survey On Flourishing (Surf) In A Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample, Gus C. Salazar

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Adolescent subjective well-being is a topic that has gained significant focus over recent years. This focus is reflected in the formation of measurement tools and interventions used to better understand and improve adolescent mental health. While these are important steps, there still exist problems related to adolescent subjective well-being measurement. Notably, current measurement tools are limited in their content, applicability to various populations, and in their accessibility. Aims: The purpose of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of the Survey on Flourishing (SURF) when used with a nationally representative adolescent sample. The SURF aims to address some ...


Orienting Pacha: Value As Action In The Late Horizon Xauxa-Pachacamac Axis, Ridge C. Anderson Apr 2022

Orienting Pacha: Value As Action In The Late Horizon Xauxa-Pachacamac Axis, Ridge C. Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

The Andean Late Horizon (ca. AD 1438–1532) was a period of exceptionally rapid and far-reaching cultural change. Over this short span of only a few generations, the Inka ethnic group established an empire that was greater in size than any other pre-colonial American polity. The Inka accomplished their expansion without the use of certain institutions (i.e., a standing army, formal writing system, monetary system, or price-setting markets) that the received anthropological wisdom has long held as being necessary preconditions to imperial expansion. Standard explanations of Late Horizon culture change tend to overemphasize the roles of environmental constraints, social ...


How Covid-19 Has Impacted Mothers: The Decisions They Make & Their Overall Wellbeing, Alaya Tyler Apr 2022

How Covid-19 Has Impacted Mothers: The Decisions They Make & Their Overall Wellbeing, Alaya Tyler

Symposium of Student Scholars

Women and mothers are a vital component of the modern-day workforce. However, the emergence of COVID-19 in early 2020 drastically affected the way women and more specifically mothers can participate in the workforce. The lack of adequate options regarding childcare, work flexibility, and support became apparent when trying to make decisions regarding home and work. For example, decisions involving money became do or die as mothers were forced to make decisions to pause or stop their careers so that they could take care of their children in dual households. In contrast, single mothers were met with almost no alternatives as ...


Personal, Familial, And Institutional Challenges Working Mothers Faced During Covid-19, Ashley Celestin Apr 2022

Personal, Familial, And Institutional Challenges Working Mothers Faced During Covid-19, Ashley Celestin

Symposium of Student Scholars

HS 3600 Program Development and Evaluation in Nonprofit Organizations

Abstract

Parenting is not an easy task, but during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, parenting especially for women who work outside the home and were caregivers for the young and old had an exceptionally onerous time. According to Brookings (2020), “COVID-19 has also increased the pressure on working mothers, low-wage and otherwise. In a survey from May and June, one out of four women who became unemployed during the pandemic reported the job loss was due to a lack of childcare, twice the rate of men surveyed. A more recent ...


The Impact Parenting Styles Have On Children's Communication: Exploring Stylistic Differences And Connections, Lauren Rose, Samuel Nottleson, Lillian Mclean Apr 2022

The Impact Parenting Styles Have On Children's Communication: Exploring Stylistic Differences And Connections, Lauren Rose, Samuel Nottleson, Lillian Mclean

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Parenting approaches have a huge influence on communities in this day and age. Everyone falls into a group of individual communication styles and parenting influences where they land. Parenting styles have been studied thoroughly in the past and in multiple contexts. This study aims to determine if there is a correlation between parenting styles and people’s individual communication style. Authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved parenting styles encapsulated the range of styles most parents use. These are the four consistently used throughout the study to measure what outcomes came from which styles. Passive, passive-aggressive, assertive, and aggressive were selected as ...


Returning Thanks To God And Others: The Relational, Prosocial, And Emotional Consequences Of Transcendent Indebtedness, Jenae Marie Nelson Apr 2022

Returning Thanks To God And Others: The Relational, Prosocial, And Emotional Consequences Of Transcendent Indebtedness, Jenae Marie Nelson

Theses and Dissertations

Gratitude and indebtedness facilitate cooperative relationships and altruism. Although most of the world endorses some belief in God, gratitude and indebtedness to God have not received adequate empirical attention. The "Gratitude to God" research initiative was created to address this gap, of which the current project is an appendage. This project encapsulates a multiphase research proposal, including three parts; a pilot study and two experimental studies. The purpose of the pilot study (N = 475) was to create and test experimental manipulations for the two experimental studies. Experiment 1 (N = 659; highly religious emerging adult sample) was a 3x2 experimental design ...


Women And Western Mission: A Case Study On The Christian Khasi And Garo Tribal Women, Rosemary Philip Apr 2022

Women And Western Mission: A Case Study On The Christian Khasi And Garo Tribal Women, Rosemary Philip

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Western mission justified a mission to the Global South that was ingrained with the dominance of its culture and values. Women’s mission, as a tool of this mission, patronized themselves as the ‘care-taker’ of the ‘subjugated’ women of the Global South. This mission promulgated new ways of thinking and prescribed new gender roles and values to the Global South. In doing so, it framed the traditional roles and cultural values of the non-Western world as oppressive and replaceable. Subsequently, Women’s mission along with Western feminism and Feminist theology as a broad idea has been challenged by feminists from ...


Ecton's "Inspiring Proverbs Book For Parenting: The Overflowing Benefits Of God’S Enduring Wisdom" (Book Review), Antoinette Ileene Williams Apr 2022

Ecton's "Inspiring Proverbs Book For Parenting: The Overflowing Benefits Of God’S Enduring Wisdom" (Book Review), Antoinette Ileene Williams

The Christian Librarian

No abstract provided.


Physical Aspects Of Sexuality, Attachment, And Sexual Satisfaction, Chelsea Zollinger Allen Apr 2022

Physical Aspects Of Sexuality, Attachment, And Sexual Satisfaction, Chelsea Zollinger Allen

Theses and Dissertations

Healthy sexuality includes relational, emotional, and physical elements (Busby et al., 2021). However, there are gaps in what is known about the physical aspects of sexual relationships. Genital acceptance and physical sexual knowledge are two areas of physical relationships that may have an effect on the satisfaction of sexual relationships. Attachment, namely levels of anxious and avoidant attachment, is another factor that has been related to sexual relationships (Allsop et al., 2021; Bennett et al., 2019; Busby et al., 2020). Results from a dyadic sample of 515 couples who had been in a relationship for at least two years were ...