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2020

Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 670

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Aging And Impacts Of Atmospheric Soot: Closing The Gap Between Experiments And Models, Ogochukwu Yvonne Enekwizu Dec 2020

The Aging And Impacts Of Atmospheric Soot: Closing The Gap Between Experiments And Models, Ogochukwu Yvonne Enekwizu

Dissertations

The main goal of this dissertation is to generate data and parameterizations to accurately represent soot aerosols in atmospheric models. Soot from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning is a major air pollutant and a significant contributor to climate warming. The environmental impacts of soot are strongly dependent on the particle morphology and mixing state, which evolve continuously during atmospheric transport via a process known as aging. To make predictions of soot impacts on the environment, most atmospheric models adopt simplifications of particle structure and mixing state, which lead to substantial uncertainties. Using an experimentally constrained modeling approach, …


A Multidisciplinary Approach To Investigate Deep-Pelagic Ecosystem Dynamics In The Gulf Of Mexico Following Deepwater Horizon, April Cook, Andrea Bernard, Kevin M. Boswell, Heather Bracken-Grissom Dr., Marta D'Elia, Sergio Derada, Cole Easson, David English, Ron Eytan, Tamara Frank, Chuanmin Hu, Matt Johnston, Heather Judkins, Chad Lembke, Jose Lopez, Rosanna Milligan, Jon A. Moore, Brad Penta, Nina Pruzinsky, John A. Quinlan, Travis M. Richards, Isabel C. Romero, Mahmood S. Shivji, Michael Vecchione, Max D. Weber, R.J. David Wells, Tracey Sutton Dec 2020

A Multidisciplinary Approach To Investigate Deep-Pelagic Ecosystem Dynamics In The Gulf Of Mexico Following Deepwater Horizon, April Cook, Andrea Bernard, Kevin M. Boswell, Heather Bracken-Grissom Dr., Marta D'Elia, Sergio Derada, Cole Easson, David English, Ron Eytan, Tamara Frank, Chuanmin Hu, Matt Johnston, Heather Judkins, Chad Lembke, Jose Lopez, Rosanna Milligan, Jon A. Moore, Brad Penta, Nina Pruzinsky, John A. Quinlan, Travis M. Richards, Isabel C. Romero, Mahmood S. Shivji, Michael Vecchione, Max D. Weber, R.J. David Wells, Tracey Sutton

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

The pelagic Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is a complex system of dynamic physical oceanography (western boundary current, mesoscale eddies), high biological diversity, and community integration via diel vertical migration and lateral advection. Humans also heavily utilize this system, including its deep-sea components, for resource extraction, shipping, tourism, and other commercial activity. This utilization has had impacts, some with disastrous consequences. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS) occurred at a depth of ∼1500 m (Macondo wellhead), creating a persistent and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons and dispersant in the deep-pelagic (water column below 200 m depth) habitat. In order to assess the …


Marine Geobiology Ocg 502, Joanna Burkhardt Dec 2020

Marine Geobiology Ocg 502, Joanna Burkhardt

Library Impact Statements

No abstract provided.


Global Ocean Change Ocg 511, Joanna Burkhardt Dec 2020

Global Ocean Change Ocg 511, Joanna Burkhardt

Library Impact Statements

No abstract provided.


Marine Geobiology Ocg 5xx, Joanna Burkhardt Dec 2020

Marine Geobiology Ocg 5xx, Joanna Burkhardt

Library Impact Statements

No abstract provided.


Modulation Of Late Pleistocene Enso Strength By The Tropical Pacific Thermocline, Gerald T. Rustic, Pratigya J. Polissar, Ana Christina Ravelo, Sarah M. White Dec 2020

Modulation Of Late Pleistocene Enso Strength By The Tropical Pacific Thermocline, Gerald T. Rustic, Pratigya J. Polissar, Ana Christina Ravelo, Sarah M. White

School of Earth & Environment Faculty Scholarship

The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is highly dependent on coupled atmosphere-ocean interactions and feedbacks, suggesting a tight relationship between ENSO strength and background climate conditions. However, the extent to which background climate state determines ENSO behavior remains in question. Here we present reconstructions of total variability and El Niño amplitude from individual foraminifera distributions at discrete time intervals over the past ~285,000 years across varying atmospheric CO2 levels, global ice volume and sea level, and orbital insolation forcing. Our results show a strong correlation between eastern tropical Pacific Ocean mixed-layer thickness and both El Niño amplitude and central Pacific …


Gravity Waves, Na Lidar, Yafang Guo, Alan Z. Liu Dec 2020

Gravity Waves, Na Lidar, Yafang Guo, Alan Z. Liu

Publications

Vertical energy transports due to dissipating gravity waves in the mesopause region (85–100 km) are analyzed using over 400 h of observational data obtained from a narrow-band sodium wind-temperature lidar located at Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO), Cerro Pachón (30.25°S, 70.73°W), Chile. Sensible heat flux is directly estimated using measured temperature and vertical wind; energy flux is estimated from the vertical wavenumber and frequency spectra of temperature perturbations; and enthalpy flux is derived based on its relationship with sensible heat and energy fluxes. Sensible heat flux is mostly downward throughout the region. Enthalpy flux exhibits an annual oscillation with maximum downward …


Global Ocean Change Ocg 5xx, Joanna Burkhardt Dec 2020

Global Ocean Change Ocg 5xx, Joanna Burkhardt

Library Impact Statements

No abstract provided.


Fostering Coastal Destination Resilience In Maine: Understanding Climate Change Risks And Behaviors, Lydia Horne Dec 2020

Fostering Coastal Destination Resilience In Maine: Understanding Climate Change Risks And Behaviors, Lydia Horne

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tourism is an increasingly important global industry. Coastal and nature-based tourism destinations are especially vulnerable to climate change. Trends in visitation are expected to shift under changing climate conditions, influencing tourist travel behaviors related to destination selection, timing of visits, and activity participation. Tourism suppliers’ adaptation and mitigation behaviors have the potential to alleviate negative shifts in visitation and respond to negative climate change impacts, while also enabling suppliers to take advantage of emerging opportunities. The purpose of this dissertation is to understand how tourism stakeholders, including tourism suppliers (i.e., business owners, managers) and consumers (i.e., visitors), perceive their risk …


Optical Signatures Of Plankton In The Open Ocean: From Individual Cells To Global Patterns, Nils Haentjens Dec 2020

Optical Signatures Of Plankton In The Open Ocean: From Individual Cells To Global Patterns, Nils Haentjens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Marine plankton ecosystems play a major role on Earth, having implications for the global carbon cycle and the food-web structures. Ocean color satellites and networks of autonomous platforms equipped with optical sensors are the primary tools used to study phytoplankton dynamics. They provide long term records while offering a synoptic view of our oceans, enabling to study impact of climate variability on planktonic ecosystems. Interpretation of these observations rely heavily on optical theory and how light propagating through the water is affected by particles who absorb and scatter light (e.g. phytoplankton, sediments). However, the complexity of the optical properties of …


Influence Of Some Climatic Elements On Radon Concentration In Saeva Dupka Cave, Bulgaria, Peter Nojarov, Petar Stefanov, Karel Turek Dec 2020

Influence Of Some Climatic Elements On Radon Concentration In Saeva Dupka Cave, Bulgaria, Peter Nojarov, Petar Stefanov, Karel Turek

International Journal of Speleology

This study reveals the influence of some climatic elements on radon concentration in Saeva Dupka Cave, Bulgaria. The research is based mainly on statistical methods. Radon concentration in the cave is determined by two main mechanisms. The first one is through penetration of radon from soil and rocks around the cave (present all year round, but has leading role during the warm half of the year). The second one is through thermodynamic exchange of air between inside of the cave and outside atmosphere (cold half of the year). Climatic factors that affect radon concentration in the cave are temperatures (air, …


Data In Support Of The Paper "Dependence Of Aerosol-Droplet Partitioning On Turbulence In A Laboratory Cloud", Abu Sayeed Md Shawon, Prasanth Prabhakaran, Gregory Kinney, Raymond Shaw, Will Cantrell Dec 2020

Data In Support Of The Paper "Dependence Of Aerosol-Droplet Partitioning On Turbulence In A Laboratory Cloud", Abu Sayeed Md Shawon, Prasanth Prabhakaran, Gregory Kinney, Raymond Shaw, Will Cantrell

Michigan Tech Research Data

No abstract provided.


Species Distribution Modeling For Arid Adapted Habitat Specialists In Zion National Park, Sam Driver, Daniel R. Unger, David L. Kulhavy, Chris M. Schalk Dec 2020

Species Distribution Modeling For Arid Adapted Habitat Specialists In Zion National Park, Sam Driver, Daniel R. Unger, David L. Kulhavy, Chris M. Schalk

Student Publications

The Arizona toad (Anaxyrus microscaphus) and Jones’ waxy dogbane (Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii) are habitat specialists with historical ranges in the desert southwest and specifically, Zion National Park (ZION). The machine learning method, MaxEnt, constructed species distribution models (SDMs) in ZION for the two study species at 30 m and 900 m spatial resolutions using climate, topographic, and remotely sensed data. Additionally, 900 m forecasting models were constructed to observe the shifts in suitable habitat for the years 2050 and 2070, based off two representative concentration pathway scenarios. Results indicate promising predictive power for both high …


Response Of Deep Aquifers To Climate Variability, Karem Fathy Abdelgaber Abdelmohsen Dec 2020

Response Of Deep Aquifers To Climate Variability, Karem Fathy Abdelgaber Abdelmohsen

Dissertations

Our recent analysis of Temporal Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) solutions over the largest aquifer system in Africa (the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System: NSAS) revealed that while the response of deep aquifers to climatic variations remains a relatively slow process that takes thousands to tens of thousands of years, there is a much faster response in aquifers that are characterized by dense networks of faults, fractures and karst as is the case with the NSAS. This rapid groundwater flow, when it occurs, is detected as an increase in GRACETWS over areas downgradient and distant (hundreds of km) from …


Destabilizing Effects On A Classic Tri-Trophic Oyster Reef Cascade, Virginia R. Schweiss, Chet F. Rakocinski Dec 2020

Destabilizing Effects On A Classic Tri-Trophic Oyster Reef Cascade, Virginia R. Schweiss, Chet F. Rakocinski

Faculty Publications

How interactions among multiple predators affect the stability of trophic cascades is a topic of special ecological interest. To examine factors affecting the stability of the classic tri-trophic oyster reef cascade within a different context, configurations of three predators, including the Gulf toadfish, Gulf stone crab, and oystershell mud crab, were manipulated together with either oyster shell or limestone gravel substrate within a multiple predator effects (MPE) experiment. Additionally, a complimentary set of trait-mediated-indirect interaction (TMII) experiments examined the inhibition of oyster consumption relative to mud-crab size and top predator identity in the absence of other cues and factors. The …


Carbon Fixation Trends In Eleven Of The World’S Largest Lakes: 2003–2018, Michael Sayers, Karl Bosse, Gary L. Fahnenstiel, Robert Shuchman Dec 2020

Carbon Fixation Trends In Eleven Of The World’S Largest Lakes: 2003–2018, Michael Sayers, Karl Bosse, Gary L. Fahnenstiel, Robert Shuchman

Michigan Tech Publications

Large freshwater lakes provide immense value to the surrounding populations, yet there is limited understanding of how these lakes will respond to climate change and other factors. This study uses satellite remote sensing to estimate annual, lake-wide primary production in 11 of the world’s largest lakes from 2003–2018. These lakes include the five Laurentian Great Lakes, the three African Great Lakes, Lake Baikal, and Great Bear and Great Slave Lakes. Mean annual production in these lakes ranged from under 200 mgC/m2/day to over 1100 mgC/m2/day, and the lakes were placed into one of three distinct groups …


Data Generated During The 2018 Lapse-Rate Campaign: An Introduction And Overview, Gijs De Boer, Adam Houston, Jamey D. Jacob, Phillip B. Chilson, Suzanne W. Smith, Brian Argrow, Dale Lawrence, Jack Elston, David Brus, Osku Kemppinen, Petra Klein, Julie K. Lundquist, Sean Waugh, Sean C. C. Bailey, Amy E. Frazier, Michael P. Sama, Christopher Crick, David G. Schmale Iii, James Pinto, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Victoria Natalie, Anders Jensen Dec 2020

Data Generated During The 2018 Lapse-Rate Campaign: An Introduction And Overview, Gijs De Boer, Adam Houston, Jamey D. Jacob, Phillip B. Chilson, Suzanne W. Smith, Brian Argrow, Dale Lawrence, Jack Elston, David Brus, Osku Kemppinen, Petra Klein, Julie K. Lundquist, Sean Waugh, Sean C. C. Bailey, Amy E. Frazier, Michael P. Sama, Christopher Crick, David G. Schmale Iii, James Pinto, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Victoria Natalie, Anders Jensen

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) offer innovative capabilities for providing new perspectives on the atmosphere, and therefore atmospheric scientists are rapidly expanding their use, particularly for studying the planetary boundary layer. In support of this expansion, from 14 to 20 July 2018 the International Society for Atmospheric Research using Remotely piloted Aircraft (ISARRA) hosted a community flight week, dubbed the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE; de Boer et al., 2020a). This field campaign spanned a 1-week deployment to Colorado's San Luis Valley, involving over 100 students, scientists, engineers, pilots, and outreach coordinators. These …


Large Global Variations In Measured Airborne Metal Concentrations Driven By Anthropogenic Sources, Jacob Mcneill, Randal V. Martin, Nofel Lagrosas, 35 Co-Authors Dec 2020

Large Global Variations In Measured Airborne Metal Concentrations Driven By Anthropogenic Sources, Jacob Mcneill, Randal V. Martin, Nofel Lagrosas, 35 Co-Authors

SOSE Affiliate: Manila Observatory

Globally consistent measurements of airborne metal concentrations in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are important for understanding potential health impacts, prioritizing air pollution mitigation strategies, and enabling global chemical transport model development. PM2.5 filter samples (N ~ 800 from 19 locations) collected from a globally distributed surface particulate matter sampling network (SPARTAN) between January 2013 and April 2019 were analyzed for particulate mass and trace metals content. Metal concentrations exhibited pronounced spatial variation, primarily driven by anthropogenic activities. PM2.5 levels of lead, arsenic, chromium, and zinc were significantly enriched at some locations by factors of 100–3000 compared …


Early Life History Of Tarpon (Megalops Atlanticus) In South Carolina Estuaries: Assessment Of Juvenile Recruitment And Validity Of Aging And Back-Calculation Methods, Garrett M. Elmo Dec 2020

Early Life History Of Tarpon (Megalops Atlanticus) In South Carolina Estuaries: Assessment Of Juvenile Recruitment And Validity Of Aging And Back-Calculation Methods, Garrett M. Elmo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Building An Improved Drought Climatology Using Updated Drought Tools: A New Mexico Food-Energy-Water (Few) Systems Focus, Lindsay E. Johnson, Hatim M.E. Geli, Michael J. Hayes, Kelly Helm Smith Dec 2020

Building An Improved Drought Climatology Using Updated Drought Tools: A New Mexico Food-Energy-Water (Few) Systems Focus, Lindsay E. Johnson, Hatim M.E. Geli, Michael J. Hayes, Kelly Helm Smith

Drought Mitigation Center Faculty Publications

Drought is a familiar climatic phenomenon in the United States Southwest, with complex human-environment interactions that extend beyond just the physical drought events. Due to continued climate variability and change, droughts are expected to become more frequent and/or severe in the future. Decision-makers are charged with mitigating and adapting to these more extreme conditions and to do that they need to understand the specific impacts drought has on regional and local scales, and how these impacts compare to historical conditions. Tremendous progress in drought monitoring strategies has occurred over the past several decades, with more tools providing greater spatial and …


Parametric Model Development For Heterogeneous Atmospheric Conditions, Daniel Paul Greenway Dec 2020

Parametric Model Development For Heterogeneous Atmospheric Conditions, Daniel Paul Greenway

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Weather And Climate Summary And Forecast: December 2020 Report, Gregory V. Jones Dec 2020

Weather And Climate Summary And Forecast: December 2020 Report, Gregory V. Jones

Linfield University Wine Studies Reports

This report provides a summary of the weather and climate forecast for December 2020. It includes forecast information specific to the Pacific Northwest and the western United States, as well as forecast information for other portions of the United States and abroad.


Cost-Effective Gnss Hardware For High-Accuracy Surveys And Its Prospects For Post-Processed Kinematic (Ppk) And Precise Point Positioning (Ppp) Strategies, Johnson Olusegun Oguntuase Dec 2020

Cost-Effective Gnss Hardware For High-Accuracy Surveys And Its Prospects For Post-Processed Kinematic (Ppk) And Precise Point Positioning (Ppp) Strategies, Johnson Olusegun Oguntuase

Dissertations

This dissertation determines for the first time the vertical accuracy achievable with low-cost mass-market multi-frequency, multi-GNSS (LM3GNSS) receivers, and antennas in the context of Ellipsoid Reference Survey (ERS), usually employed in bathymetric operations aboard survey platforms. LM3GNSS receivers are relatively new in the market, and their emergence is driven by the automobile industry and several mass-market applications requiring location-based solutions at high accuracies. It is foreseeable that emerging hydrographic survey platforms such as autonomous surface vehicles, small unmanned aircraft, crowd-sourced bathymetric platforms, and offshore GNSS buoy will find LM3GNSS receivers attractive since they are power- and cost-effective (often less than …


Neogene And Quaternary Events Shaped Diversification And Speciation In Bhutanese Rheophilic Fishes Of The Family Nemacheilidae (Cypriniformes) And Sisoridae (Siluriformes), Karma Wangchuk Dec 2020

Neogene And Quaternary Events Shaped Diversification And Speciation In Bhutanese Rheophilic Fishes Of The Family Nemacheilidae (Cypriniformes) And Sisoridae (Siluriformes), Karma Wangchuk

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Biogeography of the Himalayan region [to include the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP)] evolved over a ~30M year span, catalyzed by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. The resulting uplift produced major ecological and climatic effects, that in turn drove the diversification of biodiversity. As a result, the QTP is designated as a global biodiversity hotspot particularly vulnerable to cumulative climatic effects, including shrinking distributions, declining numbers, and local extinctions. Understanding how the biodiversity within the Himalaya/ QTP was established and maintained is a necessary first step in prioritizing conservation efforts.

Fishes in global montane regions, such as the Himalaya, …


Evaluation Of Daily Precipitation From The Era5 Global Reanalysis Against Ghcn Observations In The Northeastern United States, Caitlin C. Crossett, Alan K. Betts, Lesley Ann L. Dupigny-Giroux, Arne Bomblies Dec 2020

Evaluation Of Daily Precipitation From The Era5 Global Reanalysis Against Ghcn Observations In The Northeastern United States, Caitlin C. Crossett, Alan K. Betts, Lesley Ann L. Dupigny-Giroux, Arne Bomblies

College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences Faculty Publications

Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Precipitation is a primary input for hydrologic, agricultural, and engineering models, so making accurate estimates of it across the landscape is critically important. While the distribution of in-situ measurements of precipitation can lead to challenges in spatial interpolation, gridded precipitation information is designed to produce a full coverage product. In this study, we compare daily precipitation accumulations from the ERA5 Global Reanalysis (hereafter ERA5) and the US Global Historical Climate Network (hereafter GHCN) across the northeastern United States. We find that both the distance from the Atlantic Coast and elevation difference between ERA5 estimates and GHCN …


Protection Gaps And Restoration Opportunities For Primary Forests In Europe, Francesco M. Sabatini, William S. Keeton, Marcus Lindner, Miroslav Svoboda, Pieter J. Verkerk, Jürgen Bauhus, Helge Bruelheide, Sabina Burrascano, Nicolas Debaive, Inês Duarte, Matteo Garbarino, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Fabio Lombardi, Martin Mikoláš, Peter Meyer, Renzo Motta, Gintautas Mozgeris, Leónia Nunes, Péter Ódor, Momchil Panayotov, Alejandro Ruete, Bojan Simovski, Jonas Stillhard, Johan Svensson, Jerzy Szwagrzyk, Olli Pekka Tikkanen, Kris Vandekerkhove, Roman Volosyanchuk, Tomas Vrska, Tzvetan Zlatanov, Tobias Kuemmerle Dec 2020

Protection Gaps And Restoration Opportunities For Primary Forests In Europe, Francesco M. Sabatini, William S. Keeton, Marcus Lindner, Miroslav Svoboda, Pieter J. Verkerk, Jürgen Bauhus, Helge Bruelheide, Sabina Burrascano, Nicolas Debaive, Inês Duarte, Matteo Garbarino, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Fabio Lombardi, Martin Mikoláš, Peter Meyer, Renzo Motta, Gintautas Mozgeris, Leónia Nunes, Péter Ódor, Momchil Panayotov, Alejandro Ruete, Bojan Simovski, Jonas Stillhard, Johan Svensson, Jerzy Szwagrzyk, Olli Pekka Tikkanen, Kris Vandekerkhove, Roman Volosyanchuk, Tomas Vrska, Tzvetan Zlatanov, Tobias Kuemmerle

Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

Aims: Primary forests are critical for forest biodiversity and provide key ecosystem services. In Europe, these forests are particularly scarce and it is unclear whether they are sufficiently protected. Here we aim to: (a) understand whether extant primary forests are representative of the range of naturally occurring forest types, (b) identify forest types which host enough primary forest under strict protection to meet conservation targets and (c) highlight areas where restoration is needed and feasible. Location: Europe. Methods: We combined a unique geodatabase of primary forests with maps of forest cover, potential natural vegetation, biogeographic regions and protected areas to …


Projecting Water Available For Irrigation Use And Identifying Water Supply Stress Under Climate Change Scenarios In Selected U.S. Fruit And Vegetable Production Regions, Andrew Shaw Dec 2020

Projecting Water Available For Irrigation Use And Identifying Water Supply Stress Under Climate Change Scenarios In Selected U.S. Fruit And Vegetable Production Regions, Andrew Shaw

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate change affects water resources differently across geospatial regions in the United States (U.S). There is a concern of how water availability will be affected by changes in long-term temperature and precipitation patterns, specifically in major production regions for eight fruit and vegetable crops. The effects on surface water available for irrigation use and supply stress in five regions containing 31 Agricultural Statistics Districts (ASDs) were assessed. The Water Supply Stress Index Model was used and modified to project water available for irrigation use across nine climate scenarios driven by historical data, five General Circulation Models, two population scenarios, and …


Climate Change Games As Boundary Objects: Fostering Dialogic Communication Within Stakeholder Engagement, Megan L. Mckittrick Dec 2020

Climate Change Games As Boundary Objects: Fostering Dialogic Communication Within Stakeholder Engagement, Megan L. Mckittrick

English Theses & Dissertations

Rising waters and the increasing devastation of flood events make coastal resilience a significant issue in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia, particularly in the city of Norfolk. Enhancing resilience requires ongoing stakeholder engagement designed to invite dialogue while encouraging cross-jurisdictional collaboration and comprehensive problem-solving. Climate change games have been employed to support these endeavors. This dissertation provides a response to the following research questions: 1) What is the origin of the climate change game genre? 2) Why are key stakeholders in coastal resilience using climate change games? And 3) how do these games operate for these key stakeholders? To …


Assessing The Recalibration Interval For Nearshore Sediment Assemblages After Hurricane Irma: Implications For Developing Long-Term Records Of Overwash Deposits, Stephen Mitchell Dec 2020

Assessing The Recalibration Interval For Nearshore Sediment Assemblages After Hurricane Irma: Implications For Developing Long-Term Records Of Overwash Deposits, Stephen Mitchell

Master's Theses

Surface distributions are commonly collected to assist with overwash interpretation; however, many of these are first established immediately after a major overwash event as part of a post-event field survey. This study documents the impacts of Hurricane Irma, a Category 5 storm, on nearshore sediments off the coast of Anegada (British Virgin Islands) using distributions of Homotrema rubra, an encrusting foraminifer with a defined provenance in coral reef ecosystems. Over four sampling intervals spanning 2 years, from six months pre-Hurricane Irma to 18 months post-Hurricane Irma, surface sediment was collected from three shore-perpendicular transects on both the northern and …


Impacts Of Environmental Conditions On Fleas In Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Burrows, Julia E. Poje, Tonie Rocke, Michael D. Samuel Dec 2020

Impacts Of Environmental Conditions On Fleas In Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Burrows, Julia E. Poje, Tonie Rocke, Michael D. Samuel

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis and transmitted by fleas, occurs in prairie dogs of the western United States. Outbreaks can devastate prairie dog communities, often causing nearly 100% mortality. Three competent flea vectors, prairie dog specialists Oropsylla hirsuta and O. tuberculata, and generalist Pulex simulans, are found on prairie dogs and in their burrows. Fleas are affected by climate, which varies across the range of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), but these effects may be ameliorated somewhat due to the burrowing habits of prairie dogs. Our goal was to assess how temperature and precipitation …