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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

From Pixels To Plants: Remote Sensing Of California Invasive Plants, Kenneth Rangel May 2024

From Pixels To Plants: Remote Sensing Of California Invasive Plants, Kenneth Rangel

Master's Projects and Capstones

Invasive plants cause significant impacts to ecosystems, the economy, and human health. California has experienced significant plant invasions and is well suited to future invasion because of its Mediterranean climate and human disturbance. Eradication or control of invasive plant species requires a detailed understanding of their spatial distribution, which typically involves on the ground surveys that can be expensive or inconsistent. Remote sensing offers a potential alternative or supplement to in-person invasive plant mapping. This study performed a comparative analysis of 41 remote sensing studies that mapped the distribution of California invasive plants. I found that while high spectral resolution …


Tracking Food Quality In Algae-Daphnia Ecosystems Through Stage Structured Models And Colimitation, Tomas Ascoli May 2024

Tracking Food Quality In Algae-Daphnia Ecosystems Through Stage Structured Models And Colimitation, Tomas Ascoli

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Impacts Of Hematodinium Infection In A Seasonal Population Model Of The Chesapeake Bay Blue Crab, Gwendolyn R. Sargent, Romuald Lipcius, Leah Shaw, Junping Shi, Jeffrey D. Shields May 2024

Impacts Of Hematodinium Infection In A Seasonal Population Model Of The Chesapeake Bay Blue Crab, Gwendolyn R. Sargent, Romuald Lipcius, Leah Shaw, Junping Shi, Jeffrey D. Shields

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Unraveling Gut Microbiota And Mucus Dynamics In Response To Polyethylene Glycol (Peg), Shaikh Obaidullah May 2024

Unraveling Gut Microbiota And Mucus Dynamics In Response To Polyethylene Glycol (Peg), Shaikh Obaidullah

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Modeling Overwash Processes And Sea Level Rise On Barrier Islands, Beth Thomas May 2024

Modeling Overwash Processes And Sea Level Rise On Barrier Islands, Beth Thomas

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Stage Structured Model For Oyster Restoration With Larval Transport, Sarah Brownstein May 2024

Stage Structured Model For Oyster Restoration With Larval Transport, Sarah Brownstein

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mathematically Modeling Stoichiometric Drivers Of Nitrogen Fixation, Rebecca Everett, Corday Selden, Mohamed Hatha Abdulla, Jabir Thajudeen, James Powell, Edwin Cruz-Rivera, Luca Schenone, Renn Schipper, Megan Berberich, Halvor Halvorson, Robinson Fulweiler, Amy Marcarelli, Thad Scott May 2024

Mathematically Modeling Stoichiometric Drivers Of Nitrogen Fixation, Rebecca Everett, Corday Selden, Mohamed Hatha Abdulla, Jabir Thajudeen, James Powell, Edwin Cruz-Rivera, Luca Schenone, Renn Schipper, Megan Berberich, Halvor Halvorson, Robinson Fulweiler, Amy Marcarelli, Thad Scott

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Clustering Using Self Organizing Maps In Biology, Olcay Akman May 2024

Clustering Using Self Organizing Maps In Biology, Olcay Akman

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Summer 2024 Research Proposal: Swanberg Sanctuary Prairie Plant Community Characterization And Management Testing, Jillian Becksfort Apr 2024

Summer 2024 Research Proposal: Swanberg Sanctuary Prairie Plant Community Characterization And Management Testing, Jillian Becksfort

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Prairie management is an involved process that is focused on maintaining existing grassland plant and animal communities. Invasive species and the spread of woody shrubs and trees presents a real threat to the existing prairie. Woody stems can affect resources such as water access and nutrient availability, which may cause changes to the prairie’s unique plant communities. Management techniques like burning and mowing are commonly used to prevent woody stems from causing changes to the prairie ecosystem. The Sanctuary was restored to natural prairie habitat in 2008 and a list of planted species is available. However, no plant surveys have …


Rescape: Transforming Coral-Reefscape Images For Quantitative Analysis, Zachary Ferris, Eraldo Ribeiro, Tomofumi Nagata, Robert Van Woesik Apr 2024

Rescape: Transforming Coral-Reefscape Images For Quantitative Analysis, Zachary Ferris, Eraldo Ribeiro, Tomofumi Nagata, Robert Van Woesik

Ocean Engineering and Marine Sciences Faculty Publications

Ever since the first image of a coral reef was captured in 1885, people worldwide have been accumulating images of coral reefscapes that document the historic conditions of reefs. However, these innumerable reefscape images suffer from perspective distortion, which reduces the apparent size of distant taxa, rendering the images unusable for quantitative analysis of reef conditions. Here we solve this century-long distortion problem by developing a novel computer-vision algorithm, ReScape, which removes the perspective distortion from reefscape images by transforming them into top-down views, making them usable for quantitative analysis of reef conditions. In doing so, we demonstrate the …


Evolution In Segregating Genotype Mixtures Of Subterranean Clover, P.G. H. Nichols, P S. Cocks Mar 2024

Evolution In Segregating Genotype Mixtures Of Subterranean Clover, P.G. H. Nichols, P S. Cocks

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

A complex segregating mixture of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.), was sown in 1978 at Nabawa and Mt Barker, two contrasting sites in Western Australia. Seed harvested from both sites from 1980-1994 was grown out at Shenton Park in 1995, along with seed of the original mixture. Populations diverged markedly for mean days to first flowering (DFF) within three seasons. No further trends in mean DFF occurred in plants derived from the next 14 years, although standard deviation declined significantly in plants from Mt Barker. Between season differences in mean DFF were correlated with estimated growing season length at …


Automated Tree Mortality Detection Using Ubiquitously Available Public Data, Michael T. Huggins Mar 2024

Automated Tree Mortality Detection Using Ubiquitously Available Public Data, Michael T. Huggins

Master's Theses

Understanding the dynamic interplay between fire severity, topography, and tree mortality, is crucial for predicting future forest dynamics and enhancing resilience against climate change-induced wildfire regimes. This thesis develops a multi-sensor approach for automated estimation of tree mortality, then applies it to examine trends in tree mortality over a six-year period across a fire affected study site in the Trinity River basin in Northern California. The Random Forest model uses publicly available USGS 3D Elevation Program Lidar (3DEP) and NAIP imagery as inputs and is likely to be easily adaptable to other landscapes. The model had a Receiver Operating Characteristic …


Literature Review Nature-Based Art Therapy Exploring Connections And Relationships, Janell Lopez-Curtis Jan 2024

Literature Review Nature-Based Art Therapy Exploring Connections And Relationships, Janell Lopez-Curtis

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Art therapy is a modality used in clinical psychotherapy. It is supported through both quantitative and qualitative research. Branching out from art therapy is nature-based art therapy. This branch of expressive therapies holds the potential to be beneficial as art therapy due to the interconnected access to the scientific fields of ecology, ecopsychology, art therapy, expressive therapies, and other nature-based therapeutic activities; this includes intersectionality in ecological theories such as ecofeminism and deep ecology as well. Through an exploration of literature, this paper will provide definitions and theory-based support through reviewing clinical psychotherapy, evidence-based practices, and art therapy theories. The …


Factors Associated With Acoustic Bat Presence During Spring Emergence In The Appalachian Mountains Of Western Virginia, Emily Kirk Pody Jan 2024

Factors Associated With Acoustic Bat Presence During Spring Emergence In The Appalachian Mountains Of Western Virginia, Emily Kirk Pody

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Studies of threats that bats face during hibernation have increased in response to white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease that has ravaged North American bat populations. However, impacts of WNS on bat ecology during spring emergence, when bats are potentially recovering from infection and allocating resources for reproduction, is relatively understudied. As more bat species become listed at the federal and state level, the need to understand the factors associated with spring emergence is critical for improving conservation guidelines and habitat management practices. Acoustic monitoring is an efficient method for monitoring bat presence for prolonged periods of time, giving biologists …


Catherine Nelson, Senior Art Exhibition Portfolio, Macrocosm, Catherine Nelson Jan 2024

Catherine Nelson, Senior Art Exhibition Portfolio, Macrocosm, Catherine Nelson

Senior Art Portfolios

This is artwork by Catherine Nelson, created for the Spring 2024 Senior Art Exhibition at St. Norbert College.


Addressing Water Hyacinth (Pontederia Crassipes) Impacts On Aquatic Biota In Lake Okeechobee, Joseph Salerno Dec 2023

Addressing Water Hyacinth (Pontederia Crassipes) Impacts On Aquatic Biota In Lake Okeechobee, Joseph Salerno

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

The incursion of water hyacinth, Pontederia crassipes in Lake Okeechobee has resulted in management systems to be implemented to reduce the coverage of the invasive macrophyte. Its residence in the Lake Okeechobee ecosystem and the effects it has on organisms in the lake, whether it be positive or harmful is unknown. This study attempted to assess the potential effects that water hyacinth has on aquatic biota in Lake Okeechobee. Biotic data were collected on open water, water hyacinth covered, and native vegetation covered habitats via hook-and-line fishing, electrofishing, baited minnow traps, and the sampling of plant roots over a thirteen-month …


Habitat Heterogeneity In Nebraska Streams And Distribution Prediction For Tier-1 Cyprinids Using Multi-Scale Modeling Of Fluvial And Landscape Features, Connor P. Hart Dec 2023

Habitat Heterogeneity In Nebraska Streams And Distribution Prediction For Tier-1 Cyprinids Using Multi-Scale Modeling Of Fluvial And Landscape Features, Connor P. Hart

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Multiscale environmental processes determine in-stream habitat conditions which drive species distributions. Habitat constitutes the physical template upon which ecological processes occur and species conduct life stage activities. Habitat heterogeneity promotes biodiversity of aquatic systems. Stream classification informs freshwater conservation by providing a useful framework to account for habitat heterogeneity, often based on landscape regions of similar environmental processes. A greater understanding of landscape-based classification frameworks as means to classify stream systems may improve understanding of drivers of biodiversity. Using Nebraska as a case study, on a statewide scale, objectives were 1) to characterize habitat availability for several at-risk fish species, …


Role Of The Grassland Society Of Bosnia And Herzegovina In Grassland Agriculture, S. Alibegovic-Gbic, M. Bezdrob Jul 2023

Role Of The Grassland Society Of Bosnia And Herzegovina In Grassland Agriculture, S. Alibegovic-Gbic, M. Bezdrob

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The biggest part of Bosnia and Herzegovina is covered with hilly and mountainous terrain, which, from the agricultural perspective, determines the manner of soil usage. Of all agricultural areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 55.49% are covered by grassland with that figure increasing to 79.14% in mountainous regions. Therefore, grassland agriculture and its cousin livestock production are the most significant part of the Bosnian economy. In the current situation natural grasslands are largely neglected and give a low yield of forage of low quality. Many areas are completely abandoned and have been gradually overgrown with weeds and bushes. Yet a special …


Exploration Of Differential Equation Models For Phage-Bacteria Population Dynamics, John Lawrence D. Palacios, Rebecca Segal May 2023

Exploration Of Differential Equation Models For Phage-Bacteria Population Dynamics, John Lawrence D. Palacios, Rebecca Segal

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Identifiability Analysis Applied To Rhizbium-Legume Symbiosis Model, Meghan Peltier May 2023

Identifiability Analysis Applied To Rhizbium-Legume Symbiosis Model, Meghan Peltier

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mathematics Of Population-Genetics Model For Assessing The Impacts Of Insecticide Resistance And Temperature On Population Abundance Of Malaria Mosquitoes, Jemal Mohammed-Awel May 2023

Mathematics Of Population-Genetics Model For Assessing The Impacts Of Insecticide Resistance And Temperature On Population Abundance Of Malaria Mosquitoes, Jemal Mohammed-Awel

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Exploring The Dynamics Of Bacterial Populations In The Gut Microbiota, Shaikh Obaidullah May 2023

Exploring The Dynamics Of Bacterial Populations In The Gut Microbiota, Shaikh Obaidullah

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Simulation And Latin Hypercube Sampling Of Mixed-Time Models In A Consumer-Resource Relationship, Boluwatife E. Awoyemi, Amanda N. Laubmeier, Richard L. Rebarber May 2023

Simulation And Latin Hypercube Sampling Of Mixed-Time Models In A Consumer-Resource Relationship, Boluwatife E. Awoyemi, Amanda N. Laubmeier, Richard L. Rebarber

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Connecting Social And Ecological Systems In Small-Scale Fisheries In The Philippines, Sara Eisler Marriott May 2023

Connecting Social And Ecological Systems In Small-Scale Fisheries In The Philippines, Sara Eisler Marriott

Dissertations

Nearly 50% of all marine fish capture in the Philippines is from artisanal fisheries, most of which is un- or under-reported. As in many emerging nations around the world, the Philippines cannot fully address overfishing by managing only half of the catch that comes from commercial fisheries. Marine reserves are a popular governance strategy for conservation and of growing interest for fisheries management. Many marine reserves in the Philippines, however, are not considered effective. In 2014, Rare, an international NGO, implemented a community-based management program to increase the effectiveness of the marine reserves, and while it found biomass increased, there …


Biodiversity In Eastern Kentucky: Effects Of Habitat Change, Surface Top Mining, And Current Reclamation Practices, Sydney Pardieu May 2023

Biodiversity In Eastern Kentucky: Effects Of Habitat Change, Surface Top Mining, And Current Reclamation Practices, Sydney Pardieu

Undergraduate Theses

Biodiversity is a key component in maintaining the valuable ecosystem services that are vital to the way humans interact with and rely on the environment. The Appalachian Region in Eastern North America is one of the most biodiverse temperate broadleaf forests in the world and is home to hundreds of endangered or endemic species. Despite the high biodiversity, the region is also heavily mined, particularly by mountain top removal, causing habitat change and pollution. Current reclamation practices for mined lands are lacking in effective reclamation criterion, and state statutes provide little or no attention to the preservation of biodiversity. Therefore, …


The Effects Of Habitat Isolation On Fine-Scale Genetic And Geographic Structure Of Populations Of Two Threatened Endemic Insects In Southern Nevada, Pseudocotalpa Giulianii And Icaricia Shasta Charlestonensis, Kristen Tovar May 2023

The Effects Of Habitat Isolation On Fine-Scale Genetic And Geographic Structure Of Populations Of Two Threatened Endemic Insects In Southern Nevada, Pseudocotalpa Giulianii And Icaricia Shasta Charlestonensis, Kristen Tovar

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Assessing the role geographic isolation and ecological specialization have on phylogeographic patterns contributes to our understanding of the evolutionary history of a species and the processes that erode genetic diversity. I used mitochondrial and nuclear genomic sequences to assess whether habitat isolation has shaped the fine-scale patterns of present-day genetic structure and diversity in two threatened insect species endemic to southern Nevada. Pseudocotalpa giulianii (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) is a dune obligate scarab beetle endemic to only two small, isolated sand dunes in Nye County, Nevada, with a usable habitat of less than 4.2 km sq that is impacted by on-going degradation. …


Lesson Plans In Astronomy, Ecology And Biology, Admin Stem For Success Apr 2023

Lesson Plans In Astronomy, Ecology And Biology, Admin Stem For Success

STEM for Success Showcase

This document contains various lesson plan ideas for concepts within the fields of biology, ecology, astronomy, and geology.


Relationship Between Tree Canopy Cover, Impervious Surfaces, & Bird Biodiversity In Urban Parks In Nashville, Tennessee​, Colin Swanson, Darlene Panvini, Lydia Mitchell Jan 2023

Relationship Between Tree Canopy Cover, Impervious Surfaces, & Bird Biodiversity In Urban Parks In Nashville, Tennessee​, Colin Swanson, Darlene Panvini, Lydia Mitchell

Science University Research Symposium (SURS)

Bird diversity is an indicator of the overall biodiversity in urban green spaces. Identifying factors associated with urban green spaces that strongly influence bird biodiversity can inform the development and management of urban green spaces. Parks with larger areas of impervious surfaces were predicted to have lower bird diversity than those with more tree canopy coverage. This study used iTree Canopy to determine the percentage of tree canopy and impermeable surfaces for four different areas of urban parks in Nashville, Tennessee. Two parks were closer to the urban core and two were farther away. Tree canopy and impermeable surface cover …


Utilizing Markov Chains To Estimate Allele Progression Through Generations, Ronit Gandhi Jan 2023

Utilizing Markov Chains To Estimate Allele Progression Through Generations, Ronit Gandhi

Honors Theses

All populations display patterns in allele frequencies over time. Some alleles cease to exist, while some grow to become the norm. These frequencies can shift or stay constant based on the conditions the population lives in. If in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the allele frequencies stay constant. Most populations, however, have bias from environmental factors, sexual preferences, other organisms, etc. We propose a stochastic Markov chain model to study allele progression across generations. In such a model, the allele frequencies in the next generation depend only on the frequencies in the current one.

We use this model to track a recessive allele …


Carbonate Chemistry And Carbon Sequestation Driven By Inorganic Carbon Outwelling From Mangroves And Saltmarshes, Gloria M. S. Reithmaier, Alex Cabral, Anirban Akhand, Matthew J. Bogard, Alberto V. Borges, Steven Bouillon, David J. Burdige, Mitchell Call, Nengwang Chen, Xiaogang Chen, Luiz C. Cotovicz Jr., Meagan J. Eagle, Erik Kristensen, Kevin D. Kroeger, Zeyang Lu, Damien T. Maher, J. Lucas Pérez-Lloréns, Raghab Ray, Pierre Taillardat, Joseph J. Tamborski, Rob C. Upstill-Goddard, Faming Wang, Zhaohui Aleck Wang, Kai Xiao, Yvonne Y.Y. Yau, Isaac R. Santos Jan 2023

Carbonate Chemistry And Carbon Sequestation Driven By Inorganic Carbon Outwelling From Mangroves And Saltmarshes, Gloria M. S. Reithmaier, Alex Cabral, Anirban Akhand, Matthew J. Bogard, Alberto V. Borges, Steven Bouillon, David J. Burdige, Mitchell Call, Nengwang Chen, Xiaogang Chen, Luiz C. Cotovicz Jr., Meagan J. Eagle, Erik Kristensen, Kevin D. Kroeger, Zeyang Lu, Damien T. Maher, J. Lucas Pérez-Lloréns, Raghab Ray, Pierre Taillardat, Joseph J. Tamborski, Rob C. Upstill-Goddard, Faming Wang, Zhaohui Aleck Wang, Kai Xiao, Yvonne Y.Y. Yau, Isaac R. Santos

OES Faculty Publications

Mangroves and saltmarshes are biogeochemical hotspots storing carbon in sediments and in the ocean following lateral carbon export (outwelling). Coastal seawater pH is modified by both uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and natural biogeochemical processes, e.g., wetland inputs. Here, we investigate how mangroves and saltmarshes influence coastal carbonate chemistry and quantify the contribution of alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) outwelling to blue carbon budgets. Observations from 45 mangroves and 16 saltmarshes worldwide revealed that >70% of intertidal wetlands export more DIC than alkalinity, potentially decreasing the pH of coastal waters. Porewater-derived DIC outwelling (81 ± 47 mmol m−2 …