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1996

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Astronomy Matters For Chemistry Teachers, Terry Smith, Jay Huebner, Robert Vergenz Jul 2014

Astronomy Matters For Chemistry Teachers, Terry Smith, Jay Huebner, Robert Vergenz

Jay S Huebner

The purpose of this paper is to encourage more chemistry teachers to become familiar with some of the basic ideas described in typical introductory astronomy courses (1 - 9), including those about the origin of elements and forms of matter. These ideas would enrich chemistry courses and help resolve some basic misconceptions that are expressed in many introductory texts (10 - 16) and journal articles for chemistry teachers (17, 18). These misconceptions are typified by statements such as "we can classify all substances as either elements or compounds," and "nature has provided 92 elements out of which all matter is …


Watershed Prioritization, David G. Parker, Rod Williams, Hubert D. Scott Dec 1996

Watershed Prioritization, David G. Parker, Rod Williams, Hubert D. Scott

Technical Reports

The overall objective of this two-year study was to evaluate the water quality in the thirty-seven sub-basin watersheds in the Illinois River in Arkansas and to arrive at a watershed prioritization list to use in targeting non-point source activities. A water quality monitoring program was conducted with sampling in all thirty-seven sub-basins during both storm and base flow events and more intensive sampling in eight representative sub-basins during stOffil events. Each sub-basin was sampled seasonally during low flow (base-flow) conditions and during high flow storm (storm flow) conditions. In addition to the regular sampling, the intensive sub-basins were sampled approximately …


Emisja Zanieczyszczeń Ze Spalania Odpadów Ściekowych W Piecu Półkowym, Robert Oleniacz, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki Dec 1996

Emisja Zanieczyszczeń Ze Spalania Odpadów Ściekowych W Piecu Półkowym, Robert Oleniacz, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The article presents incineration tests of silty-tar sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant for coke industry. Sewage sludges were incinerated in a full-scale multiple hearth incinerator equipped with a wet flue-gas cleaning system (alkaline scrubber). Measurements of air pollutant emissions were carried out both before and after the cleaning system. The obtained results allow to conclude that the thermal utilization of sewage sludge in this type of installation might be just a little cumbersome for the environment, using the appropriate equipment for the purification of exhaust gases. The paper also specifies minimum exhaust gas cleaning performance that guarantees compliance …


Wdrażanie Monitoringu Zanieczyszczeń Powietrza Atmosferycznego W Kielcach, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki Dec 1996

Wdrażanie Monitoringu Zanieczyszczeń Powietrza Atmosferycznego W Kielcach, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

Assumptions for regional environmental monitoring in the province of Kielce were developed as early as 1992. Since the beginning of particular attention were monitoring the air. The article presents the next step in the implementation of this monitoring, associated with verification of the location and the measuring range of points to measure the concentrations of air pollutants in Kielce. As a result of analysis and calculations, it was found that the original location is not always correct and does not reflect the spatial differentiation of pollutant concentrations. The proposed changes in the position of monitoring points or measurement methods were …


Zastosowanie Metody Obliczeniowo-Pomiarowej Do Oceny Stanu Zanieczyszczenia Powietrza W Nowym Sączu, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki, Robert Oleniacz Dec 1996

Zastosowanie Metody Obliczeniowo-Pomiarowej Do Oceny Stanu Zanieczyszczenia Powietrza W Nowym Sączu, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki, Robert Oleniacz

Robert Oleniacz

Assessment of the state of air pollution in the urban area is a difficult and complex task. Depending on the method of assessment the procedure requires a comprehensive research and calculations of air emissions from all sources occurring in the area and the use of atmospheric dispersion models or large-scale implementation of direct measurements of air pollutant concentrations. Both of these methods may also be applied simultaneously to their mutual verification.

The article presents the results of such a comprehensive assessment of air pollution on the example of the city of Nowy Sacz (Poland). This involved determining the emissions of …


Obliczanie Emisji Par Węglowodorów Z Przemysłu Rafineryjnego, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki Dec 1996

Obliczanie Emisji Par Węglowodorów Z Przemysłu Rafineryjnego, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The negative effects of the refining industry for ambient air quality is mainly related to emissions of hydrocarbon vapors. Calculation methodology and estimates, the level of emissions from several years has been the research subject of many institutions and environmental agencies, including The Oil Companies’ European association for health, safety and environment in refining and distribution (CONCAWE) and American Petroleum Institute (API).

The article describes the main sources of emissions of hydrocarbons occurring in a typical refinery. In summary form also shows how to calculate the volume of a mixture of hydrocarbons emissions from these sources based on empirically validated …


Function Of Funnel-Shaped Coral Growth In A High-Sedimentation Environment, Bernhard Riegl, Carlton Heine, George M. Branch Dec 1996

Function Of Funnel-Shaped Coral Growth In A High-Sedimentation Environment, Bernhard Riegl, Carlton Heine, George M. Branch

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Advantages and disadvantages of a funnel-shaped growth in 2 coral species (Acropora clathrata, Turbinaria peltata) in a high-sedimentation environment (Natal, South Africa) were observed in the field and modeled in a flow tank. Funnel-shaped growth serves different purposes in different hydrographic settings. In calm waters with little currents (in our case deep reef areas, 18 to 25 m) funnel-shaped colonies served as 'sacrificial sediment traps': all sediment trapped inside the funnel was directed towards the centre, where it was concentrated. There, tissues underwent necroses, but all other tissues remained sediment free and healthy. In areas with high currents (in our …


Badania Emisji Chlorowodoru I Związków Fluoru Podczas Spalania Odpadów Niebezpiecznych, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki Dec 1996

Badania Emisji Chlorowodoru I Związków Fluoru Podczas Spalania Odpadów Niebezpiecznych, Marian Mazur, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The paper presents the results of measurements of the concentration of hydrogen chloride (HCl) and fluoride compounds (as HF) in raw and purified combustion gases discharged from the incineration of selected hazardous wastes. The study included two installations operating on an industrial scale: a multiple hearth furnace and a rotary kiln incinerator equipped with a single wet flue gas cleaning systems. In the multiple hearth furnace was being incinerated sludge from coke industry. In the rotary kiln were being incinerated coal (coke) tars, contaminated cleaning rags, sawdust, used gloves, outdated pharmaceuticals and medicines, hospital waste, waste paints, varnish and lubricant, …


Temporal Characterization Of A Self-Modulated Laser Wakefield, S.P. Le Blanc, M.C. Downer, R. Wagner, Shouyuan Chen, Anatoly Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, Donald P. Umstadter Dec 1996

Temporal Characterization Of A Self-Modulated Laser Wakefield, S.P. Le Blanc, M.C. Downer, R. Wagner, Shouyuan Chen, Anatoly Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, Donald P. Umstadter

Donald Umstadter Publications

The temporal envelope of plasma density oscillations in the wake of an intense (l∼4×1018 W/cm2, λ = 1 μm) laser pulse (400 fs) is measured using forward Thomson scattering from a copropagating, frequency-doubled probe pulse. The wakefield oscillations in a fully ionized helium plasma (ne = 3×1019 cm-3) are observed to reach maximum amplitude ( δne/ne∼0.1) 300 fs after the pump pulse. The wakefield growth ( 3.5 ps-1) and decay ( 1.9 ps-1) rates are consistent with the forward Raman …


Emisja Zanieczyszczeń Ze Spalania Odpadów Farmaceutycznych I Poszpitalnych W Piecu Obrotowym, Robert Oleniacz, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki Dec 1996

Emisja Zanieczyszczeń Ze Spalania Odpadów Farmaceutycznych I Poszpitalnych W Piecu Obrotowym, Robert Oleniacz, Marian Mazur, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The work presents the problem of management and thermal treatment of medicines and hospital wastes and investigation results of incineration of these waste in the full-scale rotary kiln with wet gas cleaning equipment (alkaline scrubber). On the basis of measurements of air pollutant concentrations in combustion gases, maximum dose of these wastes in the feed to the kiln was specified in order to ensure a relatively low stack emissions using the hypothetical high-efficiency flue-gas treatment system.

English title: Pollutant emissions from incineration of pharmaceutical and hospital waste in a rotary kiln.


Some Problems Of Continuum Percolation., Anish Sarkar Dr. Dec 1996

Some Problems Of Continuum Percolation., Anish Sarkar Dr.

Doctoral Theses

The model of continuum percolation can be described as follows. We start with a homogeneous Poisson point process X. At each point of X we centre a ball with a random radius such that the radii corresponding to different points are independent of each other and also independent of the Poisson process X. In this way, the space is divided into two regiorns, the covered region or the occupied region consisting of the region which is covered by at least one ball, and the uncovered region or the vacant region which is complement of the covered region. In this dissertation …


Lissodelphis Peroni, Michael W. Newcomer, Thomas A. Jefferson, Robert L. Brownell Jr. Dec 1996

Lissodelphis Peroni, Michael W. Newcomer, Thomas A. Jefferson, Robert L. Brownell Jr.

United States Department of Commerce: Staff Publications

Order Cetacea, Suborder Odontoceti, Family Delphinidae. The subfamily Lissodelphinae has been proposed for this genus (Fraser and Purves, 1960), but it has not been universally accepted (Kasuya, 1973). There are two species in the genus: Lissodelphis peronii (southern right whale dolphin) and L. borealis (northern right whale dolphin). Lissodelphis peronii currently contains no subspecies.


Modeling And Simulation Of Optical Characteristics Of Microelectromechanical Mirror Arrays, Peter C. Roberts Dec 1996

Modeling And Simulation Of Optical Characteristics Of Microelectromechanical Mirror Arrays, Peter C. Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) micromirror devices can be used to control the phase of a propagating light wavefront, and in particular to correct aberrations that may be present in the wavefront, due to either atmospheric turbulence or any other type of fixed or time and space varying aberrations. In order to shorten the design cycle of MEMS micromirror devices, computer software is developed to create, from MEMS micromirror device design data, a numerical model of the MEMS device. The model is then used to compute the far field diffraction pattern of a wavefront reflected from the device, and to predict the …


On Unifying Time And Uncertainty: The Probabilistic Temporal Network, Joel D. Young Dec 1996

On Unifying Time And Uncertainty: The Probabilistic Temporal Network, Joel D. Young

Theses and Dissertations

Complex real-world systems consist of collections of interacting processes/events. These processes change over time in response to both internal and external stimuli as well as to the passage of time. Many domains such as real-time systems diagnosis, (mechanized) story understanding, planning and scheduling, and financial forecasting require the capability to model complex systems under a unified framework to deal with both time and uncertainty. Existing uncertainty representations and existing temporal models already provide rich languages for capturing uncertainty and temporal information, respectively. Unfortunately, these partial solutions have made it extremely difficult to unify time and uncertainty in a way that …


Student Modeling In An Intelligent Tutoring System, Jeremy E. Thompson Dec 1996

Student Modeling In An Intelligent Tutoring System, Jeremy E. Thompson

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores a new approach to modeling the student in an intelligent tutoring system (ITS), by providing a student model which learns new solutions from the student. A prototype of the new approach to ITS is demonstrated in the Euclidean geometry domain. Complete C++, CLIPS, and Tcl/Tk code listings are included in the appendices for reference. Adaptable multiple software agents were targeted for implementation, based on current literature. However, the student model is found to be maintainable without multiple software agents, while still allowing for tracking several possible solution paths when monitoring student solutions. This capability contradicts previous research …


Comparison Of The Temperature-Dependent Electronic Structure Of The Perovskites La0.65Ca0.35Mno3 (A=Ca, Ba), D.N. Mcilroy, C. Waldfried, Jiandi Zhang, Jaewu Choi, F. Foong, Sy_Hwang Liou, Peter A. Dowben Dec 1996

Comparison Of The Temperature-Dependent Electronic Structure Of The Perovskites La0.65Ca0.35Mno3 (A=Ca, Ba), D.N. Mcilroy, C. Waldfried, Jiandi Zhang, Jaewu Choi, F. Foong, Sy_Hwang Liou, Peter A. Dowben

Peter Dowben Publications

The electronic band structure and the local screening effects of the transition-metal perovskites La0.65A0.35MnO3 (A=Ba and Ca ) have been examined across the coupled magnetic-metallic phase transition using the techniques of angle-resolved photoemission, resonance photoemission, and inverse photoemission. Temperature-dependent band shifts of the eg and t2g bands of La0.65Ca0.35MnO3 have been observed. These changes in the observed electronic structure correlate with the phase transition, and are in qualitatively agreement with the predicted behavior associated with double exchange coupled with a dynamic Jahn-Teller distortion. Similar shifts were not observed …


Strain-Induced Distortion Of The Bulk Bands Of Gadolinium, Carlo Waldfried, D.N. Mcilroy, C.W. Hutchings, Peter A. Dowben Dec 1996

Strain-Induced Distortion Of The Bulk Bands Of Gadolinium, Carlo Waldfried, D.N. Mcilroy, C.W. Hutchings, Peter A. Dowben

Peter Dowben Publications

Thin films of gadolinium, approximately 8 ML thick, have been grown on the corrugated (112) surface of molybdenum and the electronic structure has been investigated with angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The unfavorable lattice match between the ‘‘steplike’’ Mo(112) substrate and the preferred hexagonally ordered Gd film results in an incommensurate Gd structure that appears to be ordered, but strained along the direction of the corrugations. The hexagonal Gd lattice is expanded by more than 20% along the ‘‘step’’ lines of the substrate, as determined from the reduced Brillouin-zone size along the ΓΣM high-symmetry line and low-energy electron diffraction. The induced strain …


Thermally Induced Core-Electron Binding-Energy Shifts In Transition Metals: An Experimentalinvestigation Of Ta(100), D. Mark Riffe, B. Kim, W. Hale, J. L. Erskine Dec 1996

Thermally Induced Core-Electron Binding-Energy Shifts In Transition Metals: An Experimentalinvestigation Of Ta(100), D. Mark Riffe, B. Kim, W. Hale, J. L. Erskine

All Physics Faculty Publications

High-resolution photoemission spectra from the 4f7/2 levels of Ta(100) have been obtained between 77 K and room temperature. The data show an increase in both the surface and bulk core-level binding energies (BE’s) as the temperature is raised: between 77 and 293 K the bulk and surface BE’s increase by 31±3 and 13±2 meV, respectively. A model calculation of the bulk binding-energy increase, which is based upon the lattice expansion of the solid, is in good agreement with the experimental results and indicates that the shifts arise from both initial- and final-state effects that are of comparable magnitude. The …


Computer Assistance In Discovering Formulas And Theorems In System Engineering Ii, J. W. Helton, Mark Stankus, Kurt Schneider Dec 1996

Computer Assistance In Discovering Formulas And Theorems In System Engineering Ii, J. W. Helton, Mark Stankus, Kurt Schneider

Mathematics

[HSWcdc94] focused on procedures for simplifying complicated expressions automatically. [HScdc95] turned to the adventurous pursuit of developing a highly computer assisted method for “discovering” certain types of formulas and theorems.

It is often the case that some variables in the formulation of a problem are not the natural “coordinates” for solution of the problem. Gröbner Basis Algorithms, which lie at the core of our method, are very good at eliminating unknowns, but have no way of finding good changes of variables. This paper gives a way of incorporating changes of variables into our method.

As an example, we “discover” the …


Lower And Upper Bounds On Internal-Wave Frequencies In Stratified Rotating Fluids, Benoit Cushman-Roisin Dec 1996

Lower And Upper Bounds On Internal-Wave Frequencies In Stratified Rotating Fluids, Benoit Cushman-Roisin

Dartmouth Scholarship

According to classical theories, the frequencies of internal-gravity waves in stratified rotating fluids must lie between the Brunt-Väisälä frequency (a measure of the vertical density stratification) and the Coriolis frequency (equal to twice the rotation rate about the vertical axis). It is shown here that, in the case of the Earth's rotation where the pole-to-pole axis of rotation is almost everywhere not parallel to the local vertical, the range of realizable frequencies is broader. New formulas are derived for the lower and upper bounds of the frequencies.


Nickel Catalyzed Cyclizations Of Alkynyl-Etones And Their Application To The Formal Synthesis Of Pentalenic Acid, Kevin Schlosser Dec 1996

Nickel Catalyzed Cyclizations Of Alkynyl-Etones And Their Application To The Formal Synthesis Of Pentalenic Acid, Kevin Schlosser

Honors Theses

Pentalenic acid is a very important molecule because it is a biosynthetic intermediate of pentalenolactone, which has antibiotic effects on Grampositive/ negative bacteria and pathogenic fungi. These effects are due to its ability to inhibit glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.1 However, the total synthesis of pentalenic acid is very lengthy.2 This project will begin the process of finding a more convenient route to pentalenic acid. Previously in this laboratory there have been experiments conducted in the cyclization of enones with nickel (0)3 It is hypothesized that this method can be used to shorten the preparation of pentalenic acid. As illustrated by the …


Neutron Scattering Study Of Transverse Magnetism, Christian Binek, T. Kato, Wolfgang Kleemann, O. Petracic, D. Bertrand, F. Bourdarot, P. Burlet, H. Aruga Katori, K. Katsumata, K. Prokes, S. Welzel Dec 1996

Neutron Scattering Study Of Transverse Magnetism, Christian Binek, T. Kato, Wolfgang Kleemann, O. Petracic, D. Bertrand, F. Bourdarot, P. Burlet, H. Aruga Katori, K. Katsumata, K. Prokes, S. Welzel

Christian Binek Publications

In order to clarify the nature of the additional phase transition at H1 (T) < Hc (T) of the layered antiferromagnetic (AF) insulator FeBr2 as found by Aruga Katori et al. (1996) we measured the intensity of different Bragg-peaks in different scattering geometries. Transverse AF ordering is observed in both AF phases, AFI and AFII. Its order parameter exhibits a peak at T1 = T (H1) in temperature scans and does not vanish in zero field. Possible origins of the step-like increase of the transverse ferromagnetic ordering induced by a …


Magnetic Levitation And Noncoalescence Of Liquid Helium, M. A. Weilert, Dwight L. Whitaker, H. J. Maris, G. M. Seidel Dec 1996

Magnetic Levitation And Noncoalescence Of Liquid Helium, M. A. Weilert, Dwight L. Whitaker, H. J. Maris, G. M. Seidel

Pomona Faculty Publications and Research

We describe experiments in which drops of liquid helium-4, as large as 2 cm in diameter, are magnetically levitated. We have found that, when two or more drops are levitated in the same magnetic trap, the drops often remain in a state of apparent contact without coalescing. It appears that this effect is caused by the slow evaporation of liquid from the drops.


International Symposium On Macromolecular Architecture, Otto Vogl, Jane C. Vogl, Tatsuki Kitayama Dec 1996

International Symposium On Macromolecular Architecture, Otto Vogl, Jane C. Vogl, Tatsuki Kitayama

Emeritus Faculty Author Gallery

No abstract provided.


Polymer Science In Vietnam, Otto Vogl, Dang Van Luyen, Dang Mai-Huong Dec 1996

Polymer Science In Vietnam, Otto Vogl, Dang Van Luyen, Dang Mai-Huong

Emeritus Faculty Author Gallery

No abstract provided.


A Study Of The Behavior Of Chlorine And Organic Compounds During Combustion In An Afbc System, Jenny Heidbrink Dec 1996

A Study Of The Behavior Of Chlorine And Organic Compounds During Combustion In An Afbc System, Jenny Heidbrink

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study is to understand the behavior of chlorine and the emission of organic compounds during combustion in an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. Inefficient, uncontrolled use of coal gives rise to organic emissions which can be detrimental to health. The chlorine in coal may cause corrosion problems during utilization, if its concentration is high enough. The method for collection of the emissions of organic compounds involved the use of a Tenax resin as an absorbent for the organic compounds as they were emitted from the combustor. A combined gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique …


A Chemical Pathway To The Formation Of Chlorinated Compounds During Combustion, Xiaodong Yang Dec 1996

A Chemical Pathway To The Formation Of Chlorinated Compounds During Combustion, Xiaodong Yang

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Two reactions, the Deacon reaction and the chlorination of phenol, which are the postulated starting steps for the formation of chlorinated dioxins during the incineration of the refuse derived fuel, were investigated in this work. Reactions were conducted in a tube furnace, and the products were trapped and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. It was shown that the Deacon reaction was favored at higher temperatures. The chlorination of phenol in vapor phase was found to begin at temperatures as low as 250°C and to be favored at higher temperatures. The ortho and para positions in the phenol ring are the …


The Effects Of Wet Meadow Fragmentation On Grassland Birds, Christopher J. Helzer Dec 1996

The Effects Of Wet Meadow Fragmentation On Grassland Birds, Christopher J. Helzer

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

No abstract provided.


Histomorphological Responses Of Red Shiner (Cyprinella Lutrensis) To Atrazine, Terbufos, And Their Mixture, Ibrahim A. Messaad Dec 1996

Histomorphological Responses Of Red Shiner (Cyprinella Lutrensis) To Atrazine, Terbufos, And Their Mixture, Ibrahim A. Messaad

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Alterations of normal histomorphology of fish tissues, behavior, and thermal tolerance are recognized by environmental toxicologists and fish biologists as powerful tools indicating diverse biochemical and physiological changes. Toxicity of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), terbufos (S-(((1,1-dimethyl-ethyl)thio)methyl)O,O-diethyl phosphorodithioate), and their mixture to red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) at 23$\sp\circ$C and 30$\sp\circ$C was investigated in 14-d bioassays after 14-d acclimation. During the bioassays, fish behavior, indications of toxicosis, and external anomalies were observed. After the bioassays, the critical thermal maximum (CTM) was determined. Fish also were preserved for examinations of gill, liver, and kidney tissues using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). SEM …


The Prairie Naturalist Volume 28, No. 4. December 1996 Dec 1996

The Prairie Naturalist Volume 28, No. 4. December 1996

The Prairie Naturalist

IMPLANTED MICROCHIPS USED TO INDIVIDUALLY IDENTIFY BLACK-FOOTED FERRETS IN MONTANA ▪ R. Stoneberg

GRAY WOLF STATUS IN NORTH DAKOTA ▪ D. S Licht and L. E. Huffman

VARIATION IN SELECTION OF MICROHABITATS BY MERRIAM'S TURKEY BROOD HENS ▪ M. A. Rumble and S. H. Anderson

SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTIVE CHRONOLOGY OF FEMALE RING-NECKED PHEASANTS IN SOUTH DAKOTA ▪ A. P. Leif

EFFECTS OF LOGGING SLASH ON ASPEN REGENERATION IN GRAZED CLEARCUTS ▪ M. A. Rumble, T. Pella, J. C. Sharps. A. V. Carter, and J. B. Parrish

BOOK REVIEWS

The Poetry of Ecoregions ▪ J. Pastor

Saving Texas' Rare Ones ▪ …