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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Light Reductions Drive Macroinvertebrate Changes In Amphibolis Griffithii Seagrass Habitat., Adam Gartner, Paul S. Lavery, Kathryn Mcmahon, Anne Brearley, Helen Barwick Nov 2013

Light Reductions Drive Macroinvertebrate Changes In Amphibolis Griffithii Seagrass Habitat., Adam Gartner, Paul S. Lavery, Kathryn Mcmahon, Anne Brearley, Helen Barwick

Kathryn McMahon

Numerous anthropogenic activities can significantly reduce the amount of light reaching seagrass habitats. Typically these result in morphological and physiological changes to the plant and associated algal epiphytes. However, the flow-on effects to seagrass-dependent fauna induced by these disturbances has yet to be examined. This study investigated the effects of different light reduction intensity (high: ~92% reduction; moderate: ~84% reduction), duration (3, 6 and 9 mo) and timing (post-winter and post-summer) on the density and biomass of macroinvertebrate epifauna within an Amphibolis griffithii seagrass ecosystem (Western Australia). There were generally lower epifauna densities and biomass within shaded seagrass plots. When …


Long-Term Disturbance Histories Of Managed And Natural Mixed-Hardwood Forests Of Central Indiana, Robert Charles Morrissey Oct 2013

Long-Term Disturbance Histories Of Managed And Natural Mixed-Hardwood Forests Of Central Indiana, Robert Charles Morrissey

Open Access Dissertations

Over the course of the last century, we have observed changes in forest composition and structure related to changes in disturbance regimes. Reduced frequency and severity of disturbance events has allowed for the ingrowth of shade-tolerant, mesophytic species into forest understories; the result is shifting species compositions and changes in forest structure. In some cases, the loss of masting species, such as oak (Quercus spp.) and hickory (Carya spp.), may also accompany a shift in forest function and further accommodate other species shifts among mammal, insect, and bird populations. Management efforts have been suggested as a possible means …


Anticipating Stream Ecosystem Responses To Climate Change: Toward Predictions That Incorporate Effects Via Land–Water Linkages, J. M. Davis, C. V. Baxter, E. J. Rosi-Marshall, J. L. Pierce, B. T. Crosby Aug 2013

Anticipating Stream Ecosystem Responses To Climate Change: Toward Predictions That Incorporate Effects Via Land–Water Linkages, J. M. Davis, C. V. Baxter, E. J. Rosi-Marshall, J. L. Pierce, B. T. Crosby

Geosciences Faculty Publications and Presentations

Climate change (CC) is projected to increase the frequency and severity of natural disturbances (wildfires, insect outbreaks, and debris flows) and shift distributions of terrestrial ecosystems on a global basis. Although such terrestrial changes may affect stream ecosystems, they have not been incorporated into predictions of stream responses to CC. Here, we introduce a conceptual framework to evaluate to what extent responses of streams to CC will be driven by not only changes in thermal and hydrologic regimes, but also alterations of terrestrial processes. We focused on forested water-sheds of western North America because this region is projected to experience …


Recovery From Disturbance Requires Resynchronization Of Ecosystem Nutrient Cycles, Edward B. Rastetter, Ruth D. Yanai, R Quinn Thomas, Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur, Timothy J. Fahey, Melany C. Fisk, Bonnie L. Kwiatkowski, Steven P. Hamburg Apr 2013

Recovery From Disturbance Requires Resynchronization Of Ecosystem Nutrient Cycles, Edward B. Rastetter, Ruth D. Yanai, R Quinn Thomas, Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur, Timothy J. Fahey, Melany C. Fisk, Bonnie L. Kwiatkowski, Steven P. Hamburg

Earth Systems Research Center

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are tightly cycled in most terrestrial ecosystems, with plant uptake more than 10 times higher than the rate of supply from deposition and weathering. This near-total dependence on recycled nutrients and the stoichiometric constraints on resource use by plants and microbes mean that the two cycles have to be synchronized such that the ratio of N:P in plant uptake, litterfall, and net mineralization are nearly the same. Disturbance can disrupt this synchronization if there is a disproportionate loss of one nutrient relative to the other. We model the resynchronization of N and P cycles following …


Continuous, Pulsed And Disrupted Nutrient Subsidy Effects On Ecosystem Productivity, Stability, And Energy Flow, Michael J. Weber, Michael L. Brown Feb 2013

Continuous, Pulsed And Disrupted Nutrient Subsidy Effects On Ecosystem Productivity, Stability, And Energy Flow, Michael J. Weber, Michael L. Brown

Michael J Weber Dr

Resource pulses and subsidies can supply ecosystems with an important source of nutrients that supports additional productivity at multiple trophic levels. Common carp Cyprinus carpio provide ecosystems with a continuous nutrient subsidy through bioturbation and excretion but may also initiate a nutrient pulse through carcass decomposition. We examined how continuous (common carp foraging and excretion), pulsed (carcass decomposition) and disrupted (carp introduced and then removed) nutrient subsidies differed in their ability to alter nutrient availability, ecosystem productivity and stability and energy flow. Nitrogen and phosphorus availability and primary production were highest in pulsed, intermediate in continuous and lowest for disrupted …


Spatial And Temporal Patterns In Ungulate-Ecosystem Interactions, Bryan D. Murray Jan 2013

Spatial And Temporal Patterns In Ungulate-Ecosystem Interactions, Bryan D. Murray

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports - Open

Ungulates are important components of a variety of ecosystems worldwide. This dissertation integrates aspects of ungulate and forest ecology to increase our understanding of how they work together in ways that are of interest to natural resource managers, educators, and those who are simply curious about nature. Although animal ecology and ecosystem ecology are often studied separately, one of the general goals of this dissertation is to examine how they interact across spatial and temporal scales. Forest ecosystems are heterogeneous across a range of scales. Spatial and temporal habitat use patterns of forest ungulates tend to be congregated in patches …


Oligohaline Wetland Response And Recovery Following Storm-Driven Saltwater Intrusion In Coastal Louisiana, Whitney Marie Kiehn Jan 2013

Oligohaline Wetland Response And Recovery Following Storm-Driven Saltwater Intrusion In Coastal Louisiana, Whitney Marie Kiehn

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Coastal ecosystems occupy an interface between land and ocean, making them vulnerable to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Large, episodic disturbances (mega-disturbances) cause immediate and long-lasting changes to coastal wetland plant communities and soils by changing the environmental conditions in which they exist. Here I examined the impacts of storm-induced saltwater intrusion and post-intrusion conditions on the structure and growth of an oligohaline wetland plant community, and on wetland soil biogeochemistry and conditions during and after saltwater intrusion. In the greenhouse, a six-week saltwater intrusion reduced canopy cover and species richness. Once intrusion stress was alleviated, plant community …


An Algorithmic And Information-Theoretic Approach To Multimetric Index Construction, Donald R. Schoolmaster Jr., James B. Grace, E. William Schweiger, Glenn R. Guntenspergen, Brian R. Mitchell, Kathryn M. Miller, Amanda M. Little Jan 2013

An Algorithmic And Information-Theoretic Approach To Multimetric Index Construction, Donald R. Schoolmaster Jr., James B. Grace, E. William Schweiger, Glenn R. Guntenspergen, Brian R. Mitchell, Kathryn M. Miller, Amanda M. Little

United States Geological Survey: Staff Publications

The use of multimetric indices (MMIs), such as the widely used index of biological integrity (IBI), to measure, track, summarize and infer the overall impact of human disturbance on biological communities has been steadily growing in recent years. Initially, MMIs were developed for aquatic communities using preselected biological metrics as indicators of system integrity. As interest in these bioassessment tools has grown, so have the types of biological systems to which they are applied. For many ecosystem types the appropriate biological metrics to use as measures of biological integrity are not known a priori. As a result, a variety of …