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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Legal Symposium On Wetlands: An Executive Summary, Roger D. Anderson, David Garten, Ted Smolen Nov 1974

Legal Symposium On Wetlands: An Executive Summary, Roger D. Anderson, David Garten, Ted Smolen

Reports

In 1969 the Virginia Institute of Marine Science published a report stating that although marshlands represented only one-half of one percent of the total area of the state, 95 percent of Virginia 's annual harvest of sport and commercial fisheries were dependent to some degree upon these valuable wetlands . The report went on to urge some form of public control over these vital areas in order to relieve some of the pressures created by dredging, filling, diking and bulkheading.

Recognizing the need to address this issue, the 1971 General Assembly passed House Joint Resolution Number 60, creating a Wetlands Study ...


Suspended Sediments Near Pier 12 Norfolk Navy Base On 26 June And 15 September, 1973, Evon P. Ruzecki, R. Ayres Oct 1974

Suspended Sediments Near Pier 12 Norfolk Navy Base On 26 June And 15 September, 1973, Evon P. Ruzecki, R. Ayres

Reports

Results of two suspended sediment studies near Norfolk Navy Base Pier 12 are given. The studies were conducted during one tidal cycle on both 26 June and 15 September 1973. The following parameters were measured at five stations in the vicinity of the pier: suspended sediment water temperature, salinity and density current speed and direction iv


A Socio-Economic Environmental Baseline Summary For The South Atlantic Region Between Cape Hatteras, North Carolina And Cape Canaveral, Florida Volume Ii : Climatology, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Sep 1974

A Socio-Economic Environmental Baseline Summary For The South Atlantic Region Between Cape Hatteras, North Carolina And Cape Canaveral, Florida Volume Ii : Climatology, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

The geographic area covered in this report extends from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, on the north, to Cape Canaveral, Florida, to the·south. Included within this area are portions of the coastal areas of South Carolina and Georgia. All or portions of thirty coastal counties are included within the study area.

Estuaries in this area tend to be partially mixed due to relatively low runoff per mile of coast. The proximity of the Gulf Stream to the continental shelf and the low runoff combine to cause the salinity of the coastal water to be somewhat higher than that of the ...


A Socio-Economic Environmental Baseline Summary For The South Atlantic Region Between Cape Hatteras, North Carolina And Cape Canaveral, Florida Volume 1 : Physical Oceanography, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Sep 1974

A Socio-Economic Environmental Baseline Summary For The South Atlantic Region Between Cape Hatteras, North Carolina And Cape Canaveral, Florida Volume 1 : Physical Oceanography, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

The paucity of oceanographic data on the continental shelf and in the estuaries south of Cape Hatteras, North carolina hinders attempts to document the oceanographic conditions. In general data are more available and conditions better understood in the estuaries than on the continental shelf.

The estuaries of the Southern Atlantic Bight have not been studied as extensively as the large embayments to the north. Generally the estuaries tend to be partially mixed since runoff and thus river flow is not great in these river systems. Both the distance the tidal effect is felt and the distance up the estuary that ...


A Socio-Economic Environmental Baseline Summary For The South Atlantic Region Between Cape Hatteras, North Carolina And Cape Canaveral, Florida Volume Iv: Geological Oceanography, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Sep 1974

A Socio-Economic Environmental Baseline Summary For The South Atlantic Region Between Cape Hatteras, North Carolina And Cape Canaveral, Florida Volume Iv: Geological Oceanography, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

The geographic area covered in this report extends from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, on the north, to Cape Canaveral, Florida, to the south. Included within this area are portions of the coastal areas of South Carolina and Georgia. All or portions of thirty coastal counties are included within the study area.

  • Chapter 1 - Introduction
  • Chapter 2 - Coastal Plain-Subzone I-Cape Hatteras to Winyah Bay
  • Chapter 3 - Coastal Plain-Subzone II-Winyah Bay to St. Johns River
  • Chapter 4 - Coastal Plain-Subzone III-St. Johns River to Cape Canaveral
  • Chapter 5 - Continental Shelf-Subzone I-Cape Hatteras to Winyah Bay
  • Chapter 6 - Continental Shelf-Subzone II-Winyah Bay to St ...


Studies Of Certain Impacts Of Tropical Storm Agnes On The Chesapeake Bay And Its Tributaries - A Final Report On Activities, William J. Hargis Jr. Aug 1974

Studies Of Certain Impacts Of Tropical Storm Agnes On The Chesapeake Bay And Its Tributaries - A Final Report On Activities, William J. Hargis Jr.

Reports

In the summer of 1972 Hurricane Agnes, spawned over the Yucatan Peninsula, developed in full force in the Gulf of Mexico, bulled its way ashore in Western Florida (and Southeastern Alabama) and spent its fury in the interior. It arrived in the Middle-Atlantic States as an Extratropical Storm. At every stage it was disruptive and destructive.

In the Chesapeake Bay Drainage Basin, Agnes was particularly spectacular even though her wind velocities were markedly reduced. In particular, she poured vast amounts of rain on an already saturated land. In rapid succession the James, the Potomac and the Susquehanna were driven into ...


Lower York River Dissolved Oxygen Study, Robert A. Jordan Jan 1974

Lower York River Dissolved Oxygen Study, Robert A. Jordan

Reports

Past studies of the lowerr York River have shown that dissolved oxygen (D .O.) concentrations decline in the summer months, occasionally falling one mg/ 1 near the bottom in deep water (Brehmer,1970; Jordan,1973) . Due to this apparently natural phenomenon the Virginia water quality standards for D.O. in estuaries (4.0 mg/1 allowable minimum, 5 .0 mg/1 minimum daily average, U.S.. E.P.A,1971), are not met during this period . Therefore additional waste-water discharges into the lower York River will not initiate violation of the standards, but may exacerbate the existing situation by extending ...


James River Sediment Study: Operation Agnes Final Report, John Lunz, Robert J. Huggett Jan 1974

James River Sediment Study: Operation Agnes Final Report, John Lunz, Robert J. Huggett

Reports

Bottom sediment samples were collected from the James River in Virginia and analyzed to evaluate the effects of tropical storm Agnes (summer, 1972) upon the sediment chemistry . The results of these analyses, frcm hereon called "post Agnes data," were compared with data from a similar study carried out during the summer of 1971 ( "pre-Agnes data"), reported under contract no. DACW-65-71-C-00~7 .

The post Agnes samples encompass three distinct shoaling areas involving a total of 34. 75 nautical miles of the James River . The first area extending from mile 24. 75 to 33. 50 can be considered os the · Oligohaline James ...


Shoreline Situation Report Northampton County, Virginia, William D. Athearn, Gary L. Anderson, Robert J. Byrne, Carl H. Hobbs Iii, John M. Zeigler Jan 1974

Shoreline Situation Report Northampton County, Virginia, William D. Athearn, Gary L. Anderson, Robert J. Byrne, Carl H. Hobbs Iii, John M. Zeigler

Reports

No abstract provided.


A Report On The Concentration, Distribution And Impact Of Certain Trace Metals From Sewage Treatment Plants On The Chesapeake Bay, Robert J. Huggett, O. P. Brickner, G. R. Helz, S. E. Sommmer Jan 1974

A Report On The Concentration, Distribution And Impact Of Certain Trace Metals From Sewage Treatment Plants On The Chesapeake Bay, Robert J. Huggett, O. P. Brickner, G. R. Helz, S. E. Sommmer

Reports

Population densities are ever increasing on the shores of the Chesapeake Bay and hence the flow of goods and services is being shifted to supply these people. This self perpetuating system demanismore and more of the surrounding envirorunent f or recreation, work and waste disposal. This is the case f or the Chesapeake and its sub- estuaries.

According to Brush (1974), of the total fresh water input into the Chesapeake Bay, between 1 and 2 percent is treated sewage. Toxic components on these waters may be of paramount importance in the Bay ecosystem and ma;y have disastrous effects on ...


Segmentation Of Chesapeake Bay: A Representative Exercise, Robert E. Ulanowicz, Bruce J. Neilson Jan 1974

Segmentation Of Chesapeake Bay: A Representative Exercise, Robert E. Ulanowicz, Bruce J. Neilson

Reports

The goal of the CRC/RANN Waste Water Program is to provide the tools to management agencies which will enable them to make sound quantitative decisions on the siting of future sewage outfalls and the upgrading or elimination of existing sewage treatment plants. Obviously, the available funds do not permit extensive field studies at every possible outfall site. Therefore, some system is needed which will allow data to be transferred from one area to other areas within the Bay which have similar characteristics. A system of "segmentation"., as suggested by Dr. D. W. Pritchard, was chosen by the Scientific Management ...


The Chesapeake Bay System, Effluent And Ambient Water Quality Conditions : An Interim Report To National Commission On Water Quality, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jan 1974

The Chesapeake Bay System, Effluent And Ambient Water Quality Conditions : An Interim Report To National Commission On Water Quality, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

The Chesapeake Bay, lying in the eastern portions of Maryland and Virginia, is the largest estuary in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is approximately 180 statute miles long (156 nautical miles) from the mouth of the Susquehanna River'to the mouth of the Bay at the Cape Henry/Cape Charles line. The width ranges from 3.4 miles to 35 miles with an average depth of 27.7 feet. More than 50 rivers contribute fresh water. The five largest are the Susquehanna, the Potomac, the James, the Rappahannock and the York.


Function Of Marshes In Reducing Eutrophication Of Estuaries Of The Middle Atlantic Region, D. M. Axelrad, M. E. Bender, K. A. Moore Jan 1974

Function Of Marshes In Reducing Eutrophication Of Estuaries Of The Middle Atlantic Region, D. M. Axelrad, M. E. Bender, K. A. Moore

Reports

Annual nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon budgets for two Virginia salt marshes were determined by monthly measurements of water discharge and constituent concentrations over tidal cycles.

Considering all three forms of phosphorus measured (total, dissolved organic and orthophosphate) there was a net loss from the estuary to the marshes. The data reveal a loss of particulate μhosphorus of estuarine origin to marsh sediments and mineralization of this phosphorus in the marshes with subsequent export of dissolved inorganic and organic phosphorus back to the estuary.

Nitrogen flux data show a loss of nitrate and nitrite to the marshes. Particulate nitrogen is imported ...


Acute Effect Of Free Chlorine On Selected Estuarine Invertebrates And Vertebrates : Final Report, Morris H. Roberts, Robert J. Diaz Jan 1974

Acute Effect Of Free Chlorine On Selected Estuarine Invertebrates And Vertebrates : Final Report, Morris H. Roberts, Robert J. Diaz

Reports

The objective of this project was to determine acute toxic effects of chlorine on selected estuarine organisms found adjacent to the projected outfall of a sewage treatment plant in the lower York River. The test species specified under contract were ovster (Crassostrea virginica) and clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) larvae, Acartia tonsa (a dominant copepod), and the fishes, menhaden (Brcvoortia tyranus), pipefish (Svngnathus fuscus), blennies (Hypsoplennius hentzi) and sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). The parameter of interest in the tests was mortality when the animals were exposed to a constant level of chlorine for a 48 or 96 hr period.


Ecological Survey, Upper James River, Surry Nuclear Power Station Site, August 1974, M. Bender, R. Jordan, M. Ho, M. Cavell Jan 1974

Ecological Survey, Upper James River, Surry Nuclear Power Station Site, August 1974, M. Bender, R. Jordan, M. Ho, M. Cavell

Reports

In May of 1969 field surveys to characterize selected biological communities in the Hog Island area of the James River were begun. The objective of these surveys has been to determine if significant changes occurred in the species composition or population levels of certain communities which could be related to the operation of the nuclear power generation station. Although during the period of study, methods and stations have been changed to adjust the study to changing regulations, its basic character has remained. Communities studied have included benthos, zoo- and phytoplankton and fouling organisms.


Final Report On Environmental Effects Of The Second Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel Construction To Virginia Department Of Highways : Effects On Benthic Communities, Donald F. Boesch, David H. Rackley Jan 1974

Final Report On Environmental Effects Of The Second Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel Construction To Virginia Department Of Highways : Effects On Benthic Communities, Donald F. Boesch, David H. Rackley

Reports

A sampling program was undertaken from July 1973 to June 1974, to assess the effects of construction of the second Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel on the benthic communities in the vicinity. Macrobenthic animals (defined as those retained by a 1.0 mm mesh sieve) were quantitatively sampled along three transects perpendicular to the new tunnel and in and around the fill "borrow areas" nearby on Willoughby Bank and Sewell's Point Spit. The effects of construction practices on the benthic communities·was assessed through interpretation of faunal composition, sediment characteristics, and bottom profiles.


Virginia And The Outer Continental Shelf : Problems, Possibilities, And Posture, The Committee Jan 1974

Virginia And The Outer Continental Shelf : Problems, Possibilities, And Posture, The Committee

Reports

The Outer Continental Shelf Advisory Committee was \ established.by the Secretary of Commerce and Resources, Earl J. Shiflet, in July, 1974. This action was taken based upon the realization that the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) was a likely area for the development of offshore oil and gas resources, and that such development could have profound and far reaching impacts upon the Commonwealth. Such impacts could either be beneficial or detrimental or both, depending greatly upon the preparations made by the Commonwealth beforehand. Accordingly, Secretary Shiflet charged the OCS Advisory Committee to consider all facets of the situation, and to ...


Shoreline Situation Report Newport News, Virginia, Carl H. Hobbs Iii, Gary L. Anderson, William D. Athearn, Robert J. Byrne, John M. Zeigler Jan 1974

Shoreline Situation Report Newport News, Virginia, Carl H. Hobbs Iii, Gary L. Anderson, William D. Athearn, Robert J. Byrne, John M. Zeigler

Reports

No abstract provided.


Coastal Data Acquisition, Compilation And Analysis, Virginia Beach Coastal Compartment, Southeastern Virginia : Quarterly Technical Status Report June 10, 1974 - Sept. 10, 1974, Victor Goldsmith Jan 1974

Coastal Data Acquisition, Compilation And Analysis, Virginia Beach Coastal Compartment, Southeastern Virginia : Quarterly Technical Status Report June 10, 1974 - Sept. 10, 1974, Victor Goldsmith

Reports

No abstract provided.


A Program To Monitor The Environmental Effects Of Shipyard Expansion : A Final Report, Robert J. Diaz, M. E. Bender Jan 1974

A Program To Monitor The Environmental Effects Of Shipyard Expansion : A Final Report, Robert J. Diaz, M. E. Bender

Reports

Dredging and land reclamation are two of the potentially most damaging activities that man undertakes in estuarine areas. Hampton Roads, the world's largest natural harbor, is a multiple use port, being a major center for fishing and shellfishing, transportation, recreation and industrial sitings. Dredging which is a necessary perpetuation for some of these activities, could be directly or indirectly detrimental to others. It is in such a multiple use situation that environmental alterations, real or potential, must be carefully planned and closely monitored. Projects of the type underway can cause changes in circulation, water depth, turbidity, and patterns qf ...


Report On Water Quality Data Evaluation And Program Design Services For The James And York Rivers In Conjunction With The "208" Planning Program For The Tidewater Region Of Virginia, Michael E. Bender, C. S. Fang, Bruce J. Neilson Jan 1974

Report On Water Quality Data Evaluation And Program Design Services For The James And York Rivers In Conjunction With The "208" Planning Program For The Tidewater Region Of Virginia, Michael E. Bender, C. S. Fang, Bruce J. Neilson

Reports

The study area considered in this report includes the following: The James River from Fort Monroe to the mouth of the Chickahominy River (statute mile 45) including the small tributaries on the north shore but not the Chickahominy; the York River from its mouth to the confluence of the Mattaponi and Pamunkey at West Point (statute mile 33.5) including the small tributaries along the south shore; and the small drainage area adjacent to Chesapeake Bay lying between the York and James basins. The two rivers included in this basin are Poquoson River and Back River.