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1992

Animal Sciences

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Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Southern Nevada Effluent Wetlands: A Proposed Cooperative Venture Between The Bureau Of Reclamation & City Of Las Vegas, Bureau Of Reclamation Nov 1992

Southern Nevada Effluent Wetlands: A Proposed Cooperative Venture Between The Bureau Of Reclamation & City Of Las Vegas, Bureau Of Reclamation

Publications (WR)

Throughout North America there is a growing interest in constructed wetlands, both as relatively inexpensive, low-maintenance systems for removing nutrients from wastewater, and as a means of using municipal wastewater to enhance wildlife habitat and create public use opportunities. Because wetlands appear to have good potential as a component in the overall management of scarce water resources, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) has undertaken several cooperative research and demonstration projects to evaluate their effectiveness in a variety of local environments.

While a number of projects have demonstrated that wetlands can be beneficially employed to improve water quality, few such projects ...


Field Calibration Of A Transient Model For Broiler Misting, Richard S. Gates, Douglas G. Overhults, Robert W. Bottcher, Shu Hui Zhang Sep 1992

Field Calibration Of A Transient Model For Broiler Misting, Richard S. Gates, Douglas G. Overhults, Robert W. Bottcher, Shu Hui Zhang

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

A transient model to predict temperature within a tunnel ventilated broiler house during misting is developed. The model is calibrated with field data to obtain steady-state constants; transient predictions are compared to measured temperatures during cyclic misting for two different size birds. Measured temperatures during cyclic misting are shown to swing between steady-state asymptotes predicted from the model. Transient response of the model was faster than measured temperature data, in part due to temperature sensor dynamic response. The model predicts the length-wise temperature profile within the building during misting, and can be used to investigate alternate misting strategies and designs ...


Mechanical Backup Systems For Electronic Environmental Controllers, Richard S. Gates, Douglas G. Overhults, Larry W. Turner Jul 1992

Mechanical Backup Systems For Electronic Environmental Controllers, Richard S. Gates, Douglas G. Overhults, Larry W. Turner

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

A series of mechanical backup systems for electronic environmental controllers is presented for a typical finishing swine barn and a typical tunnel ventilated broiler house. The systems consist of mechanical thermostats and timers used in parallel with the electronic controller, designed to ensure animal survival in the event of controller or related hardware failure. For swine housing, three distinct mechanical backup functions are identified; for broiler housing, four distinct mechanical backup functions are identified. Schematic diagrams of the mechanical backup functions are provided and their implementation is described.


Public Oyster Shoal Survey - Spring 1992, Bruce J. Barber Jun 1992

Public Oyster Shoal Survey - Spring 1992, Bruce J. Barber

Reports

Oysters have been harvested from Virginia waters as long as humans have inhabited the area. Depletion of natural stocks in the late 1880's led to the establishment of regulations by public fisheries agencies. A survey of bottom areas in which oysters grew naturally was completed in 1896 under the direction of Lt. Baylor, USN. These areas (over 243,000 acres) were set aside by legislative action for public use and have come to be known as the Baylor Survey Grounds or Public Oyster Grounds of Virginia, and are presently administered by VMRC, the Virginia Marine Resources Commission (Haven et ...


A Survey Of Electronic Environmental Controllers, Richard S. Gates, Douglas G. Overhults, Larry W. Turner May 1992

A Survey Of Electronic Environmental Controllers, Richard S. Gates, Douglas G. Overhults, Larry W. Turner

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

Sixteen commercially available electronic environmental controllers were evaluated. The units were classified according to enclosure type, analog versus microprocessor based control, power supply, sensors, alarms, control relays and triac output, interval timers, outside temperature feedback, and retail price. An assessment of these controllers indicated several critical limitations in the application of this technology.

The use of integrated controllers for animal production has the potential for substantial improvements in production efficiencies. If the limitations observed in the present controller technology, as represented by this sample, are addressed, industry acceptance of the technology can be accelerated. A uniform standard to address this ...


The Influence Of Redd Distribution And Microhabitat Availability On The Distribution And Abundance Of Young-Of-The-Year Trout In The Green River, Utah, Michael J. Buntjer May 1992

The Influence Of Redd Distribution And Microhabitat Availability On The Distribution And Abundance Of Young-Of-The-Year Trout In The Green River, Utah, Michael J. Buntjer

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Redd distribution, redd density, and physical habitat were used to explain the distribution and abundance of young-of-the-year (YOY) brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Green River, Utah. The importance of variables at both a microhabitat and macrohabitat scale were assessed using stepwise regression analysis. Availability of cover (rock and vegetation) and proximity to spawning sites were the most important variables used to explain the distribution and abundance of YOY brown trout and rainbow trout. In addition, YOY brown trout and rainbow trout occupied specific microhabitats and showed patterns of use for particular depths, substrates, and ...


Survey Of Mollusks Of The Platte River: Final Report, Patricia W. Freeman, Keith Perkins Mar 1992

Survey Of Mollusks Of The Platte River: Final Report, Patricia W. Freeman, Keith Perkins

Papers in Natural Resources

A survey of the mollusks of the Platte River was carried out during the summers of 1990 and 1991. With the exception of the Big Bend Reach of the River in Dawson, Buffalo and Hall counties, no unionids (mussels) were found in the main channel of the river. We found 11 species of mussels along the river and 16 species of snails at 49 different sites from east to west across the state. We found the Asiatic clam, a known, non-native, pest species, for the first time in the state placing it several hundred miles west of the present eastern ...


Transient Overvoltage Testing Of Environmental Controllers, Richard S. Gates, Larry W. Turner, Douglas G. Overhults Mar 1992

Transient Overvoltage Testing Of Environmental Controllers, Richard S. Gates, Larry W. Turner, Douglas G. Overhults

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Faculty Publications

The integrated electronic control system will provide a new method for the day-to-day management of environmental control of animal production systems. No standards are currently accepted for transient overvoltage protection of these controllers. To assess the adequacy of existing designs, a test circuit was designed and used for a transient open circuit over-voltage waveform (ANSI/IEEE C62.41-1980) of 16 environmental control units: a maximum spike of 770 V was applied to the power supplies, and a spike up to 100 V was applied to temperature sensor lines. For these relatively mild tests, no failures were noted due to power ...


Status Of The Major Oyster Diseases In Virginia 1991 A Summary Of The Annual Monitoring Program, Eugene M. Burreson Feb 1992

Status Of The Major Oyster Diseases In Virginia 1991 A Summary Of The Annual Monitoring Program, Eugene M. Burreson

Reports

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Pahs) By The Kinetics Of Depuration In Bivalve Molluscs, Mercenaria Mercenaria, John T. Tanacredi Ph.D., C Sato, H Kim Jan 1992

Characterization Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Pahs) By The Kinetics Of Depuration In Bivalve Molluscs, Mercenaria Mercenaria, John T. Tanacredi Ph.D., C Sato, H Kim

Faculty Works: CERCOM

The objectives of this study were to examine depuration aspects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a hard-shell clam Mercenaria mercenaria, and to characterize PAHs by the depuration kinetics. In this investigation, clams were exposed to artificial sea water containing a mixture of eight PAHs (i.e., naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, flouranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene) for 48 hours. The clams were then transferred into clean (PAH-free) artificial seawater for release, and sampled at predetermined intervals. The target PAHs were extracted from the clam tissue and quantified by a gas chromatograph equipped with a capillary glass column ...


Sea-Surface Temperature Related Fisheries And Resource Markets, Jeffrey Michael Rasinski Jan 1992

Sea-Surface Temperature Related Fisheries And Resource Markets, Jeffrey Michael Rasinski

Theses and Major Papers

This thesis addresses the potential application of sea-surface temperature (SST) data to economic resource markets. It considers the revolution in technology and the accessibility of timely, accurate SST observations for resource markets. Specifically, it addresses issues related to pelagic fisheries and the fish meal industry. The thesis presents a discussion and overview of the upwelling ecosystem of Peru and the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens) including quantitative analysis and forecasts for the fishery and fish meal prices. This analysis is used to demonstrate the commercial application and relationship between SST and related resource markets. The thesis establishes a bioeconomic statistical model ...


Effects Of The Hol Chan Marine Reserve (Belize) On Associated Coral Reef Finfish Populations, Pamela Barrick Baker Jan 1992

Effects Of The Hol Chan Marine Reserve (Belize) On Associated Coral Reef Finfish Populations, Pamela Barrick Baker

Theses and Major Papers

People throughout the Caribbean depend on fishery resources for subsistence and income. Overfishing is a concern in many areas and the need for resource management is apparent. Coral reef protected areas are being used to maintain sustainable tropical reef fisheries. This research examined the effectiveness of the Hol Chan marine Reserve (HCMR), Belize, in meeting fisheries management objectives. Fishes were surveyed within the HCMR and in a comparable non-protected site to examine changes in fish community structure over time in the HCMR and between protected and non-protected sites. Results show that abundance, mean length, biomass, and species richness of commercially ...


Fisheries Under The Extended Jurisdiction Of Sri Lanka, Hewawasan S.G. Fernando Jan 1992

Fisheries Under The Extended Jurisdiction Of Sri Lanka, Hewawasan S.G. Fernando

Theses and Major Papers

Fishing has been an important economic activity in Sri Lanka for generations. Firstly, the fisheries sector provides employment to a substantial portion of the population particularly in the coastal area. Secondly, it provides 65 percent of animal protein consumed by the people of Sri Lanka. Thirdly, the fishing industry has proved its capabilities as an earner of foreign exchange through the export of marine product such as prawns, lobsters and other varieties. In 1977 Sri Lanka declared its 200 miles Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) under the new regime for the Law of the Sea. The government of Sri Lanka formulated ...


Survival And Movements Of Pheasant Chicks In Northern Iowa On Differing Agricultural Landscapes, Dean Edward Ewing Jan 1992

Survival And Movements Of Pheasant Chicks In Northern Iowa On Differing Agricultural Landscapes, Dean Edward Ewing

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of Fish Communities In Illinois Lakes , Douglas J. Austen Jan 1992

Analysis Of Fish Communities In Illinois Lakes , Douglas J. Austen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Fish community structure and the main environmental factors influencing community structure were studied using a database of fish population surveys and limnological information describing 144 Illinois lakes. Data were collected by Illinois Department of Conservation fisheries biologists in a standardized manner using electrofishing and gill nets. Population survey data were adjusted using equations estimating efficiency of the gears under varying conditions resulting in estimates of biomass and number of fish per hectare;Guild systems were used to describe the communities and to simplify the analysis of fish community data thus allowing for comparison of community structure between lakes of varying ...


Red Kangaroos Can Set Back Range Regeneration, Andrew Mclaughlin Jan 1992

Red Kangaroos Can Set Back Range Regeneration, Andrew Mclaughlin

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

After years of severe drought, stocking rates in Western Australia s arid rangelands have been kept low since the 1970s to allow native pastures to regenerate. As well, extensive re-seeding programs have started and sheep and cattle grazing on these areas has been restricted or eliminated. However, pasture regeneration in the rangelands can only succeed when grazing by all animals - sheep, cattle, kangaroos, goo.ts, camels, brumbies and donkeys - is controlled Many more red kangaroos roam throughout Western Australia's pastoral areas today than 20 years ago. The installation of windmills and troughs to water domestic livestock has allowed kangaroo ...


How Arsenic Residues Get In Wool, Tony Martin, Robin Jacob, Marion Davies, Peter Rutherford Jan 1992

How Arsenic Residues Get In Wool, Tony Martin, Robin Jacob, Marion Davies, Peter Rutherford

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Wool can become contaminated with arsenic in various ways, and several different sources may each contribute to any individual arsenic residue problem.

• dipping sheep in an arsenical dip ( now illegal),

• dipping sheep in a non-arsenical dip in a contaminated dipping facility

• penning sheep on soil with high levels of arsenic before shearing.

Other possible sources include running sheep on land contaminated by gold mine tailings or exploration sites, and allowing sheep access to sites on the farm where arsenical compounds have been dumped, for example, rubbish dumps or sites where dip/sump sludge has been dumped.

Farmers can prevent wool ...


Taking The Emu To Market, Paul Frapple, Ruth Hagan Jan 1992

Taking The Emu To Market, Paul Frapple, Ruth Hagan

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Licensed, commercial emu farming in Western Australia is now five years old.

This year, 13,500 birds will be processed for their meat, skin and oil. Production has exceeded demand at prices which the industry considers fair because the industry is still developing marketd for these producys.

Without secure, long term markets, over-production will worsen as the turn-off in this State increases and emus become available from other Australian states and overseas.

The Department of Agriculture is assisting the industry to develop a viable industry.


Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research, Scott Spaulding, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Shoshone-Bannock Tribe Jan 1992

Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research, Scott Spaulding, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, Shoshone-Bannock Tribe

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are present:ed. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. Nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in ...


A Trophic Gradient Analysis Of Lake Powell During Spring Runnoff 1992, Wayne Wurtsbaugh, Clyde Lay, Darren Carlise, Corey Huxol, Craig Schaugaard, Beau Clements, David Beauchamp Jan 1992

A Trophic Gradient Analysis Of Lake Powell During Spring Runnoff 1992, Wayne Wurtsbaugh, Clyde Lay, Darren Carlise, Corey Huxol, Craig Schaugaard, Beau Clements, David Beauchamp

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Between 26 April and 2 May 1992, students in a utah state university aquatic ecology class visited Lake Powell to do a study of trophic gradients of the reservoir. The main axis of the reservoir was surveyed, as well as less detailed analyses of Moki and Escalante Canyons. The work was conducted in collaboration with personnel from the u.s. Bureau of Reclamation headed by Bill Vernieu, and from the u.s. Geological Survey (Dick Marzolf). Some of their data appear in the physical-chemical section of this report.

Each student was responsible for compiling a report on one of the ...


Visual Feeding By Juvenile Bear Lake Sculpin, D. Neverman, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh Jan 1992

Visual Feeding By Juvenile Bear Lake Sculpin, D. Neverman, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Young-of-the-year Bear Lake sculpin Cottus extensus feed throughout the day on benthic invertebrates and cease feeding at night when they migrate to the metalimnion. We investigated their reliance on vision by conducting feeding trials at different light levels in the laboratory. Feeding rate reached a maximum at intermediate light levels (near 10^16 photons sm^–2 ss^–1; approximately 1 lux) but decreased as light intensity increased beyond this range. At this maximum rate, the fish fed nine times faster than they were able to feed in the dark, showing that young Bear Lake sculpin rely heavily upon vision to ...


Lake Trout Spawning In Lake Tahoe: Egg Incubation In Deepwater Macrophyte Beds, D. A. Beauchamp, B. C. Allen, R. C. Richards, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, C. R. Goldman Jan 1992

Lake Trout Spawning In Lake Tahoe: Egg Incubation In Deepwater Macrophyte Beds, D. A. Beauchamp, B. C. Allen, R. C. Richards, Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh, C. R. Goldman

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Although most populations of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawn over rocky shoals, use of these substrates by lake trout has not yet been found in Lake Tahoe. Large cobble substrate exists at depths less than 20 m, and steep, fractured, rocky substrate can be found in isolated areas from the surface down to at least 100 m, but no evidence of spawning activity in these areas has been found. Instead, at least a portion of the population spawns on deepwater mounds (40–60 m deep) over beds of the macrophyte Chara delicatula. This is the first known report of lake ...


Oyster Spatfall In Virginia Waters: 1991 Annual Summary, Bruce J. Barber Jan 1992

Oyster Spatfall In Virginia Waters: 1991 Annual Summary, Bruce J. Barber

Reports

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) conducts surveys of oyster spatfall (or "setting") in Virginia waters throughout the summer reproductive period. This survey provides an estimate of the potential of a particular area for receiving a "strike" or set of oysters on the bottom and helps define the timing of setting events. Information obtained from this effort is valuable to the Virginia Marine Resources Commission (VMRC) for its shell repletion program, and to private oyster growers, both of which are interested in maximizing the timing of shell planting. In addition, by maintaining a long-term data base, trends in spatfall ...


River Channel Stability And The Implications For Fish Habitat, John T. Beebe Jan 1992

River Channel Stability And The Implications For Fish Habitat, John T. Beebe

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The purpose of this project was to investigate various aspects of river channel stability as they relate to fish habitat. Two headwater creeks of the Credit River system, Black and Silver Creeks, and their confluent stream, the West Credit River in Southern Ontario were used in the study. Thirty-five cross-sections were established and revisited during four flow regimes, summer base flow, fall secondary peak flow, spring melt-high flow and post-spring high flow. Measurements of width, depth and temperature were taken at these times. Water samples were taken for determination of suspended sediment concentration. Channel stability was investigated in relation to ...


Population Status And Characteristics Of Machybopsis Gelida, Platygobio Gracilis And Rhinicythys Cataractae In The Missouri River Basin, Selena J. Werdon Jan 1992

Population Status And Characteristics Of Machybopsis Gelida, Platygobio Gracilis And Rhinicythys Cataractae In The Missouri River Basin, Selena J. Werdon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Few sturgeon chub (Macrhybopsis gelida: Cyprinidae) have been collected in the last decade, therefore their status, habitat selection and morphology were investigated at 172 previous collection sites. Data on two ecologically similar species, Platygobio gracilis and Rhinichthys cataractae, were also collected. Macrhvbopsis gelida were collected at 28 sites on the Powder River (n = 158) in Wyoming and Montana, and at one site on the Yellowstone River (n = 1) in Montana. Age-I, Age-II and Age-III M. gelida were collected. Specimens were 37 to 95 mm in total length. Macrhvbopsis gelida were ripe in mid-June, at water temperatures of 18.3-22. 2 ...


Shoreline Habitat Selection By Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus Leucocephalus) In A Non-Breeding Eagle Concentration-Area On The James River, Virginia, Kennedy H. Clark Jan 1992

Shoreline Habitat Selection By Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus Leucocephalus) In A Non-Breeding Eagle Concentration-Area On The James River, Virginia, Kennedy H. Clark

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Survival And Abundance Of Juvenile Caribbean Spiny Lobster: Effects Of Shelter Size And Geographic Location, Jonathon Daniel Mintz Jan 1992

Survival And Abundance Of Juvenile Caribbean Spiny Lobster: Effects Of Shelter Size And Geographic Location, Jonathon Daniel Mintz

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.