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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl : Annual Report 2020, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder Apr 2021

Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl : Annual Report 2020, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder

Reports

An Ecological Monitoring Program (EMP) has been established at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science Eastern Shore Laboratory (VIMS ESL) for the coastal environment near the Wachapreague lab. The goals of the initiative are to 1) provide status and trends information to scientists who study and regulators who manage Virginia’s marine resources, 2) provide a scientific context for short-term research and grant proposals 3) provide pedagogical enrichment to educators for their classes, and 4) build capacity in staff expertise and training of interns and students at VIMS ESL.

The program formalizes and standardizes data collection for a long-term status ...


Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency, Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Jessica Hendricks, Tamia Rudnicky Apr 2021

Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency, Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Jessica Hendricks, Tamia Rudnicky

Reports

The vulnerability of coastal communities and the growing risks of coastal infrastructure continue largely due to past and ongoing patterns of development in high risk areas. This project is focused on increasing the use of natural and nature-based features (NNBFs) to increase resilience of coastal communities to flooding caused by extreme weather events.


Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams 2020, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Feb 2021

Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams 2020, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Expansion of poultry house operations and use of litter as a soil amendment in Accomack County Virginia has raised concerns for water quality impacts on both seaside and bayside of the Eastern Shore of Virginia (ESVA). This ongoing investigation is examining freshwater stream water quality in Accomack Virginia to identify water quality impairments from poultry operation storm water runoff. Previous sampling data from 2019 has been integrated into this report. Sampling in 2020 followed an extended drought period (base flow) and two inch rainfall events (storm flow) in streams at road crossings in Accomack County Bayside and Seaside drainages. Dissolved ...


Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge - Final Report, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Feb 2021

Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge - Final Report, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Previous sampling of the stream crossing Bobtown Road (Rt 178) near the intersection of Hollies Church Road (Rt. 620), had indicated high levels of nitrogen in the stream flow (Snyder and Ross, 2019a). The proximity of the retired Accomack County Landfill upstream of the site triggered a higher resolution sampling of the stream in an attempt to isolate a source of the nitrogen loading (Snyder and Ross, 2019b). Accomack County has requested repeated sampling of this stream segment to monitor nutrient attenuation trends from the site, and stations were established for that purpose. This Final Report provides a summary of ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia’S Rivers 2020 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Jan 2021

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia’S Rivers 2020 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twenty-third year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2020, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007, ASMFC 2020).

We also report on two fisheryindependent monitoring programs using anchor gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 3) and the Chickahominy River (year 6; a major tributary of the James River), to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of ...


Hog Island Shore Protection And Habitat Restoration Living Shoreline Project, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox, Nicholas J. Dinapoli Dec 2020

Hog Island Shore Protection And Habitat Restoration Living Shoreline Project, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox, Nicholas J. Dinapoli

Reports

Hog Island is an emergent estuarine marsh complex that is part of the overall Guinea marshes (Figure 1). These marshes are located at the confluence of Mobjack Bay and the York River in Gloucester County, Virginia. Hog Island is a high wave energy eroding shoreline along its south-face on the York River, and lower wave energy along its west and east flanks that occur on Monday Creek (Figure 2). The marsh consists mainly of grasses such as Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens. A higher, sandy area along the higher energy shorelines has some scrub shrub. Two small ponds and a ...


Farm Resiliency Education For At-Risk Coastal Areas In The Chesapeake Bay, Kristen Saacke Blunk, Kristen Hughes Evans, Jennifer Miller Herzog, Julie Herman, Carl Hershner, Donna Bilkovic, Kirk J. Havens Aug 2020

Farm Resiliency Education For At-Risk Coastal Areas In The Chesapeake Bay, Kristen Saacke Blunk, Kristen Hughes Evans, Jennifer Miller Herzog, Julie Herman, Carl Hershner, Donna Bilkovic, Kirk J. Havens

Reports

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) in collaboration with its partners, the Land Trust Alliance, Sustainable Chesapeake, and The Nature Conservancy, explored and refined questions critical for advising and guiding landowners who farm within coastal areas that are vulnerable to sea level rise and saltwater intrusion, and ultimately, loss of arable cropland in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. While the questions posed are those that agricultural experts across the coastal zones are struggling with, this effort focused on identifying the current state of the science and informational gaps; building current, best professional guidance for landowner conservation program choices; and developing ...


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2019, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham May 2020

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2019, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2019, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP) has maintained a 24-year database of records for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (VSFT) under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-(VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program).


Shoreline Management Handbook, Pamela Mason, Angela King, Clay Bernick Apr 2020

Shoreline Management Handbook, Pamela Mason, Angela King, Clay Bernick

Reports

Shoreline habitats and processes are impacted by the decisions we make about managing coastal development and shorelines. Shoreline Management is making choices to address the desire to protect upland property from erosion or develop property balanced with the benefits and uses of natural and nature-based shoreline features and shoreline habitat restoration. This requires a weighing of the private benefits and cots of management actions and the benefits and costs to public held common resources, also known as the public trust. The natural features along our shorelines -tidal wetlands, beaches and dunes, and riparian buffers, are economically and ecologically valuable. They ...


Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Feb 2020

Surface Water Nitrogen Attenuation From The Accomack County, Va Southern Landfill Groundwater Discharge, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Previous sampling of the stream crossing Bobtown Road (Rt 178) near the intersection of Hollies Church Road (Rt. 620), had indicated high levels of nitrogen in the stream flow (Snyder and Ross, 2019a). The proximity of the retired Accomack County Landfill upstream of the site triggered a higher resolution sampling of the stream in an attempt to isolate a source of the nitrogen loading (Snyder and Ross, 2019b). Accomack County has requested repeated sampling of this stream segment to monitor nutrient attenuation trends from the site, and stations were established for that purpose. This is the first report of that ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2019 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Jan 2020

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2019 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twenty-second year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2019, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007). We also report on two fishery-independent monitoring programs using anchor gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 2) and the Chickahominy River (year 5; a major tributary of the James River), to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of river herring ...


Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Jan 2020

Water Quality In Accomack County Freshwater Streams, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Expansion of poultry house operations and use of litter as a soil amendment in Accomack County Virginia has raised concerns for water quality impacts both seaside and bayside of the Eastern Shore of Virginia (ESVA). This ongoing investigation is examining freshwater stream water quality in Accomack Virginia to identify water quality impairments from poultry operation storm water runoff. Sampling in 2019 followed two inch rainfall events covering 83 streams at road crossings in southern and northern Accomack County. Estimates of land cover in the drainages for these streams were used to determine correlations between stream water nutrient levels and the ...


Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency: Forecast And Hind-Cast Load Reductions From Living Shoreline Bmps : Project Report (Year 2 Of 3), Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Tamia Rudnicky Jan 2020

Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency: Forecast And Hind-Cast Load Reductions From Living Shoreline Bmps : Project Report (Year 2 Of 3), Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Tamia Rudnicky

Reports

The vulnerability of coastal communities and the growing risks to coastal infrastructure continue largely due to past and ongoing patterns of development in high risk areas. This project is focused on increasing the use of natural and nature-based features (NNBFs) to increase resilience of coastal communities to flooding caused by extreme weather events. This project has proposed two efforts to increase understanding of NNBFS; 1) describe the current status, and 2) quantify role of NNBF creation/ restoration for water quality benefits in support of coastal resilience. The products of the 3-year project are intended to support informed coastal management decision-making ...


Living Shoreline Sea Level Resiliency: Performance And Adaptive Management Of Existing Breakwater Sites, Year 2 Summary Report, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox, Angela C. Milligan Nov 2019

Living Shoreline Sea Level Resiliency: Performance And Adaptive Management Of Existing Breakwater Sites, Year 2 Summary Report, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox, Angela C. Milligan

Reports

The Coastal Zone Management program, through NOAA grants, has funded several projects that have reviewed design considerations and monitored living shoreline systems for effectiveness at both shore protection and habitat enhancement. These studies presented data regarding the construction and performance of three living shoreline projects that were built between 1999 and 2003 in Maryland (Hardaway et al., 2007 and 2009) and were in part the basis for the “Living Shoreline Design Guidelines for Shore Protection in Virginia’s Estuarine Environments” and the contractor training classes (Hardaway et al., 2017). In addition, extensive research has been done on the design and ...


James River Water Quality Model Refinement And Scenario Simulations, Jian Shen, Qubin Qin Oct 2019

James River Water Quality Model Refinement And Scenario Simulations, Jian Shen, Qubin Qin

Reports

This project was part of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality’s (DEQ) study to evaluate the protectiveness of chlorophyll criteria and consider potential criteria revisions, along with implications for the James River portion of the Chesapeake Bay TMDL.


Impacts Of Sea Level Rise On Hypoxia In The Chesapeake Bay: A Model Intercomparison, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Ming Li, Wenfei Ni Oct 2019

Impacts Of Sea Level Rise On Hypoxia In The Chesapeake Bay: A Model Intercomparison, Pierre St-Laurent, Marjorie A.M. Friedrichs, Ming Li, Wenfei Ni

Reports

Over recent years a number of studies have examined the effects of sea level rise (SLR) on hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay. However, variations in the methodology, the years considered, and the metrics reported made comparisons between these studies difficult. To clarify the effects of SLR on the Bay’s hypoxia, we present an intercomparison between four numerical models following a common methodology. The models share the riverine fluxes, baseline period (1991–1995), and consider the same three scenarios of SLR: an increase in sea level of 0.17m, 0.50m, and 1.00m (representative of years 2025, 2050 and 2100 ...


Rural Shallow Water Dredging: Channel Assessment And Disposal Site Strategies, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox Sep 2019

Rural Shallow Water Dredging: Channel Assessment And Disposal Site Strategies, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox

Reports

The goal of this report is to provide general considerations for localities on the dredging and disposal of material from shallow draft channels, in particular for those channels on the Middle Peninsula, Northern Neck, and Eastern Shore of Virginia (Figure 1-1). This report offers background on shallow draft channels, both federally and non-federally maintained, suggests procedures for the dredging and disposal process, and applies the process to an existing channel. Existing data on the Middle Peninsula, Northern Neck, and Eastern Shore channels are provided to assist localities with management decisions. In addition to data for most of the existing federal ...


Pamunkey Indian Reservation Shoreline Management Plan, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox Sep 2019

Pamunkey Indian Reservation Shoreline Management Plan, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox

Reports

In 2015, the federal government officially recognized the Pamunkey Indian tribe. The tribe has a reservation located on the Pamunkey River in King William County (Figure 1-1) and is one of the nation's oldest, dating back to 1646 (Encyclopedia Virginia, 2015). The Reservation has about 13 miles of shoreline encompassing about 1,100 acres. According to the National Wetlands Inventory (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2016), the Reservation has about 80 acres of freshwater emergent wetland and 530 acres of freshwater forested/shrub wetland. Approximately 90 people live on the Reservation and up to 600 people visit in a ...


Virginia Stormwater Act, Tiered Approach For Rural Tidewater Localities: Generation Of Watershed Impervious Maps, Christine Tombleson Aug 2019

Virginia Stormwater Act, Tiered Approach For Rural Tidewater Localities: Generation Of Watershed Impervious Maps, Christine Tombleson

Reports

An amendment to Virginia's Stormwater Management Act was adopted to implement a tiered approach to stormwater management for rural Tidewater localities. To participate a locality is required to have a map showing the boundaries of the locality, with each watershed located partially or wholly within the locality, and the percentage of impervious cover (cover that impedes the natural infiltration of water into the soil) within each watershed. Center staff created maps indicating the initial percent of existing impervious cover present in each watershed for the Middle Peninsula Planning District (MPPDC) localities; Gloucester, Essex, King and Queen, King William, Mathews ...


Preliminary Assessment Of Benthic Macrofauna Community Within Intertidal Mudflats, Lake Rudee, Virginia Beach, Virginia, M. Lisa Kellogg Aug 2019

Preliminary Assessment Of Benthic Macrofauna Community Within Intertidal Mudflats, Lake Rudee, Virginia Beach, Virginia, M. Lisa Kellogg

Reports

The goal of this assessment was to evaluate the proposed dredging site at Lake Rudee to determine whether the natural resources within the proposed dredge area were of sufficient value that the permitting agency might require further data to be collected to aid in determining whether to grant a dredging permit or how much mitigation to require.


Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2018, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham May 2019

Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program Annual Report 2018, Susanna Musick, Lewis Gillingham

Reports

Through 2018, the Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program (VGFTP) has maintained a 23-year database of records for tagged and recaptured fish. The program is a cooperative project of the Virginia Saltwater Fishing Tournament (VSFT) under the Virginia Marine Resources Commission-(VMRC) and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) of the College of William and Mary (under the VIMS Marine Advisory Program).


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2018 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Apr 2019

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2018 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twenty-first year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2018, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007). We also report on two fishery-independent monitoring programs using anchor gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 1) and the Chickahominy River (year 4; a major tributary of the James River), to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of river herring ...


Leesylvania State Park Living Shoreline Project Monitoring Protocol, Donna A. Milligan, Walter I. Priest, C. Scott Hardaway Jr. Apr 2019

Leesylvania State Park Living Shoreline Project Monitoring Protocol, Donna A. Milligan, Walter I. Priest, C. Scott Hardaway Jr.

Reports

Leesylvania State Park is located along the Potomac River in Prince William County, Virginia (Figure 1). It is one of the most highly used state parks in Virginia with attendance topping 600,000 (Anne, 2017). The project shoreline occurs on the southeast-facing Potomac River shore north of the marina (Figure 2). This section of coast is very low and is exposed to long fetches across and down river. Prior to the project, the shoreline had a scarped bank, exposed tree roots, and falling trees which was unsafe for park visitors (Figure 3).

In 2011, the Shoreline Studies Program at the ...


Water Quality In An Unnamed Branch Of Pungoteague Creek, Bobtown Road And Hollies Church Road, Va., Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Mar 2019

Water Quality In An Unnamed Branch Of Pungoteague Creek, Bobtown Road And Hollies Church Road, Va., Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Previous sampling of the stream crossing Bobtown Road (Rt 178) near the intersection of Hollies Church Road (Rt. 620), had indicated high levels of nitrogen in the stream flow (Snyder and Ross, 2019). During a dry period, total nitrogen was determined as 21.932 mg/L, at the end of a rain event 9.56 mg/L was recovered, and during an extended wet period without major rainfall, a value of 18.26 mg/L was found. The lower value associated with the rain event suggested dilution of a ground water source. The proximity of the retired Accomack County Landfill ...


Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young-Of-The-Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay, Spring 2018, Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Mar 2019

Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young-Of-The-Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay, Spring 2018, Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

American Eel (Anguilla rostrata) is a valuable commercial species along the Atlantic coast of North America from New Brunswick to Florida. In the U.S., harvests have declined, with similar patterns occurring in the Canadian Maritime Provinces (Meister and Flagg 1997). An average of 62% of the annual landings of U.S. commercial harvest since 1993 have come from the Chesapeake Bay (personal communication from the National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics Division, 9 February 2015). In 2013, Virginia commercial landings were approximately 100,298 lbs; since mandatory reporting began in 1993, average annual landings in Virginia have been 193 ...


Water Quality In Southern Accomack County Watersheds, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross Feb 2019

Water Quality In Southern Accomack County Watersheds, Richard A. Snyder, Paige G. Ross

Reports

Expansion of poultry grow out houses in Accomack County, VA has raised concerns for water quality impacts both seaside and bayside where harvesting marine resources and aquaculture operations may be affected. The dust and litter from the poultry houses are potential sources of nitrogen, phosphorous, and fecal contamination to watersheds and receiving waters. Siting regulations, storm water controls, and management of litter storage and handling are designed to limit these impacts, yet no analysis has been implemented to verify the efficacy of these protective measures. This investigation sampled watersheds after a 2 week dry period prior to a storm event ...


Building Capacity For Protection Of Wetland Resources In Virginia - Track One, Virginia Department Of Environmental Quality, Center For Coastal Resources Management - Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Dec 2018

Building Capacity For Protection Of Wetland Resources In Virginia - Track One, Virginia Department Of Environmental Quality, Center For Coastal Resources Management - Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

DEQ continues to make significant progress in the development of a comprehensive nontidal wetland regulatory program; refinement of our permitting/compliance database to track impacts, compliance, and compensation by watershed; and continued refinement of our wetland monitoring and assessment tools for use in management decision-making and integration within our water quality programs. This project focused on development of strategies and extension of outreach to improve understanding and protection of high ecological value aquatic resources such as headwater resources and wetlands that may provide added value in improving impaired waters in Virginia. Project activities specifically addressed three of the priority elements ...


Targeted Living Shoreline Management Planning For Virginia State Parks In Chesapeake Bay Summary Report, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox Nov 2018

Targeted Living Shoreline Management Planning For Virginia State Parks In Chesapeake Bay Summary Report, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox

Reports

The Commonwealth of Virginia owns numerous tidal, waterfront properties along Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries including state parks, natural area preserves, and wildlife management areas. Many of these parks have eroding shorelines and are at risk from coastal hazards such as tidal flooding, waves, and sea level rise. These environmental threats impact the safety of park visitors and the mission of the parks.

In an effort to address these issues for the parks as well as provide education to the public on living shoreline management strategies, eleven state parks with tidal shoreline along the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries were ...


Living Shoreline Sea-Level Resiliency: Performance And Adaptive Management Of Existing Sites, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox Nov 2018

Living Shoreline Sea-Level Resiliency: Performance And Adaptive Management Of Existing Sites, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Donna A. Milligan, Christine A. Wilcox

Reports

The goal of this project is to monitor effectiveness of nature-based resiliency projects such as those that use living shoreline management strategies. Living shoreline strategies can effectively control shoreline erosion while providing water quality benefits and maintaining natural habitat and coastal processes. These ecosystem-based management systems have been the preferred alternative for stabilizing tidal shorelines in the Commonwealth of Virginia since 2011. However, a recent analysis has shown that between 2011 and 2016 only 24% of the permits granted for shore protection were considered living shorelines (ASMFC, 2016). These types of systems may be relatively new to many landowners and ...


Oyster Bag Sill Construction And Monitoring At Two Sites In Chesapeake Bay, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox, Walter I. Priest Oct 2018

Oyster Bag Sill Construction And Monitoring At Two Sites In Chesapeake Bay, Donna A. Milligan, C. Scott Hardaway Jr., Christine A. Wilcox, Walter I. Priest

Reports

The use of oyster shell bags as a means of shore protection along fetchlimited shorelines in Chesapeake Bay is growing. This method is an innovative use of a byproduct of the seafood industry and can provide habitat creation, water quality improvement, and shore protection. The landowner can install the bags themselves, and with the new living shoreline general permit in Virginia, these projects are easier than ever to afford and install. However, oyster shells are a limited resource that are needed for largescale oyster reef restoration with the Chesapeake Bay watershed, so determining the effectiveness of this shore protection strategy ...