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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Understanding Students’ Global Interdependence In Science Instruction, Walter S. Smith Dec 2021

Understanding Students’ Global Interdependence In Science Instruction, Walter S. Smith

Journal of Global Education and Research

Multiple American educational organizations such as the National Education Association, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, and the Council of Chief State School Officers have advocated for globalizing the K-12 curriculum. The National Science Teaching Association (NSTA) in a position statement on international education and the Next Generation Science Standards have produced goals and standards for internationalizing the science curriculum by addressing topics such as climate change, environment, and disease that cross borders. In contrast to those pronouncements on the curriculum, this article views global science education through an instructional lens that focuses on a students’ global interdependence in science ...


Characterizing Childhood And Diet In Migration Period Hungary, Kirsten A. Verostick Nov 2020

Characterizing Childhood And Diet In Migration Period Hungary, Kirsten A. Verostick

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project investigates children, childhood and diet of two different Migration Period (4th-8th century AD) populations, the Gepids and the Avars, in the Great Hungarian Plain. The main goal was to assess whether there are differences in treatment of children and differences in breastfeeding and weaning practices in these distinct sites and populations. Secondarily, this research also focused on characterizing diet for the Gepids and the Avars at four different sites from the Migration Period, to understand how the migration and settling into the region and the assimilation of other groups into the two populations affected their ...


Spontaneous Raman Scattering Enhancement With Microcavities And Multipass Resonators For Trace Gas Detection, Juan Sebastian Gomez Velez Nov 2020

Spontaneous Raman Scattering Enhancement With Microcavities And Multipass Resonators For Trace Gas Detection, Juan Sebastian Gomez Velez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The continual increase in production and use of chemicals in an ever-growing field of applications naturally brings forth the necessity to accurately and efficiently measure molecular composition. Spontaneous Raman scattering is a reliable technique which can optically identify molecules based on their intrinsic rotational-vibrational energy structure. The Raman emission from a substance can be spectrally analyzed to detect molecular species simultaneously and with isotopic sensitivity using a single laser source. However, even though the process is non-invasive and effective, the rate at which the emission occurs is notoriously low due to a weak scattering cross-section. Therefore, research into the development ...


A Novel Magnetic Respiratory Sensor For Human Healthcare, Kee Young Hwang Nov 2020

A Novel Magnetic Respiratory Sensor For Human Healthcare, Kee Young Hwang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Breathing is vital to life. Therefore, the real-time monitoring of a patient’s breathing pattern is crucial to respiratory rehabilitation therapies such as magnetic resonance exams for respiratory-triggered imaging, chronic pulmonary disease treatment, and synchronized functional electrical stimulation. While numerous respiratory devices have been developed, they are often in direct contact with a patient, which can yield inaccurate or limited data. In this study, we developed a novel, non-invasive, and contactless magnetic sensing platform that can precisely monitor a patient’s breathing, movement, or sleep patterns, thus providing efficient monitoring at a clinic or home. A magneto-LC resonance (MLCR) sensor ...


Laser-Induced Modifications In Two-Dimensional Materials, Tariq Afaneh Nov 2020

Laser-Induced Modifications In Two-Dimensional Materials, Tariq Afaneh

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted a growing interest in the lastdecade from the fundamental point of view as well as their potential applications in functional devices. Due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, the physical properties of 2D materials are very sensitive to the environmental factor such as surrounding media and illumination conditions (e.g. light-mater interaction). In the first part of this dissertation I will present recent advances in developing laser-assisted methods to tune the physical properties of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). We demonstrate laser-assisted chemical modification ultrathin TMDs, locally replacing selenium by sulfur atoms. The photo-conversion ...


Van Der Waals Epitaxy Of Ultrathin Early Transition Metal (Ti & V) (Di)Selenides: Charge And Magnetic Order In The Ultrathin Limit, Manuel Bonilla Lopez Jun 2020

Van Der Waals Epitaxy Of Ultrathin Early Transition Metal (Ti & V) (Di)Selenides: Charge And Magnetic Order In The Ultrathin Limit, Manuel Bonilla Lopez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since the isolation of graphene in 2004, two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, specially the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), have attracted immense interest from theoreticians and experimentalist due to the diversity of properties presented in this family of materials. The main reason for the interest in such materials has been the observation of emergent properties as a consequence of the reduced dimensions, i.e. the monolayer regime. Initially the monolayer regime was obtained via the scotch-tape method. The implementation of exfoliation techniques was successful since layered 2D materials are composed of stacked layers held together by weak van der Walls forces that ...


Investigation Into Reduced Thermal Conductivity For Half-Heusler Alloys And Identification Of Novel Multinary Chalcogenides Possessing Intrinsically Low Thermal Conductivity, Dean Hobbis Jun 2020

Investigation Into Reduced Thermal Conductivity For Half-Heusler Alloys And Identification Of Novel Multinary Chalcogenides Possessing Intrinsically Low Thermal Conductivity, Dean Hobbis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The current climate makes the need for sustainable energy production a priority, leading to keen interest towards the advancement of “green” energy sources and technology. This necessity has led to a multidisciplinary scientific approach with collaborations across various fields that are looking to solve this extremely important problem. One such technology is thermoelectric devices, which are attractive due to the fact that they provide direct solid-state conversion of heat to electrical power, and vice versa. This in turn allows for both waste heat recovery and sustainable refrigeration. One key aspect that is preventing the wide scale commercial use of thermoelectric ...


First-Principles Simulations Of Materials Under Extreme Conditions, Kien Nguyen Cong Nov 2019

First-Principles Simulations Of Materials Under Extreme Conditions, Kien Nguyen Cong

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The investigation of materials at extreme conditions of high pressure and temperature (high-PT), has been one of the greatest scientific endeavors in condensed mater physics, chemistry, astronomy, planetary, and material sciences. Being subjected to high-PT conditions, materials exhibit dramatic changes in both atomic and electronic structure resulting in an emergence of exceptionally interesting phenomena including structural and electronic phase transitions, chemical reactions, and formation of novel compounds with never-previously observed physical and chemical properties. Although new exciting experimental developments in static and dynamic compression combined with new diagnostics/characterization methods allow to uncover new processes and phenomena at high P-T ...


Millimeter-Wavelength Characterization Of The Co Emission Of Comets 174p/Echeclus, 29p/Schwassmann-Wachmann, And C/2016 R2 (Panstarrs), Kacper Wierzchos Nov 2019

Millimeter-Wavelength Characterization Of The Co Emission Of Comets 174p/Echeclus, 29p/Schwassmann-Wachmann, And C/2016 R2 (Panstarrs), Kacper Wierzchos

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Comets are fascinating minor solar system bodies. They contain some of the most pristine and unprocessed material found in the solar system. As a comet approaches the Sun it displays the characteristic cometary coma and tail. This is due to the release of volatile species through a variety of processes. In the present work I studied the carbon monoxide emission of three very unique comets; 174P/Echeclus, 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann and C/2016 R2 (PanSTARRS) with different radio telescopes at millimeter wavelengths. After molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide is the second most abundant molecule in the universe, and is also the most ...


Measuring And Utilizing High-Dimensional Information Of Optical Fields, Ziyi Zhu Nov 2019

Measuring And Utilizing High-Dimensional Information Of Optical Fields, Ziyi Zhu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Currently, many areas of optical techniques including imaging, inspection and communication emphasize the utilization of the high-dimensional information encoded in optical fields. There is also a requirement for novel measurement techniques to extract this high-dimensional information with high-speed and accuracy. We firstly introduce a scan-free direct measurement technique that is capable of simultaneously characterizing the amplitude and phase of a coherent scalar optical field. Our direct measurement approach is constituted of a weak polarization perturbation which is followed by the recording of a polarization-resolving imaging process. The weak perturbation rotates the linear polarization on the spatial frequency domain of the ...


Modulations Of Lipid Membranes Caused By Antimicrobial Agents And Helix 0 Of Endophilin, Nawal Kishore Khadka Jul 2019

Modulations Of Lipid Membranes Caused By Antimicrobial Agents And Helix 0 Of Endophilin, Nawal Kishore Khadka

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the cellular membrane interaction with membrane active biomolecules and antimicrobial agents provides an insight in their working mechanism. Here, we studied the effect of antimicrobial agents; a recently developed peptidomimetics E107-3 and colistin as well as the N-terminal helix H0, of Endophilin A1 on the lipid bilayer.

It is important to discern the interaction mechanism of antimicrobial peptides with lipid membranes in battling multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. We study the modification of structural and mechanical properties with a recently reported peptidomimetic on lipid bilayer. The compound referred to as E107-3 is synthesized based on the acylated reduced amide scaffold ...


Phase Evolution And Dynamic Behavior In Materials With Noncollinear Spin Textures, Eleanor M. Clements Apr 2019

Phase Evolution And Dynamic Behavior In Materials With Noncollinear Spin Textures, Eleanor M. Clements

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Noncentrosymmetric magnetic materials have gained special attention due to their ability to stabilize topologically nontrivial magnetic states via the competition between symmetric exchange and the antisymmetric Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. The spin struc- tures in these materials have become a center of interest for spintronics applications due to their stable, particle-like properties, and high degree of tunability via control of external parameters, such as magnetic and/or electric field and temperature. Understanding how these robust magnetic structures stabilize, evolve, dynamically respond, and adhere to existing models, all in the presence of external stimuli, are topics of fundamental interest. In this dissertation ...


Water And Salt At The Lipid-Solvent Interface, James M. Kruczek Apr 2019

Water And Salt At The Lipid-Solvent Interface, James M. Kruczek

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lipid bilayers are important biological structures. The changes in bilayer properties are induced by the composition of the bilayer as well as the solvent. In this work, we study the effects of different molecular makeups of lipids and ionic solvents with molecular dynamics simulations to determine their effect on the bilayer interface. In particular, we look at how different carbon chain bindings affect water viscosity at the interface and allow for a less permeable bilayer. Additionally, we examine the changes to the bilayer due to the presence of the most biologically relevant salt ions. Lastly, we show how the pharmacological ...


Exploring Variations In Diet And Migration From Late Antiquity To The Early Medieval Period In The Veneto, Italy: A Biochemical Analysis, Ashley B. Maxwell Apr 2019

Exploring Variations In Diet And Migration From Late Antiquity To The Early Medieval Period In The Veneto, Italy: A Biochemical Analysis, Ashley B. Maxwell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project tests the hypothesis that the Langobard migration into the Roman/Byzantine Veneto (northeastern Italy) resulted in significant dietary changes from Late Antiquity (4-5th centuries AD) to the Early Medieval period (6-8th centuries AD). At the end of the Great Germanic Migrations in AD 568, Langobards from Pannonia entered and occupied two-thirds of the Italian peninsula. It is unclear how large these migrations were, as historical documents exaggerate mass movements; however, conservative estimates suggest they made up 8% of the areas they occupied. The degree to which the Langobards influenced economic change and subsistence in this area is poorly ...


Estimating Coastal Water Turbidity Using Viirs Nighttime Measurement, Chih-Wei Huang Mar 2019

Estimating Coastal Water Turbidity Using Viirs Nighttime Measurement, Chih-Wei Huang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Coastal water turbidity is a key environmental factor that influences the relative clarity of the water, which therefore reduces sunlight penetration. The comprehensive spatial and temporal coverage of remote sensing allows mapping of water turbidity near the coast. Even in locations where time-consuming and expensive conventional turbidity monitoring programs exist, local technological limitations prevent complete coverage. Traditional optical satellite techniques using the visible band also have limitations in monitoring turbidity due to non-optimal observing conditions such as clouds, sun-glint, and thick aerosols. In this study, in order to complement the daytime satellite measurements, I used the data from Visible Infrared ...


Tip-Enhanced Nano-Optical Imaging Of Superacid Treated Bilayer Mos2-Ws2 2d Lateral Heterostructures, Amala Dixit Mar 2019

Tip-Enhanced Nano-Optical Imaging Of Superacid Treated Bilayer Mos2-Ws2 2d Lateral Heterostructures, Amala Dixit

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nanoscale optical characterization of two-dimensional (2D) materials and heterostructures is important for the design of novel optoelectronic flexible nano-devices. Nano-optical photoluminescence (PL) and Raman imaging of bilayer 2D materials has been a challenging problem due to weak signals. The exciton-dominated light emission of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) materials is affected by the formation of defects and doping states. Previous studies have shown that chemical treatment modifies the defect and doping states of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown monolayers of MoS2 and WS2, which provides a promising possibility for engineering the optoelectronic properties of these 2D TMDCs ...


Physical Electronic Properties Of Self-Assembled 2d And 3d Surface Mounted Metal-Organic Frameworks, Radwan Elzein Nov 2018

Physical Electronic Properties Of Self-Assembled 2d And 3d Surface Mounted Metal-Organic Frameworks, Radwan Elzein

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Metal-organic frameworks stand at the frontiers of molecular electronic research because they combine desirable physical properties of organic and inorganic components. They are crystalline porous solids constructed by inorganic nodes coordinated to organic ligands to form 1D, 2D, or 3D structures. They possess unique characteristics such as ultrahigh surface area crystal lattices up to 10000 m2 g-1, and tunable nanoporous sizes ranging from 0.2 to 50 nm. Their unprecedented structural diversity and flexibility beyond solid state materials can lead to unique properties such as tailorable electronic and ionic conductivity which can serve as interesting platforms for a ...


A Fundamental Investigation Into Low Thermal Conductivity P-Type Chalcogenides And Skutterudites With Potential Thermoelectric Applications, Dean Hobbis Sep 2018

A Fundamental Investigation Into Low Thermal Conductivity P-Type Chalcogenides And Skutterudites With Potential Thermoelectric Applications, Dean Hobbis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sustainable and renewable energy is an incredibly important area in today’s society and investigation into avenues to improve this wide ranging technology are underway in many different fields. Thermoelectric devices possess the ability for the direct solid-state interconversion of heat and electrical power, which not only allows for sustainable refrigeration but also waste heat recovery. One current restriction on the efficiency of thermoelectric devices is the disparity in thermoelectric performance of p-type and n-type materials. Furthermore, a key physical attribute shared by the majority of high performing thermoelectric materials is low thermal conductivity. Thus in this thesis three separate ...


The Effect Of Processing Conditions On The Energetic Diagram Of Cdte Thin Films Studied By Photoluminescence, Shamara P. Collins Jul 2018

The Effect Of Processing Conditions On The Energetic Diagram Of Cdte Thin Films Studied By Photoluminescence, Shamara P. Collins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The photovoltaic properties of CdTe-based thin films depend on recombination levels formed in the CdTe layer and at the heterojunction. The localized states are resultant of structural defects (metal sublattice, chalcogen sublattice, interstitial), controlled doping, deposition process, and/or post-deposition annealing. The photoluminescence study of CdTe thin films, from both the bulk and heterojunction, can reveal radiative states due to different defects or impurities. Identification of defects allows for potential explanation of their roles and influence on solar cell performance. A thorough understanding of the material properties responsible for solar cell performance is critical in further advancing the efficiency of ...


Towards Fundamental Understanding Of Thermoelectric Properties In Novel Materials Using First Principles Simulations, Artem R. Khabibullin Jun 2018

Towards Fundamental Understanding Of Thermoelectric Properties In Novel Materials Using First Principles Simulations, Artem R. Khabibullin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Thermoelectric materials play an important role in energy conversion as they represent environmentally safe and solid state devices with a great potential towards enhancing their efficiency. The ability to generate electric power in a reliable way without using non-renewable resources motivates many experimentalists as well as computational physicists to search and design new thermoelectric materials. Several classes of materials have been identified as good candidates for high efficient thermoelectrics because of their inherently low thermal conductivity. The complex study of the crystal and electronic structures of such materials helps to reveal hidden properties and give fundamental understanding, necessary for the ...


Surface And Interface Effects Of Magnetoimpedance Materials At High Frequency, Tatiana M. Eggers Jun 2018

Surface And Interface Effects Of Magnetoimpedance Materials At High Frequency, Tatiana M. Eggers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Amorphous and nanocrystalline transition metal magnetic alloys (TMMAs) have been the subjects of fundamental and applied study due to their unique structure. The lack of long-range order in these materials sets the stage for their soft magnetic properties to be tuned for a variety of technological applications, such as sensitive magnetic field sensors, high frequency transformers, and stress sensors. Fundamental investigation of the magnetic and structural properties of these materials is also motivated by their unique amorphous or nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous matrix morphology, which has consequences on both the magnetism seen from both the atomic and macro-scale. The surfaces of these ...


The Association Of Size Variation In The Dental Arch To Third Molar Agenesis For A Modern Population, Devin N. Williams Apr 2018

The Association Of Size Variation In The Dental Arch To Third Molar Agenesis For A Modern Population, Devin N. Williams

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The frequency with which individuals do not develop their third molars, or wisdom teeth, is increasing worldwide. This current topic of human evolution is relevant to the research of anthropologists, geneticists, dentists, and other researchers involved in the study of human dentition. Many explanations have been offered to account for the prevalence of molar agenesis including, evolutionary, environmental, and genetic theories. The purpose of this research project is to determine the frequency of third molar agenesis and investigate the relationship between third molar agenesis and maxillomandibular jaw dimensions in a sample of orthodontic patients. This research tests the hypotheses that ...


Characterization Of Computed Tomography Radiomic Features Using Texture Phantoms, Muhammad Shafiq Ul Hassan Apr 2018

Characterization Of Computed Tomography Radiomic Features Using Texture Phantoms, Muhammad Shafiq Ul Hassan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Radiomics treats images as quantitative data and promises to improve cancer prediction in radiology and therapy response assessment in radiation oncology. However, there are a number of fundamental problems that need to be solved in order to potentially apply radiomic features in clinic. The first basic step in computed tomography (CT) radiomic analysis is the acquisition of images using selectable image acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Radiomic features have shown large variability due to variation of these parameters. Therefore, it is important to develop methods to address these variability issues in radiomic features due to each CT parameter. To this end ...


Coarse-Grained Modeling Studies Of Polymeric And Granular Systems, Hong Trung Nguyen Apr 2018

Coarse-Grained Modeling Studies Of Polymeric And Granular Systems, Hong Trung Nguyen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This Dissertation is devoted to computational study of the solidification, dynamics and mechanics of model semiflexible polymers with variable chain flexibility as well as a computational investigation of the clogging phenomena observed in granular materials.

Chain stiffness is an intrinsic factor that governs single-chain flexibility. It plays a critical role in the physics of polymeric materials. In this work, we employ a coarse-grained polymer model in which chain stiffness can be tuned by a single parameter (bending stiffness kb) that yields chain shape ranging from coil-like to rod-like in the flexible and very stiff limit respectively. In chapter 2, we ...


Computational Discovery Of Energetic Polynitrogen Compounds At High Pressure, Brad A. Steele Apr 2018

Computational Discovery Of Energetic Polynitrogen Compounds At High Pressure, Brad A. Steele

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

High-nitrogen-content energetic compounds containing multiple N-N bonds are an attractive alternative towards developing new generation of environmentally friendly, and more powerful energetic materials. High-N content translates into much higher heat of formation resulting in much larger energy output, detonation pressure and velocity upon conversion to large amounts of non-toxic, strongly bonded N2 gas. This thesis describes recent advances in the computational discovery of group-I alkali and hydrogen polynitrogen materials at high pressures using powerful first-principles evolutionary crystal structure prediction methods. This is highlighted by the discovery of a new family of materials that consist of long-sought after all-nitrogen N􀀀 5 ...


Design And Simulation Of A Miniature Cylindrical Mirror Auger Electron Energy Analyzer With Secondary Electron Noise Suppression, Jay A. Bieber Nov 2017

Design And Simulation Of A Miniature Cylindrical Mirror Auger Electron Energy Analyzer With Secondary Electron Noise Suppression, Jay A. Bieber

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the nanoscale metrology industry, there is a need for low-cost instruments, which have the ability to probe the structrure and elemental composition of thin films. This dissertation, describes the research performed to design and simulate a miniature Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer, (CMA), and Auger Electron Spectrometer, (AES). The CMA includes an integrated coaxial thermionic electron source. Electron optics simulations were performed using the Finite Element Method, (FEM), software COMSOL. To address the large Secondary Electron, (SE), noise, inherent in AES spectra, this research also included experiments to create structures in materials, which were intended to suppress SE backgound noise in ...


Manipulating Electromagnetic Waves With Enhanced Functionalities Using Nonlinear And Chiral Metamaterials, Sinhara Rishi Malinda Silva Nov 2017

Manipulating Electromagnetic Waves With Enhanced Functionalities Using Nonlinear And Chiral Metamaterials, Sinhara Rishi Malinda Silva

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Metamaterials are artificial structures, which periodically arranged to exhibit fascinating electromagnetic properties, not existing in nature. A great deal of research in the field of metamaterial was conducted in a linear regime, where the electromagnetic responses are independent of the external electric or magnetic fields. Unfortunately, in linear regime the desired properties of metamaterials have only been achieved within a narrow bandwidth, around a fixed frequency. Therefore, nonlinearity is introduced into metamaterials by merging meta-atoms with well-known nonlinear materials. Nonlinear metamaterials are exploited in this dissertation to introduce and develop applications in microwave frequency with broadband responses. The nonlinearity was ...


Application Of Metamaterials To Rf Energy Harvesting And Infrared Photodetection, Clayton M. Fowler Nov 2017

Application Of Metamaterials To Rf Energy Harvesting And Infrared Photodetection, Clayton M. Fowler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Techniques for adapting metamaterials for the improvement of RF energy harvesting and infrared photodetection are demonstrated using experimental and computer simulation methods. Two methods for RF energy harvesting are experimentally demonstrated and supported by computer simulation. In the first method, a metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) is made into a rectenna capable of harvesting RF energy and delivering power to a load by soldering Schottky diodes onto connected split ring resonator (SRR) structures composing the planar metasurface of the perfect absorber. The metamaterial rectenna is accompanied by a ground plane placed parallel to it, which forms a Fabry-Perot cavity between the ...


Surfaces And Epitaxial Films Of Corundum-Structured Mixed Metal Oxides., Alan Richard Kramer Nov 2017

Surfaces And Epitaxial Films Of Corundum-Structured Mixed Metal Oxides., Alan Richard Kramer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Throughout the last half century of materials science, significant motivations came from, and still do, the industrial applications of these materials. Whether it is electronic, thermal, tribological or chemical in nature, the study of metals, semiconductors and insulators eventually reveals that the surface plays a significant part in the properties of these materials. Understanding metal terminations reveals often that an oxide is the stable state of the metallic surface in an ambient atmosphere and the ability to predict and control these oxides has led to significant strides forward in not just the metallic bulk but the oxide as well.

Here ...


Growth, Characterization, And Function Of Ferroelectric, Ferromagnetic Thin Films And Their Heterostructures, Mahesh Hordagoda Nov 2017

Growth, Characterization, And Function Of Ferroelectric, Ferromagnetic Thin Films And Their Heterostructures, Mahesh Hordagoda

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

With recent trends in miniaturization in the electronics sector, ferroelectrics have gained popularity due to their applications in non-volatile RAM. Taking one step further researchers are now exploring multiferroic devices that overcome the drawbacks of ferroelectric (FE) and ferromagnetic (FM) RAM’s while retaining the advantages of both. The work presented in this dissertation focuses on the growth of FE and FM thin film structures. The primary goals of this work include, (1) optimization of the parameters in the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of FE and FM films and their heterostructures, (2) development of a structure-property relation that leads to ...