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1998

Earth Sciences

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Articles 1 - 30 of 270

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Tertiary Remagnetization Of Paleozoic Rocks From The Eastern Cordillera And Sub-Andean Belt Of Bolivia, J. C. Libarkin, Robert F. Butler, D. R. Richards, T. Sempere Dec 1998

Tertiary Remagnetization Of Paleozoic Rocks From The Eastern Cordillera And Sub-Andean Belt Of Bolivia, J. C. Libarkin, Robert F. Butler, D. R. Richards, T. Sempere

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications and Presentations

Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 98 sedimentary horizons in eight different Devonian to Permian sedimentary units at eight localities in the Eastern Cordillera and the sub-Andean Belt of Bolivia. For 77 sites, thermal demagnetization allowed determination of a characteristic magnetization (ChRM) with site-mean 95% confidence limit, α95, ≤15°. The ChRM is carried predominantly or entirely by hematite. Fold and reversal tests from two of the sampled localities indicate that the characteristic magnetization is synfolding, likely acquired during the earliest stages of deformation. Additionally, a modified conglomerate test at one locality and the nearly uniform direction of ChRM across the ...


Distribution Of Isolated Volcanoes On The Flanks Of The East Pacific Rise, 15.3°-20°S, Scott M. White, Ken C. Macdonald, Daniel S. Scheirer, Marie-Helene Cormier Dec 1998

Distribution Of Isolated Volcanoes On The Flanks Of The East Pacific Rise, 15.3°-20°S, Scott M. White, Ken C. Macdonald, Daniel S. Scheirer, Marie-Helene Cormier

Faculty Publications

Volcanic constructions, not associated with seamount (or volcano) chains, are abundant on the flanks of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) but are rare along the axial high. The distribution of isolated volcanoes, based on multibeam bathymetric maps, is approximately symmetric about the EPR axis. This symmetry contrasts with the asymmetries in the distribution of volcano chains (more abundant on the west flank), the seafloor subsidence rates (slower on the west flank), and the distribution of plate-motion-parallel gravity lineaments (more prominento nthe west flank). Most of the isolated volcanoes complete their growth within -14 km of the axis on crust younger ...


Factors Affecting The Movements Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) In Lake Ogallala, Nebraska, Tadd M. Barrow Dec 1998

Factors Affecting The Movements Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) In Lake Ogallala, Nebraska, Tadd M. Barrow

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

No abstract provided.


Assessing Soil Quality In A Riparian Buffer By Testing Organic Matter Fractions In Central Iowa, Usa, Carmen Omaira Marquez, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas M. Isenhart, Richard C. Schultz Dec 1998

Assessing Soil Quality In A Riparian Buffer By Testing Organic Matter Fractions In Central Iowa, Usa, Carmen Omaira Marquez, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas M. Isenhart, Richard C. Schultz

Forestry Publications

A multispecies riparian buffer strip (MRB) was established along Bear Creek in central Iowa by the Agroecology Issues Team at Iowa State University (ISU) in order to assess the ability of the MRB to positively impact soil erosion and process non-point source pollutants to improve water quality. Soil organic matter (SOM), and especially biologically-active soil organic matter, is considered to be an important soil quality indicator variable because of it has relationship to critical soil functions like erodibility and the capacity of the soil to act as an environmental buffer. The objectives of this study were to examine trends in ...


New Caribbean Locality For The Extinct Great White Shark Carcharodon, Clare Flemming, Donald A. Mcfarlane Dec 1998

New Caribbean Locality For The Extinct Great White Shark Carcharodon, Clare Flemming, Donald A. Mcfarlane

WM Keck Science Faculty Papers

Carcharodon is represented by a single upper tooth (Fig. 1) which we extracted from the eroding Pliocene limestone wall, some six meters above the floor at the northern end of Darby Sink. Much of the tooth is missing, but the remaining portion includes features diagnostic of this genus. The tooth conforms in size and morphology to Carcharodon megalodon (Agassiz, 1843), an extinct great white shark.


A Second Pre-Wisconsinan Locality For The Extinct Jamaican Rodent, Clidomys (Rodentia: Heptaxodontidae), Donald A. Mcfarlane, Joyce Lundberg, Clare Flemming, Ross D. E. Macphee, Stein-Erik Lauritzen Dec 1998

A Second Pre-Wisconsinan Locality For The Extinct Jamaican Rodent, Clidomys (Rodentia: Heptaxodontidae), Donald A. Mcfarlane, Joyce Lundberg, Clare Flemming, Ross D. E. Macphee, Stein-Erik Lauritzen

WM Keck Science Faculty Papers

Clidomys is the most distinctive but least well known member of the late Quaternary terrestrial mammal fauna of Jamaica. Here we report the second dated locality for this genus. The Illinoisan age we report further strengthens arguments we have made elsewhere, that Clidomys represents an early - probably pre-Wisconsinan - extinction that contrasts with the growing record of Holocene extinctions in the Antilles.


A Quantitative Analysis Of Interstitial Fluid-Chemistry And Limestone Dissolution Rates Within The Clastic Sediment Of A Karst Aquifer Conduit, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, Kevin Vaughan Dec 1998

A Quantitative Analysis Of Interstitial Fluid-Chemistry And Limestone Dissolution Rates Within The Clastic Sediment Of A Karst Aquifer Conduit, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, Kevin Vaughan

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Many active stream conduits within karst aquifers transport and deposit non-carbonate, clastic sediment. However, little is known about how these sediments impact conduit development and enlargement rates. For example, can dissolution take place at the sediment/bedrock interface beneath a flowing stream? If not, cavern enlargement might be dominated by flood conditions when the bare rock of the walls and ceiling are in contact with the dissolving fluids. An approach using limestone tablet weight loss experiments, along with water sampling and geochemical modeling, has been undertaken to understand the nature of fluid movement and chemistry with the sediment beneath an ...


Application Of The Paleomagnetic Fold Test To Determine The Relative Timing Of Sill Intrusion And Deformation In The Southwest Helena Salient, Montana, Stephen Christopher Whisner Dec 1998

Application Of The Paleomagnetic Fold Test To Determine The Relative Timing Of Sill Intrusion And Deformation In The Southwest Helena Salient, Montana, Stephen Christopher Whisner

Masters Theses

The Doherty Mountain fold complex is a highly folded and faulted region along the southern boundary of the Helena Salient in southwestern Montana. This region has a complex deformation history that is a key to deformation within the Helena Salient as a whole. A structural interpretation of the deformed rocks of this area was conducted using field mapping and cross section construction at 1:24,000 scale providing insight to the internal deformation processes involved. Fourteen folds and three major faults were mapped and analyzed showing the influence of the Southwest Montana Transverse Zone and late stage detachment faulting on ...


Uncertainty In Recharge From Subsidence Craters At Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site: Impacts Of Initial And Boundary Conditions And Media Properties, David Matthew Ely Dec 1998

Uncertainty In Recharge From Subsidence Craters At Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site: Impacts Of Initial And Boundary Conditions And Media Properties, David Matthew Ely

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Nevada Test Site has over 400 subsidence craters formed by the collapse of overlying rock following underground nuclear tests. Under natural conditions, infiltration and recharge would not be considered likely due to infrequent precipitation events and extreme evapotranspiration. Crater U5a in Frenchman Flat was chosen for study because it intercepts significantly more drainage than surrounding craters. Vadose zone modeling was conducted to test the sensitivity of water movement to boundary and initial conditions. The effects of ponding depth was negligible but depth of wetting front movement was highly dependent on the lateral extent of the ponds. The model was ...


Highline Breaks Watershed [Microform] : Otero County, Colorado, Pueblo County, Colorado : Watershed Plan And Environmental Assessment, United States Natural Resources Conservation Service, Colorado State Soil Conservation Board Dec 1998

Highline Breaks Watershed [Microform] : Otero County, Colorado, Pueblo County, Colorado : Watershed Plan And Environmental Assessment, United States Natural Resources Conservation Service, Colorado State Soil Conservation Board

Environmental Assessments (NV)

No abstract provided.


Pastoral Resources And Their Management In The Sandstone-Yalgoo-Paynes Find Area, Western Australia, A M E Van Vreeswyk, P. T. Godden Dec 1998

Pastoral Resources And Their Management In The Sandstone-Yalgoo-Paynes Find Area, Western Australia, A M E Van Vreeswyk, P. T. Godden

Miscellaneous Publications

This report covers about 94,700 square kilometres of rangelands in the Sandstone-Yalgoo-Paynes Find area of Western Australia. The area lies within 27°S and 30°S latitudes, and 115°30'E and 120°E longitudes and includes the towns of Sandstone, Yalgoo and Paynes Find. The northern, southern, and eastern limits of the survey area are largely defined by the boundaries of the 1:250,000 scale series map sheets.The western limit is the boundary between the pastoral and agricultural area.


Observations On Groundwater Recharge In The Westdale Catchment, M F. Lewis, C E. Mcconnell Dec 1998

Observations On Groundwater Recharge In The Westdale Catchment, M F. Lewis, C E. Mcconnell

Resource management technical reports

A study of the role of groundwater carriers and barriers in controlling salinity was carried out in the Westdale Catchment by Lewis and McConnell (in preparation). Although that study was primarily concerned with groundwater flow and discharge processes, the data collected also provided rudimentary information on the timing of groundwater recharge events and their distribution across the landscape.


Deglacial Radiocarbon Chronology Of The Western Ross Sea From Relative Sea-Level Curves, George H. Denton, Brenda Hall Nov 1998

Deglacial Radiocarbon Chronology Of The Western Ross Sea From Relative Sea-Level Curves, George H. Denton, Brenda Hall

University of Maine Office of Research Administration: Grant Reports

This award provides support for one year of funding to perform carbon-14 analyses on samples (seal skin and Adamussium colbecki shells) collected in firm stratigraphic position within numerous raised beaches along the Scott Coast of the western Ross Sea, Antarctica. These measurements will enable the development of a radiocarbon chronology and will result in detailed relative sea- level curves for five separate localities along the Scott Coast. These relative sea-level curves will help to constrain the timing of deglaciation in the western Ross Sea. During the last glaciation, West Antarctic ice expanded into the Ross Sea, merged with East Antarctic ...


Soluble Species In Aerosol And Snow And Their Relationship At Glacier 1, Tien Shan, China, Junying Sun, Dahe Qin, Paul Andrew Mayewski, Jack E. Dibb, Sallie Whitlow, Zhongqin Li, Qinzhao Yang Nov 1998

Soluble Species In Aerosol And Snow And Their Relationship At Glacier 1, Tien Shan, China, Junying Sun, Dahe Qin, Paul Andrew Mayewski, Jack E. Dibb, Sallie Whitlow, Zhongqin Li, Qinzhao Yang

Earth Science Faculty Scholarship

Simultaneous sampling of aerosol (n = 20) and snow (n = 114) was made at Glacier 1, Tien Shan, between May 19 and June 29, 1996. Similar temporal patterns of some major ion (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate) concentrations between snow and aerosol show that snow chemistry basically reflects changes in the chemistry of the atmosphere. This gives us confidence in the reconstruction of past atmospheric change using some snow data. There are no significant correlations between aerosol and snow samples for ammonium and nitrate. This suggests that postdepositional and/or postcollection processes may alter ammonium and nitrate concentrations in ...


Use Of Soil Surveys In Precision Soil And Crop Management, Thomas E. Fenton Nov 1998

Use Of Soil Surveys In Precision Soil And Crop Management, Thomas E. Fenton

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soil survey involves the mapping, classification, correlation, and interpretation of soils. The first soil survey in Iowa was in the Dubuque County area but did not include the entire county. The field work was done in 1902 and the report was published in 1903. Since that time, most Iowa counties have had at least two soil surveys completed and some have had three. The basic factors of soil formation have not changed but the use of the soils for intensive agriculture has resulted in changes in some soil properties, especially of the surface horizons. However, generally factors other than soil ...


Soil Sampling Strategies For Variable Rate P And K Fertilization And Liming, Antonio Mallarino, David Wittry Nov 1998

Soil Sampling Strategies For Variable Rate P And K Fertilization And Liming, Antonio Mallarino, David Wittry

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soil fertility management can be greatly improved with the use of precision agriculture technologies. Differential global positioning systems (DGPS), yield monitors, aerial photographs, and variable rate technology can improve both soil fertility evaluation and fertilizer or lime application. Soil sampling in the field is the most important source of error in soil testing. A very small amount of soil needs to appropriately represent thousands of tons of soil and usually there is large spatial variability of nutrients. Intensive soil sampling and variable-rate fertilization can improve the efficacy of fertilization and liming compared with the conventional practice of collecting soil samples ...


Geosciences Newsletter- 1998, Department Of Geosciences Nov 1998

Geosciences Newsletter- 1998, Department Of Geosciences

Geological and Environmental Sciences News

Vol. 1, No. 23

  • Dear Alumni and Friends
  • Faculty News
  • Department News
  • Donations


Comparison Of Water And Temperature Distribution Profiles Under Sand Tube Irrigation, Masoud Meshkat, Richard C. Warner, Stephen R. Workman Nov 1998

Comparison Of Water And Temperature Distribution Profiles Under Sand Tube Irrigation, Masoud Meshkat, Richard C. Warner, Stephen R. Workman

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Drip irrigation is one of the most efficient systems in delivering water to the plant root zone. Research has shown that the saturated, or nearly saturated, surface beneath the emitter may increase evaporation thereby reducing the irrigation efficiency. To increase the efficiency of surface applied drip irrigation on permanent tree crops a sand tube irrigation (STI) method was developed and tested. The sand tube method consists of removing a soil core beneath the emitter and filling the void with coarse sand. A weighing lysimeter was designed and instrumented to directly measure temporal evaporation during irrigation and for a period of ...


Comment On "Beach Water Table Fluctuations Due To Wave Run-Up: Capillarity Effects" By L. Li Et Al., Vitaly A. Zlotnik Nov 1998

Comment On "Beach Water Table Fluctuations Due To Wave Run-Up: Capillarity Effects" By L. Li Et Al., Vitaly A. Zlotnik

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Vitaly A. Zlotnik's comment on "Beach water table fluctuations due to wave run-up: Capillarity effects" by L. Li, D. A. Barry, J.-Y. Parlange, and C. B. Pattiaratchi, published in Water Resources Research (1997) 3(5): 935-945.


Localized Soil Management In Fertilizer Injection Zone To Reduce Nitrate Leaching, Daniel E. Ressler, Robert Horton, Thomas C. Kaspar, James L. Baker Nov 1998

Localized Soil Management In Fertilizer Injection Zone To Reduce Nitrate Leaching, Daniel E. Ressler, Robert Horton, Thomas C. Kaspar, James L. Baker

Agronomy Publications

Nitrogen fertilization of row crops in humid regions can result in leaching of NO3, which represents an inefficient use of resources and may result in environmental degradation. A localized compaction and doming (LCD) fertilizer injector was developed to alter the physical properties of soil surrounding knife-injected N. Injection by LCD includes smearing macropores below the injection slot, formation of a localized compacted soil layer over the injected N, and formation of a surface dome to cover the compacted soil layer and the fertilizer band. The LCD injector was tested, along with a conventional knife injector (without a covering disk ...


Field Scale Variability Of Nitrogen And Δ15n In Soil And Plants, D. E. Clay, J. Chang, S. A. Clay, M. Ellsbury, C. G. Carlson, D. D. Malo, D. Woodson, T. Desttur Nov 1998

Field Scale Variability Of Nitrogen And Δ15n In Soil And Plants, D. E. Clay, J. Chang, S. A. Clay, M. Ellsbury, C. G. Carlson, D. D. Malo, D. Woodson, T. Desttur

Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science Faculty Publications

Understanding the factors that influence soil and plant nitrogen (N) spatial variability may improve our ability to develop management systems that maximize productivity and minimize environmental hazards. The objective of this study was to determine the field (65 ha) scale spatial variability of N and δ15N in soil and corn (Zea mays). Soil, grain, and stover samples were collected from grids that ranged in size from 30 by 30 m to 60 by 60 m. Plant samples, collected following physiological maturity in 1995, were analyzed for total N and δ15N. Soil samples, collected prior to planting ...


Laser In-Situ Scattering And Transmissometer (Lisst) Observations In Support Of The Sensor Insertion System Duck, Nc October, 1997, Grace M. Massey, Carl T. Friedrichs Nov 1998

Laser In-Situ Scattering And Transmissometer (Lisst) Observations In Support Of The Sensor Insertion System Duck, Nc October, 1997, Grace M. Massey, Carl T. Friedrichs

Reports

The objective of this portion of the study was to collect LIS ST time series at times corresponding to collection of pumped samples of suspended sediment across the width of the surf zone during a major field experiment called SandyDuck '97. The pumped samples were analyzed for total percent sand (>60 micron), total percent mud (0.8 - 60 micron), organic content and sand size distribution. The LISST measures the particle size distribution from 5-500 microns. The purpose was to provide a high quality data set of pumped samples with which to later test the sensitivity of indirect measurements of suspended ...


Modelling Direct Episodic Recharge In The Western Australian Wheatbelt, F Lewis, Cooperative Research Centre For Catchment Hydrology (Australia) Nov 1998

Modelling Direct Episodic Recharge In The Western Australian Wheatbelt, F Lewis, Cooperative Research Centre For Catchment Hydrology (Australia)

Resource management technical reports

In agricultural regions of Western Australia, salinity is spreading. This is because the area taken up by groundwater discharge is increasing as a result of increased groundwater recharge following the replacement of native vegetation systems by annual crops and pasture species. Attempts to reduce groundwater recharge are now being made as it is hoped that this will decrease the rate of land salinisation. At several sites, average recharge rates have been estimated to be from 2% to 13% of the average annu ter hydrographs from the agricultural regions indicate that at some sites recharge does not occur as small amounts ...


Lateral Chloride Migration From A Landfill In A Fractured Clay-Rich Glacial Deposit, Larry Mckay, D. Balfour, J. Cherry Oct 1998

Lateral Chloride Migration From A Landfill In A Fractured Clay-Rich Glacial Deposit, Larry Mckay, D. Balfour, J. Cherry

Larry McKay

A plume of chloride (100 to > 1000 mg/L) was found to extend up to 40 m laterally from the edge of a landfill located on a thick sequence of clay-rich glacial deposits. The plume is mainly confined to the seasonally saturated highly weathered and fractured zone (upper 3 to 4 m) of the deposits. In the high concentration region of the plume there was good agreement between chloride concentrations determined from piezometer water samples, which were expected to sample fracture pore water, and pore water extractions from continuous core samples, which were expected to be dominated by pore water ...


Stochastic Methods For Evaluating The Potential For Wetland Rehydration In Covered-Karst Terranes, Christian David Langevin Oct 1998

Stochastic Methods For Evaluating The Potential For Wetland Rehydration In Covered-Karst Terranes, Christian David Langevin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Augmentation with reclaimed water is one method for rehydrating wetlands damaged by water-level declines. Augmentation with reclaimed water has been proposed for rehydrating a wetland in the covered-karst terrane of west-central Florida. There is concern because reclaimed water may contain harmful agents that could flow from the wetland 1.4 km to a municipal wellfield that withdraws 30,000 m3/day. Estimates of groundwater flow velocities were calculated from the results of detailed field studies at the wetland. Results indicate that groundwater flows downward in the surficial aquifer at rates of 0.1 to 0.2 m/day and ...


Tillage System Effects On 15-Year Carbon-Based And Simulated N Budgets In A Tile-Drained Iowa Field, Douglas L. Karlen, Ajay Kumar, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas S. Colvin Oct 1998

Tillage System Effects On 15-Year Carbon-Based And Simulated N Budgets In A Tile-Drained Iowa Field, Douglas L. Karlen, Ajay Kumar, Ramesh S. Kanwar, Cynthia A. Cambardella, Thomas S. Colvin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Tillage influences N fate and transport by changing soil structure, aeration, macropore continuity, plant-residue placement, and organic-matter mineralization rates. Our objective was to use 15-year N budgets to compare four primary tillage treatments for continuous corn (Zea mays L.) production on tile-drained Aquic Hapludolls (FAO: Haplic Phaeozems) in northeastern Iowa, USA. A carbon-based N budget used annual grain yield, grain-N concentrations measured in 1992, changes in surface-soil C content between 1977 and 1988 or 1992, surface-soil C : N ratios, and measurements of NO3–N lost in tile-drainage water. It accounted for 98, 104, 99, and 99% of the fertilizer ...


Antelope County Test-Hole Logs: Nebraska Water Survey Test-Hole Report No. 2, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Frank A. Smith, Robert F. Diffendal Jr. Oct 1998

Antelope County Test-Hole Logs: Nebraska Water Survey Test-Hole Report No. 2, Sue Olafsen Lackey, Frank A. Smith, Robert F. Diffendal Jr.

Robert F. Diffendal, Jr., Publications

In 1930, the Conservation and Survey Division of the University of Nebraska and the U.S. Geological Survey began a program of cooperative groundwater studies in Nebraska. Since then test drilling by use of rotary drilling equipment has been an integral part of that program. This report contains logs of all the test holes drilled in the county under the program as well as those drilled by the Conservation and Survey Division with financial assistance from other government agencies.

The map in this report shows the location of all test holes drilled in the county since 1930.

Present techniques of ...


Mountain Evolution And Environmental Changes Of Huangshan, China, P.-H. Huang, Robert F. Diffendal, M. Yang, P. E. Helland Oct 1998

Mountain Evolution And Environmental Changes Of Huangshan, China, P.-H. Huang, Robert F. Diffendal, M. Yang, P. E. Helland

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Huangshan (Yellow Mountain) is located in southern part of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The highest Lotus Flower peak is 1,864 m above sea level. Formative ages of the Huangshan and its granite, process of mountain geomorphic evolution from the Eocene to Quaternary, environmental changes of Quaternary, formative origin of beautiful peaks and fascinating rocks were studied and questionable "Pleistocene glaciation" was also discussed in this paper.


Ua66/8/3 Geogram, Wku Geography & Geology Oct 1998

Ua66/8/3 Geogram, Wku Geography & Geology

WKU Archives Records

Newsletter created by and about the WKU Geography & Geology highlighting activities of faculty, students and alumni.


Revegetation Strategies For Groundwater Control In The Eastern Wheatbelt, C E. Mcconnell Oct 1998

Revegetation Strategies For Groundwater Control In The Eastern Wheatbelt, C E. Mcconnell

Resource management technical reports

No abstract provided.