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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Cosmological Constant As Confining U(1) Charge In Two-Dimensional Dilaton Gravity, Daniel Grumiller, Robert Mcnees, Jakob Salzer Jan 2016

Cosmological Constant As Confining U(1) Charge In Two-Dimensional Dilaton Gravity, Daniel Grumiller, Robert Mcnees, Jakob Salzer

Robert A McNees IV

The cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamical parameter in the framework of two-dimensional dilaton gravity. We find that the cosmological constant behaves as a U(1) charge with a confining potential, and that such potentials require a novel Born-Infeld boundary term in the action. The free energy and other thermodynamical quantities of interest are derived, from first principles, in a way that is essentially model independent. We discover that there is always a Schottky anomaly in the specific heat and explain its physical origin. Finally, we apply these results to specific examples, like anti-de Sitter–Schwarzschild–Tangherlini black holes ...


Computational Study Of The Hydration Of Sulfuric Acid Dimers: Implications For Acid Dissociation And Aerosol Formation, Berhane Temelso, Thuong Ngoc Phan, George C. Shields Sep 2014

Computational Study Of The Hydration Of Sulfuric Acid Dimers: Implications For Acid Dissociation And Aerosol Formation, Berhane Temelso, Thuong Ngoc Phan, George C. Shields

Berhane Temelso

We have investigated the thermodynamics of sulfuric acid dimer hydration using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. For (H2SO4)2(H2O)n where n = 0−6, we employed high-level ab initio calculations to locate the most stable minima for each cluster size. The results presented herein yield a detailed understanding of the first deprotonation of sulfuric acid as a function of temperature for a system consisting of two sulfuric acid molecules and up to six waters. At 0 K, a cluster of two sulfuric acid molecules and one water remains undissociated. Addition of a second water begins the deprotonation of the ...


Thermodynamic And Structural Characterization Of Amino Acid-Linked Dialkyl Lipids., Stephanie Tristram-Nagle, Ruthven Lewis, Joseph Blickenstaff, Michael Diprima, Bruno Marques, Ronald Mcelhaney, John Nagle, James Schneider Aug 2014

Thermodynamic And Structural Characterization Of Amino Acid-Linked Dialkyl Lipids., Stephanie Tristram-Nagle, Ruthven Lewis, Joseph Blickenstaff, Michael Diprima, Bruno Marques, Ronald Mcelhaney, John Nagle, James Schneider

Prof. Stephanie Tristram-Nagle Ph.D.

Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), we determined some thermodynamic and structural parameters for a series of amino acid-linked dialkyl lipids containing a glutamic acid-succinate headgroup and di-alkyl chains: C12, C14, C16 and C18 in CHES buffer, pH 10. Upon heating, DSC shows that the C12, C14 and annealed C16 lipids undergo a single transition which XRD shows is from a lamellar, chain ordered subgel phase to a fluid phase. This single transition splits into two transitions for C18, and FTIR shows that the upper main transition is predominantly the melting of ...


Hiv Fusion Peptide Penetrates, Disorders, And Softens T-Cell Membrane Mimics., Stephanie Tristram-Nagle, Rob Chan, Edgar Kooijman, Pradeep Uppamoochikkal, Wei Qiang, David Weliky, Pradeep Uppamoochikkal Aug 2014

Hiv Fusion Peptide Penetrates, Disorders, And Softens T-Cell Membrane Mimics., Stephanie Tristram-Nagle, Rob Chan, Edgar Kooijman, Pradeep Uppamoochikkal, Wei Qiang, David Weliky, Pradeep Uppamoochikkal

Prof. Stephanie Tristram-Nagle Ph.D.

This work investigates the interaction of N-terminal gp41 fusion peptide (FP) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with model membranes in order to elucidate how FP leads to fusion of HIV and T-cell membranes. FP constructs were (i) wild-type FP23 (23 N-terminal amino acids of gp41), (ii) water-soluble monomeric FP that adds six lysines on the C-terminus of FP23 (FPwsm), and (iii) the C-terminus covalently linked trimeric version (FPtri) of FPwsm. Model membranes were (i) LM3 (a T-cell mimic), (ii) 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, (iii) 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/30 mol% cholesterol, (iv) 1,2-dierucoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and (v) 1,2-dierucoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/30 mol% cholesterol. Diffuse ...


Lipid Bilayers: Thermodynamics, Structure, Fluctuations, And Interactions., Stephanie Tristram-Nagle, John Nagle Aug 2014

Lipid Bilayers: Thermodynamics, Structure, Fluctuations, And Interactions., Stephanie Tristram-Nagle, John Nagle

Prof. Stephanie Tristram-Nagle Ph.D.

This article, adapted from our acceptance speech of the Avanti Award in Lipids at the 47th Biophysical Society meeting in San Antonio, 2003, summarizes over 30 years of research in the area of lipid bilayers. Beginning with a theoretical model of the phase transition (J.F.N.), we have proceeded experimentally using dilatometry and density centrifugation to study volume, differential scanning calorimetry to study heat capacity, and X-ray scattering techniques to study structure of lipid bilayers as a function of temperature. Electron density profiles of the gel and ripple phases have been obtained as well as profiles from several fluid ...


Polymorphism In Myristoylpalmitoylphosphatidylcholine., Stephanie Tristram-Nagle, Yisrael Isaacson, Yulia Lyatskaya, Yufeng Liu, Kay Brummond, John Katsaras, John Nagle Aug 2014

Polymorphism In Myristoylpalmitoylphosphatidylcholine., Stephanie Tristram-Nagle, Yisrael Isaacson, Yulia Lyatskaya, Yufeng Liu, Kay Brummond, John Katsaras, John Nagle

Prof. Stephanie Tristram-Nagle Ph.D.

This study focuses on the mixed-chain lipid myristoylpalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (MPPC) near full hydration. The lipid, synthesized according to the procedure of (Mason et al., 1981a, has a low degree of acyl chain migration. When MPPC is temperature-jumped (T-jumped) from the L alpha phase (T = 38 degrees C) to T = 20 degrees C or below, a subgel phase forms; this formation takes less than 1 h at a temperature below T = 12 degrees C. The subgel remains stable up to T = 29 degrees C. When MPPC is T-jumped from the L alpha phase to T = 24 degrees C or above, a ripple ...


Polyunsaturated Docosahexaenoic Vs Docosapentaenoic Acid-Differences In Lipid Matrix Properties From The Loss Of One Double Bond., Nadukkudy Eldho, Scott Feller, Stephanie Tristram-Nagle, Ivan Polozov, Klaus Gawrisch Aug 2014

Polyunsaturated Docosahexaenoic Vs Docosapentaenoic Acid-Differences In Lipid Matrix Properties From The Loss Of One Double Bond., Nadukkudy Eldho, Scott Feller, Stephanie Tristram-Nagle, Ivan Polozov, Klaus Gawrisch

Prof. Stephanie Tristram-Nagle Ph.D.

Insufficient supply to the developing brain of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3, DHA), or its omega-3 fatty acid precursors, results in replacement of DHA with docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n6, DPA), an omega-6 fatty acid that is lacking a double bond near the chain's methyl end. We investigated membranes of 1-stearoyl(d(35))-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1-stearoyl(d(35))-2-docosapentaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine by solid-state NMR, X-ray diffraction, and molecular dynamics simulations to determine if the loss of this double bond alters membrane physical properties. The low order parameters of polyunsaturated chains and the NMR relaxation data indicate that both DHA and DPA undergo rapid ...


Thermodynamics Of A Free Q Fermion Gas, Asim Gangopadhyaya Dec 1993

Thermodynamics Of A Free Q Fermion Gas, Asim Gangopadhyaya

Asim Gangopadhyaya

We study the thermodynamics of a q-fermion gas for complex values of q on the unit circle. Special emphasis is given to the study of the virial coefficients and the specific heat of this gas. In particular, it is shown that if any state can accommodate up to p q-fermions, then the first p virial coefficients of such a gas are the same as that of a gas of free bosons. Explicit expressions for the deviation of higher virial coefficients from the corresponding values for a Bose gas are obtained. Further, as for ordinary fermions, it is shown that the ...