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2007

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Interagency Science And Research: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2007

Interagency Science And Research: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees

Interagency Science and Research Strategy

  • Meetings were held with the SNAP Recreation Team and the SNAP Cultural Resources Team to request assistance in the development of the science strategy. Draft versions of interagency goals, subgoals, science questions, and associated tasks were given to each team for review and input.
  • Plans were prepared for the peer review of science proposals submitted for consideration as Conservations Initiatives in SNPLMA Round 9.
  • Proceedings of the natural resources management workshop held on September 13 were completed and sent to the Science & Research Team for review by members.
  • An important focus of the Science and Research Team was the development ...


Limnological Assistance For The Lake Mead National Recreation Area In Meeting The Challenge Of The Water 2025 Initiative: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending: December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2007

Limnological Assistance For The Lake Mead National Recreation Area In Meeting The Challenge Of The Water 2025 Initiative: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending: December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees

Limnological Studies

  • The limnologist position has been announced.
  • Project 1: Review of the draft Boulder Basin Adaptive Management Plan is underway.
  • Project 2: Development of a white paper expressing the joint needs of the entities involved in Water 2025 projects is being coordinated.
  • Project 3: A bibliographic reference spreadsheet organizing literature citations related to quagga and zebra mussel research has been completed.
  • Project 4: A comprehensive literature search of Lake Mead limnology is well underway; an Access database has been designed to organize reference citations; and a special collections library at UNLV is being established to house original rare documents and other ...


Lake Mead National Recreation Area Sensitive Wildlife Species Monitoring And Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2007

Lake Mead National Recreation Area Sensitive Wildlife Species Monitoring And Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees

Wildlife Monitoring

Project 1. Relict Leopard Frog Monitoring, Management, and Research

  • Fall surveys completed at all natural and translocation sites.
  • Coordination for a potential translocation site on BLM lands in the Gold Butte area ongoing – the aim is that this site will be ready for translocations in 2008.
  • Coordination ongoing for evaluation of a translocation site on BLM lands in the Black Mountains, AZ – the plan is to complete compliance in 2008.
  • Coordination and assistance provided to UNLV research efforts on habitat improvements at Blue Point, Rogers, and Pupfish Refuge springs.
  • Relict Leopard Frog Conservation Team meeting held in December.
  • Draft annual ...


Lake Mead National Recreation Area Vegetation Monitoring And Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, October 1, 2007 To December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2007

Lake Mead National Recreation Area Vegetation Monitoring And Analysis: Quarterly Progress Report, October 1, 2007 To December 31, 2007, Margaret N. Rees

Vegetation Monitoring

Executive Summary

  • The Weed Sentry program surveyed more than 750 miles of federal lands in Clark County for invasive, exotic plant species.
  • Weed Sentry also removed more than 600,000 individual invasive plants from federal
    lands. These removals represent pro-active efforts that may have forestalled large
    infestations difficult and costly to eradicate.
  • In response to a request by the manager of the Fish and Wildlife Service Desert National
    Wildlife Refuge, a major effort of surveying springs for plant community composition
    and invasive plants provided unique knowledge services by the Weed Sentry program.
    No such baseline information existed for the Sheep ...


Preparation Of Divalent And Trivalent Antigens For Immunogical Studies On Degranulation Of Mast Cells And Preparation Of Ceragenins For Antiviral Studies Against Vaccinia Virus., Dianliang Geng Dec 2007

Preparation Of Divalent And Trivalent Antigens For Immunogical Studies On Degranulation Of Mast Cells And Preparation Of Ceragenins For Antiviral Studies Against Vaccinia Virus., Dianliang Geng

Theses and Dissertations

CHAPTER 1

Aggregation of receptors for IgE (Fc RI) causes mast cells and basophils to release preformed contents of granules, including histamine and a variety of enzymes. This process, called degranulation plays a central role in allergic reactions. Methods to study this process are to create multivalent ligands which can interact with the receptors and, in turn, lead to aggregation of the receptors. We prepared a series of fluorophore-labeled divalent and trivalent antigens to study the degranulation of mast cells. Trivalent antigens proved to be much better stimulators for degranulation of mast cells than divalent antigens. These results indicate that ...


Pyridinium Bisretinoids: Synthesis And Photoactivated Cytotoxicity, Junping Gao Dec 2007

Pyridinium Bisretinoids: Synthesis And Photoactivated Cytotoxicity, Junping Gao

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis discusses pyridinium bisretinoid compounds (PBRs), which were prepared for two purposes: 1) to use them as standards for detection of novel fluorophores in human RPE cells, which may be involved in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and 2) to use them in the development of a targeted and triggered drug delivery system for cancer therapy. We prepared a selection of PBRs using a one-pot biomimetic method; synthesis, mechanisms for formation, and characterization of these compounds is described. We also explored the photoreactivity of three novel PBR compounds and found that these PBRs form oxidation products under blue-light irradiation. The ...


Study Of The Reproducibility Of Proteomics Methods And Variability Of Fruit Fly Proteomes., Thomas Franklin Culwell Dec 2007

Study Of The Reproducibility Of Proteomics Methods And Variability Of Fruit Fly Proteomes., Thomas Franklin Culwell

Theses and Dissertations

The reliability of biomarker discovery by means of proteomics has been called into question. It was speculated that "background noise" variation resulting from differences in preparation and handling of samples and proteome dynamics may mask subtle, yet important, differences due to the biological condition. Little is understood about complex proteomes and their variability. A critical aspect of proteomic biomarker research that is largely unexplored is the comparative reproducibility of certain methods such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. In particular, with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, it is not known whether variability in peptide quantitation is dependent on ...


Pyridinium Bis-Retinoids A2-Dopamine And A2-Cadaverine: Implications In Age-Related Macular Degeneration And Cancer, Mckenzie Ruth Pew Dec 2007

Pyridinium Bis-Retinoids A2-Dopamine And A2-Cadaverine: Implications In Age-Related Macular Degeneration And Cancer, Mckenzie Ruth Pew

Theses and Dissertations

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the United States of America. The pyridinium bis-retinoid A2-ethanolamine (A2E) has been implicated to play a role in AMD. We have observed novel pyridinium bis-retinoids through melanolipofuscin and human RPE extractions that may also play a role in the pathology of AMD. We have begun the construction of an amino-retinoid library in order to identify these ocular compounds. The compounds from the amino-retinoid library are also used in a targeted and triggered drug delivery system for treating cancer. Folic acid is coupled with the amino-retinoids to specifically target cancer ...


U.S.-Korea Cooperative Research: Carbon Monoxide As A Substrate For Microbial Maintenance, Gary M. King Dec 2007

U.S.-Korea Cooperative Research: Carbon Monoxide As A Substrate For Microbial Maintenance, Gary M. King

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

Bacteria play an important role in the global budget of carbon monoxide (CO). Largely unknown bacterial populations in soils and the water column of aquatic systems oxidize hundreds of teragrams per year, or about 10%-20% of the estimated annual flux to the atmosphere. In spite of their biogeochemical significance, relatively little is known about the identity of CO-oxidizing populations active in situ, their phylogenic and physiological diversity or the importance of CO as substrate for their basic metabolic needs. of CO oxidizers. It is clear that CO at high concentrations (> 1000 ppm) can serve as a sole source of ...


Prevention Of Staphylococcus Epidermidis Biofilm Formation Using A Low-Temperature Processed Silver-Doped Phenyltriethoxysilane Sol–Gel Coating, Niall Stobie, Brendan Duffy, Declan Mccormack, John Colreavy, Martha Hidalgo, Patrick Mchale, Steven Hinder Dec 2007

Prevention Of Staphylococcus Epidermidis Biofilm Formation Using A Low-Temperature Processed Silver-Doped Phenyltriethoxysilane Sol–Gel Coating, Niall Stobie, Brendan Duffy, Declan Mccormack, John Colreavy, Martha Hidalgo, Patrick Mchale, Steven Hinder

Articles

Sol–gel coatings which elute bioactive silver ions are presented as a potential solution to the problem of biofilm formation on indwelling surfaces. There is evidence that high-temperature processing of such materials can lead to diffusion of silver away from the coating surface, reducing the amount of available silver. In this study, we report the biofilm inhibition of a Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm using a low-temperature processed silver-doped phenyltriethoxysilane sol–gel coating. The incorporation of a silver salt into a sol–gel matrix resulted in an initial high release of silver in de-ionised water and physiological buffered saline (PBS), followed by ...


Effects Of Water Vapor On The Kinetics Of The Methylperoxy Radical Self-Reaction And Reaction With Hydroperoxy, Alecia Mower Dec 2007

Effects Of Water Vapor On The Kinetics Of The Methylperoxy Radical Self-Reaction And Reaction With Hydroperoxy, Alecia Mower

Theses and Dissertations

The gas phase reactions of CH3O2 + CH3O2, HO2 + HO2, and CH3O2 + HO2 in the presence of water vapor have been studied at temperatures between 263 and 303 K using laser flash photolysis coupled with UV time-resolved absorption detection at 220 nm and 260 nm. Water vapor concentration was quantified using tunable diode laser spectroscopy operating in the mid-IR. The HO2 self-reaction rate constant is significantly enhanced by water vapor, consistent with what others have reported, whereas CH3O2 self-reaction and the cross-reaction (CH3O2 + HO2) rate constants are nearly unaffected. The enhancement in the HO2 self-reaction rate coefficient occurs because of the ...


Statistical Issues In Proteomic Research, Jeffrey S. Morris Dec 2007

Statistical Issues In Proteomic Research, Jeffrey S. Morris

Jeffrey S. Morris

No abstract provided.


Role Of Group A Streptococcus Htra In The Maturation Of Speb Protease, J. N. Cole, J. A. Aquilina, P. G. Hains, A. Henningham, K. S. Sriprakash, M. G. Caparon, V. Nizet, M. Kotb, S. J. Cordwell, S. P. Djordjevic, Mark J. Walker Dec 2007

Role Of Group A Streptococcus Htra In The Maturation Of Speb Protease, J. N. Cole, J. A. Aquilina, P. G. Hains, A. Henningham, K. S. Sriprakash, M. G. Caparon, V. Nizet, M. Kotb, S. J. Cordwell, S. P. Djordjevic, Mark J. Walker

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

The serine protease HtrA (DegP) of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) is localized to the ExPortal secretory microdomain and is reportedly essential for the maturation of cysteine protease SpeB. Here we utilize HSC5 (M5 serotype) and the in-frame isogenic mutant HSC5ΔhtrA to determine whether HtrA contributes to the maturation of other GAS virulence determinants. Mutanolysin cell wall extracts and secreted proteins were arrayed by 2-DE and identified by MALDI-TOF PMF analysis. HSC5ΔhtrA had elevated levels of cell wall-associated M protein, whilst the supernatant had higher concentrations of M protein fragments and a reduced amount of mature ...


Changing Cultures Of Water In Eastern Australian Backyard Gardens, Lesley M. Head, Pat Muir Dec 2007

Changing Cultures Of Water In Eastern Australian Backyard Gardens, Lesley M. Head, Pat Muir

Faculty of Science - Papers (Archive)

Research into diverse cultural understandings of water provides important contributions to the pressing global issue of sustainable supply, particularly when combined with analysis of relationships between everyday household practice and larger sociotechnical networks of storage and distribution. Here we analyse semi-structured interviews with 298 people about their 241 backyards in the Australian east coast cities of Sydney and Wollongong, undertaken during the 2002-03 drought. Water emerged as an important issue in both consciousness and practice. In contrast to a number of other environmental issues which stimulate more polarised responses, a commitment to reducing water consumption was shared across the study ...


Video On The Semantic Sensor Web, Cory Andrew Henson, Amit P. Sheth, Prateek Jain, Josh Pschorr, Terry Rapoch Dec 2007

Video On The Semantic Sensor Web, Cory Andrew Henson, Amit P. Sheth, Prateek Jain, Josh Pschorr, Terry Rapoch

Kno.e.sis Publications

Millions of sensors around the globe currently collect avalanches of data about our world. The rapid development and deployment of sensor technology is intensifying the existing problem of too much data and not enough knowledge. With a view to alleviating this glut, we propose that sensor data, especially video sensor data, can be annotated with semantic metadata to provide contextual information about videos on the Web. In particular, we present an approach to annotating video sensor data with spatial, temporal, and thematic semantic metadata. This technique builds on current standardization efforts within the W3C and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ...


A General Boosting Method And Its Application To Learning Ranking Functions For Web Search, Zhaohui Zheng, Hongyuan Zha, Tong Zhang, Olivier Chapelle, Keke Chen, Gordon Sun Dec 2007

A General Boosting Method And Its Application To Learning Ranking Functions For Web Search, Zhaohui Zheng, Hongyuan Zha, Tong Zhang, Olivier Chapelle, Keke Chen, Gordon Sun

Kno.e.sis Publications

We present a general boosting method extending functional gradient boosting to optimize complex loss functions that are encountered in many machine learning problems. Our approach is based on optimization of quadratic upper bounds of the loss functions which allows us to present a rigorous convergence analysis of the algorithm. More importantly, this general framework enables us to use a standard regression base learner such as decision trees for fitting any loss function. We illustrate an application of the proposed method in learning ranking functions for Web search by combining both preference data and labeled data for training. We present experimental ...


Semantic Web For Health Care And Biomedical Informatics, Amit P. Sheth Dec 2007

Semantic Web For Health Care And Biomedical Informatics, Amit P. Sheth

Kno.e.sis Publications

No abstract provided.


Tb196: Temperature, Soil Moisture, And Streamflow At The Bear Brook Watershed In Maine (Bbwm), Ivan J. Fernandez, Joseph E. Karem, Stephen A. Norton, Lindsey E. Rustad Dec 2007

Tb196: Temperature, Soil Moisture, And Streamflow At The Bear Brook Watershed In Maine (Bbwm), Ivan J. Fernandez, Joseph E. Karem, Stephen A. Norton, Lindsey E. Rustad

Technical Bulletins

The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine is a whole-ecosystem chemical manipulation initiated in 1987 to study the effects of acid deposition on forests and surface waters. The focus of this research was to understand the biogeochemical response of watersheds with emphasis on chemistry and hydrology. In 2001 a program was initiated to provide more detailed measurements of temperature and moisture to examine critical linkages amongst chemical, biological, and physical processes that ultimately work together to define ecosystem function. The purpose of this publication is to provide data from the initial phase of soil temperature, air temperature, and soil moisture measurements ...


Systematic Reviews Of Animal Experiments Demonstrate Poor Human Clinical And Toxicological Utility, Andrew Knight Dec 2007

Systematic Reviews Of Animal Experiments Demonstrate Poor Human Clinical And Toxicological Utility, Andrew Knight

Experimentation Collection

The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive Scopus biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. In 20 reviews in which clinical utility was examined, the authors concluded that animal models were either significantly useful in contributing to the development of clinical interventions, or were substantially consistent with clinical outcomes, in only two cases, one ...


Towards Tractable Local Closed World Reasoning For The Semantic Web, Matthias Knorr, Jose Julio Alferes, Pascal Hitzler Dec 2007

Towards Tractable Local Closed World Reasoning For The Semantic Web, Matthias Knorr, Jose Julio Alferes, Pascal Hitzler

Computer Science and Engineering Faculty Publications

Recently, the logics of minimal knowledge and negation as failure MKNF [12] was used to introduce hybrid MKNF knowledge bases [14], a powerful formalism for combining open and closed world reasoning for the Semantic Web. We present an extension based on a new three-valued framework including an alternating fixpoint, the well-founded MKNF model. This approach, the well-founded MKNF semantics, derives its name from the very close relation to the corresponding semantics known from logic programming. We show that the well-founded MKNF model is the least model among all (three-valued) MKNF models, thus soundly approximating also the two-valued MKNF models from ...


Minerva 2007, The Honors College Dec 2007

Minerva 2007, The Honors College

Minerva

This issue of Minerva includes an article on the hiring of first-ever full-time Honors faculty members, Mimi Killinger and Mark Haggerty; an article on Honors alumna Molly Barker '00; and a reflection by former Honors Program Director Sam Schuman.


Histopathological Assessment And Comparison Sedimentation And Phosphate Stress On The Staghorn Coral, Acropora Cervicornis, Erin Christine Hodel Dec 2007

Histopathological Assessment And Comparison Sedimentation And Phosphate Stress On The Staghorn Coral, Acropora Cervicornis, Erin Christine Hodel

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Traditional coral reef monitoring efforts lack assessment of coral health at tissue and cellular levels. This thesis investigated tissue, cellular, and gross morphological responses of the Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, to elevated sedimentation and phosphate using state-of-the-art histological techniques. Branch fragments of A. cervicornis were collected offshore Broward County, FL, acclimated for 12 weeks, subjected to a 4-week experimental period, and given a 1-week recovery period in laboratory aquaria. Treatments consisted of high doses (200 mg cm-2 day-1) of sedimentation (S), phosphate (4 μM) (P), and a combination of these two (S + P), in addition to control ...


A Possible Constraint On Regional Precipitation Intensity Changes Under Global Warming, W. J. Gutowski Jr., E. S. Takle, K. A. Kozak, J. C. Patton, R. W. Arritt, J. H. Christensen Dec 2007

A Possible Constraint On Regional Precipitation Intensity Changes Under Global Warming, W. J. Gutowski Jr., E. S. Takle, K. A. Kozak, J. C. Patton, R. W. Arritt, J. H. Christensen

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

Changes in daily precipitation versus intensity under a global warming scenario in two regional climate simulations of the United States show a well-recognized feature of more intense precipitation. More important, by resolving the precipitation intensity spectrum, the changes show a relatively simple pattern for nearly all regions and seasons examined whereby nearly all high-intensity daily precipitation contributes a larger fraction of the total precipitation, and nearly all low-intensity precipitation contributes a reduced fraction. The percentile separating relative decrease from relative increase occurs around the 70th percentile of cumulative precipitation, irrespective of the governing precipitation processes or which model produced the ...


Stability Analysis For The Gurtin-Maccamy’S Age-Structured Population Dynamics Model, Mohammed El-Doma Dec 2007

Stability Analysis For The Gurtin-Maccamy’S Age-Structured Population Dynamics Model, Mohammed El-Doma

Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)

The stability of the Gurtin-MacCamy’s age-structured population dynamics model is investigated. We determine the steady states and study their stability. The results in this paper generalize previous results.


Age-Structured Population Model With Cannibalism, Mmohammed El-Doma Dec 2007

Age-Structured Population Model With Cannibalism, Mmohammed El-Doma

Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)

An age-structured population model with cannibalism is investigated. We determine the steady states and study the local asymptotic stability as well as the global stability. The results in this paper generalize previous results.


Effects Of An Inserted Endoscope On Chyme Movement In Small Intestine – A Theoretical Model, V. P. Srivastava Dec 2007

Effects Of An Inserted Endoscope On Chyme Movement In Small Intestine – A Theoretical Model, V. P. Srivastava

Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)

The effects of an inserted endoscope on chyme movement in small intestine (gastrointestinal tract) have been investigated. The flow of chyme is induced by a progressive wave of area contraction along the length of intestinal wall under long wavelength approximation. It is found that the chyme movement is significantly influenced due to the presence of the endoscope. The pressure drop assumes lower values for higher values of the endoscope radius for small flow rates but the property reverses with increasing flow rates. The friction forces at intestinal wall and endoscope possess character similar to the pressure drop for any given ...


Stakeholder Alliance Facilitates Re-Introduction Of Prescribed Fire On The Borana Plateau Of Southern Ethiopia, D. Layne Coppock, Getachew Gebru, Solomon Desta, Lemma Gizachew, Dadhi Amosha, Feyissa Taffa Dec 2007

Stakeholder Alliance Facilitates Re-Introduction Of Prescribed Fire On The Borana Plateau Of Southern Ethiopia, D. Layne Coppock, Getachew Gebru, Solomon Desta, Lemma Gizachew, Dadhi Amosha, Feyissa Taffa

Environment and Society Faculty Publications

The implementation of a new prescribed fire program to restore bush-encroached rangelands in southern Ethiopia—and hence increase herbaceous forage supplies for livestock—is given as an example of an integrated action involving multiple institutions to address resource-management problems. The resumption of planned fire—traditionally conducted over hundreds of years by pastoralists until the 1970s—was preceded by key activities including mobilization of the pastoral community, review of government proclamations regarding use of fire, interaction with policy makers, capacity building among pastoralists and agency personnel on how to implement and manage planned fires, development of an overall prescribed burn plan ...


Collective Action Among Agro-Pastoralists In Baringo District, Kenya: Identifying And Nurturing The Entrepreneurs, D. Layne Coppock, Mark N. Mutinda, Stellamaris K. Muthoka, Abdillahi A. Aboud Dec 2007

Collective Action Among Agro-Pastoralists In Baringo District, Kenya: Identifying And Nurturing The Entrepreneurs, D. Layne Coppock, Mark N. Mutinda, Stellamaris K. Muthoka, Abdillahi A. Aboud

Environment and Society Faculty Publications

The rural population of Baringo District in the Rift Valley of north-central Kenya faces numerous challenges including widespread environmental degradation and poverty. The region has endured decades of failed development projects, proliferation of food aid, and has been studied extensively. We have recently undertaken a different approach focused on bottom-up participatory action research and outreach among the Il Chamus and Tugen ethnic communities. The objective is to explore new ways to empower local people via provision of information, novel experiences, and initial access to resources to allow them to envision an alternative future and implement their own activities to better-manage ...


Can Collective Action And Capacity Building Reduce Vulnerability Among Settled Pastoralists?, D. Layne Coppock, Solomon Desta, Getachew Gebru, Seyoum Tezera Dec 2007

Can Collective Action And Capacity Building Reduce Vulnerability Among Settled Pastoralists?, D. Layne Coppock, Solomon Desta, Getachew Gebru, Seyoum Tezera

Environment and Society Faculty Publications

In 2001 PARIMA and her partners began to create collective-action groups among illiterate, settled pastoralists in southern Ethiopia. These groups—dominated by women—focused on savings-led microfinance, small business, and livestock marketing to increase incomes and diversify livelihoods. Fifty-nine groups with over 2,100 members were formed using intensive capacity- building methods. After six years we wanted to compare group members with their neighbors who never participated in the PARIMA program. We surveyed 180 individuals from groups and paired control (traditional) communities. Respondents were asked to assess the extent that they perceived positive, negative, or no change in their lives ...


Diffusion Of Collective-Action Innovations Among Pastoralists In Liben District, Ethiopia, D. Layne Coppock, Solomon Desta, Getachew Gebru, Getachew Kassa, Seyoum Tezera Dec 2007

Diffusion Of Collective-Action Innovations Among Pastoralists In Liben District, Ethiopia, D. Layne Coppock, Solomon Desta, Getachew Gebru, Getachew Kassa, Seyoum Tezera

Environment and Society Faculty Publications

In 2001 PARIMA and her partners began to create collective-action groups among illiterate, settled pastoralists in Ethiopia. These groups—soon dominated by women—focused on savings-led microfinance, small business activity, and livestock marketing to increase incomes and diversify livelihoods. Fifty-nine groups with over 2,100 members were formed using intensive training methods, and they have subsequently merged into legally recognized cooperatives. We regard this approach as successful and sustainable. We were curious, however, if “the word has spread” and collective-action has spontaneously arisen beyond our immediate project area. Preliminary findings from recent surveys of settlements in Liben District indicate that ...