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1991

Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

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Articles 1 - 30 of 95

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Vorticity Dynamics Of Seasonal Variations Of The Antarctic Circumpolar Current From A Modeling Study, John M. Klinck Oct 1991

Vorticity Dynamics Of Seasonal Variations Of The Antarctic Circumpolar Current From A Modeling Study, John M. Klinck

CCPO Publications

A one-layer numerical model was developed to analyze the vorticity dynamics of the seasonal variations of currents in the Southern Ocean. The model includes the continental geometry and bathymetry of the Southern Ocean and is forced by monthly climatological wind stress. Five cases are considered that compare (i) circulation over a flat bottom to that with bathymetry, (ii) effects of zonally averaged wind stress forcing versus the climatological forcing and (iii) anomaly wind stress (winds with the annual mean removed) versus the full stress. The individual terms in the vorticity conservation equation are calculated from the model solution along two ...


Sidescan Sonar Image Enchancement Using A Decomposition Based On Orthogonal Functions. Applications With Chebyshev Polynomials, Pierre Cervenka, Christian De Moustier Oct 1991

Sidescan Sonar Image Enchancement Using A Decomposition Based On Orthogonal Functions. Applications With Chebyshev Polynomials, Pierre Cervenka, Christian De Moustier

Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping

A method is presented to remove from sidescan sonar images of the seafloor, artifacts that are clearly unrelated to the backscattering properties of the seafloor. A spectral analysis performed on a ping by ping basis proved to be well suited to the problem. The technique relies on a decomposition using Chebyshev polynomials. This stochastic method does not require a priori knowledge of deterministic parameters. It deals with the low spatial frequency components of the image whose wavelengths are not very small compared to the swath width. Applications to sidescan sonar images obtained with the SeaMARC LI system are presented.


Processes Affecting The Behavior Of Redox-Sensitive Elements In Chesapeake Bay, Maria Lourdes San Diego-Mcglone Oct 1991

Processes Affecting The Behavior Of Redox-Sensitive Elements In Chesapeake Bay, Maria Lourdes San Diego-Mcglone

OES Theses and Dissertations

Several processes can affect variations in the chemical composition of an estuary, including (1) biogeochemical reactions in the water column, (2) advective transport, and (3) diffusion from underlying sediments.

The purpose of the study was to establish whether estuarine redox reactions are controlled by a complex interaction of processes 1 to 3. Short-term and long-term studies were conducted in Chesapeake Bay. Redox species involved in redox cycling include oxygen, iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen species, arsenic and antimony species, while phosphate is indirectly involved in redox cycles. Silicate was used as a non-redox tracer.

For the short-term study, a Lagrangian ...


Water Quality In Chesapeake Bay : Virginia Portion, Water Year 1990 : A Report To The Virginia Water Control Board, Kevin Curling, Bruce Neilson Oct 1991

Water Quality In Chesapeake Bay : Virginia Portion, Water Year 1990 : A Report To The Virginia Water Control Board, Kevin Curling, Bruce Neilson

Reports

The purpose of this report is to characterize water quality conditions during the 1990 water year, October 1989 through September 1990. For the most part, the information is provided in graphical format. Only data for the Virginia portion of Chesapeake Bay is included. No data analysis or interpretation is included, since this is the stated purpose of a number of other reports. This report will be useful to both scientists and managers who need ready access to some portion of the data on a regular basis. With this report it is possible to quickly examine seasonal patterns, compare conditions at ...


Sediment Characterization Of Coastal Lagoons And Bays, Virginian Province, Maynard M. Nichols, S. C. Kim, C. M. Brouwer Oct 1991

Sediment Characterization Of Coastal Lagoons And Bays, Virginian Province, Maynard M. Nichols, S. C. Kim, C. M. Brouwer

Reports

Sediment characterizations for the following estuaries and rivers:

  • Chesapeake Bay
  • Potomac River
  • Rappahannock River
  • York River
  • James River
  • Chester River
  • Choptank River


Evaluation Of Water Quality Data - Blue Mountain Lake, James W. Moore Sep 1991

Evaluation Of Water Quality Data - Blue Mountain Lake, James W. Moore

Technical Reports

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Water Quality Data - Beaver Lake - Table Of Contents Through Section Iii, (Part I), James W. Moore Sep 1991

Evaluation Of Water Quality Data - Beaver Lake - Table Of Contents Through Section Iii, (Part I), James W. Moore

Technical Reports

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Water Quality Data - Beaver Lake - Appendices A - Bt, (Part Iii), James W. Moore Sep 1991

Evaluation Of Water Quality Data - Beaver Lake - Appendices A - Bt, (Part Iii), James W. Moore

Technical Reports

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Water Quality Data - Beaver Lake - Section Iv Through Table Xli, (Part Ii), James W. Moore Sep 1991

Evaluation Of Water Quality Data - Beaver Lake - Section Iv Through Table Xli, (Part Ii), James W. Moore

Technical Reports

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Water Quality Data - Beaver Lake - Appendices C - K, (Part Iv), James W. Moore Sep 1991

Evaluation Of Water Quality Data - Beaver Lake - Appendices C - K, (Part Iv), James W. Moore

Technical Reports

No abstract provided.


Initial Climate Change Scenario For The Western United States, United States Department Of The Interior, Bureau Of Reclamation Sep 1991

Initial Climate Change Scenario For The Western United States, United States Department Of The Interior, Bureau Of Reclamation

Meterology

Observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in recent decades have shown an accelerating upward trend due mainly to burning of fossil fuels. Physical considerations indicate that observed and projected increases in the concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will lead to significant global warming. Previous authors have followed both empirical and theoretical approaches to develop scenarios for changed climate conditions. The most common empirical approach is the use of analogs of global warming drawn from historical records and paleoclimates. The principal theoretical approach involves the interpretation of output for general circulation models of ...


Carbonate Deposits In Marine Fish Intestines: A New Source Of Biomineralization, Patrick J. Walsh, Patricia Blackwelder, Kenneth A. Gill, Eva Danulat, Thomas P. Mommsen Sep 1991

Carbonate Deposits In Marine Fish Intestines: A New Source Of Biomineralization, Patrick J. Walsh, Patricia Blackwelder, Kenneth A. Gill, Eva Danulat, Thomas P. Mommsen

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Marine teleostean fish are hypo-osmotic to seawater. As part of a multiorgan osmoregulatory strategy they drink seawater and selectively absorb water and minerals across the intestinal epithelium. Notably, divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2-) are left behind. We report here that in the gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, the ionic by-products of osmoregulation in the intestine contribute to de novo formation of a carbonate mineral, tentatively identified as calcian kutnohorite. Our data suggest that intestinal mineralization is a general feature of osmoregulation in marine teleosts and that this process is an unrecognized and possibly substantial source of marine carbonate sediments.


Lava-Seawater Interactions At Shallow-Water Submarine Lava Flows, Francis J. Sansone, Joseph A. Resing, Gordon W. Tribble, Peter N. Sedwick, Kevin M. Kelly, Ken Hon Sep 1991

Lava-Seawater Interactions At Shallow-Water Submarine Lava Flows, Francis J. Sansone, Joseph A. Resing, Gordon W. Tribble, Peter N. Sedwick, Kevin M. Kelly, Ken Hon

OES Faculty Publications

Hydrothermal plumes associated with nearshore lava flows from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii were studied on five occasions during 1989-1990 to address the current lack of data on direct lava-seawater interactions. The following enrichments were found in the sea-surface hydrothermal plumes above the active underwater lava flows: H2, 15,000x ambient seawater concentrations; Mn, 250x; and Si, 20x. Water temperatures reached 46°C. Lower concentrations and temperatures were observed in the plumes with increasing distance from shore, with H2, Si, and Mn concentrations linearly related to seawater temperature. Unlike deep sea spreading center hydrothermal plumes, no CH4 enrichment was ...


Oklahoma State University And University Of Arkansas, Fayetteville Cooperative Report On Evaluation And Assessment Factors Affecting Water Quality Of The Illinois River In Arkansas, Richard L. Meyer, Art V. Brown, David G. Parker Aug 1991

Oklahoma State University And University Of Arkansas, Fayetteville Cooperative Report On Evaluation And Assessment Factors Affecting Water Quality Of The Illinois River In Arkansas, Richard L. Meyer, Art V. Brown, David G. Parker

Technical Reports

No abstract provided.


Gravity Wave-Driven Fluctuations In Oh Nightglow From An Extended, Dissipative Emission Region, G. Schubert, R. L. Walterscheid, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D. Aug 1991

Gravity Wave-Driven Fluctuations In Oh Nightglow From An Extended, Dissipative Emission Region, G. Schubert, R. L. Walterscheid, Michael P. Hickey Ph.D.

Publications

The theory of gravity wave-driven fluctuations in the OH nightglow from an extended source region is generalized to account for effects of eddy kinematic viscosity ν and eddy thermal diffusivity κ. In the nondiffusive case, the amplitudes and phases of vertically integrated normalized intensity 〈δI〉/〈Ī〉 and temperature 〈δTI〉/〈ĪI〉perturbations and vertically integrated Krassovsky's ratio 〈η〉 as functions of period are influenced by the upper limit of vertical integration of the extended source, especially at long periods when vertical wavelengths λᵥ are small. The effects, which include oscillations in 〈δT〉/〈Ī〉 , and 〈η〉, particularly at ...


Volcanic Ash From The 1362 A.D. Oræfajokull Eruption (Iceland) In The Greenland Ice Sheet, J. M. Palais, K. Taylor, Paul Andrew Mayewski, P. Grootes Jul 1991

Volcanic Ash From The 1362 A.D. Oræfajokull Eruption (Iceland) In The Greenland Ice Sheet, J. M. Palais, K. Taylor, Paul Andrew Mayewski, P. Grootes

Earth Science Faculty Scholarship

A continuous record of electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) was made on site during the drilling of a 200 m ice core at Summit, Greenland and was used to identify horizons in the ice that might be linked to volcanic eruptions. In one detailed section that we studied a large peak in the number of particles, two orders of magnitude above the background, was measured. The particle peak was not associated with an ECM peak, however. The particles were identified as volcanic ash on the basis of both particle morphology and chemical composition. The ash composition suggests an explosive rhyolitic eruption ...


Angular Dependence Of 12-Khz Seafloor Acoustic Backscatter, Christian De Moustier, Dimitri Alexandrou Jul 1991

Angular Dependence Of 12-Khz Seafloor Acoustic Backscatter, Christian De Moustier, Dimitri Alexandrou

Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping

The angular dependence of seafloor acoustic backscatter,measured with a 12‐kHz multi narrow‐beam echo‐sounder at two sites in the central North Pacific with water depths of 1500 and 3100 m, respectively, has been determined for incidence angles between 0° and 20°. The acoustic data consist of quadrature samples of the beamformed echoes received on each of the 16 2.66° beams of a Sea Beam echo‐sounder. These data are subjected to adaptive noise cancelling for sidelobe interference rejection, and the centroid of each echo is determined. After corrections for the ship’s roll and raybending effects ...


The Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Of The White River National Wildlife Refuge, Steve W. Chordas Iii, George L. Harp Jun 1991

The Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Of The White River National Wildlife Refuge, Steve W. Chordas Iii, George L. Harp

Technical Reports

The primary purpose of this study was to survey the diversity of the aquatic macroinvertebrates of the White River National Wildlife Refuge (WRNWR). Determining relative abundance and distributional and seasonal patterns were secondary objectives. No comprehensive investigations of the WRNWR aquatic macroinvertebrates had been conducted previously, and it was hypothesized that this relatively undisturbed area may serve as a refugium. Further, this study provides base line data by which management programs can be composed. Thirty sampling stations were established within the WRNWR. Samples were collected from north to south at a basic rate of five stations per month. Revisit collections ...


Determination Of The Abient Toxicity Of The Tailwater Of Nimrod Lake, John T. Knight Jun 1991

Determination Of The Abient Toxicity Of The Tailwater Of Nimrod Lake, John T. Knight

Technical Reports

The objective of this research was to determine if ambient toxicity exists in the receiving stream below a reservoir in which water from the hypolimnion is released. The Ceriodaphnia 7-day test was utilized to determine if toxicity existed. This test is routinely used in the monitoring of municipal and industrial effluent. It has also been utilized in determining if ambient toxicity exists within receiving streams. Nimrod Lake is a flood control impoundment on the Fourche LaFave River in west central Arkansas. The literature suggest that during stratification the hypolimnetic release contains high levels of iron, manganese, ammonia and sulfide during ...


Water Quality As Affected By Pesticides In Rice Production, W. G. Johnson, T. L. Lavy, J. D. Mattice, B. W. Skulman, R. E. Talbert, R. J. Smith Jun 1991

Water Quality As Affected By Pesticides In Rice Production, W. G. Johnson, T. L. Lavy, J. D. Mattice, B. W. Skulman, R. E. Talbert, R. J. Smith

Technical Reports

Studies were conducted to determine the environmental persistence of the rice pesticides triclopyr, 2,4-D, benomyl and quinclorac. Triclopyr half-lives ranged from <7 d to >100 d depending on depth within the soil profile and clay content. Triclopyr persistence increased as depth within the profile increased and clay content increased. The benomyl metabolite MBC was present at greater than 50% of the initial amount after 9 months in the field. In simulated carryover field studies quinclorac exhibited the greatest potential for injury to subsequent rotational crops. Cotton and soybean growth was reduced when planted at four weeks after quinclorac application. The adsorption of ...


The Association Of Water Quality Parameters, Geological Substrates And Periphyton Community Structure, Richard L. Meyer, Julia Christensen Eichman Jun 1991

The Association Of Water Quality Parameters, Geological Substrates And Periphyton Community Structure, Richard L. Meyer, Julia Christensen Eichman

Technical Reports

This research was designed to understand the structure of epilithic diatom assemblage of a first-to-third order stream system which has minimal variance in nutrient concentration, but significant differences in geomorphological character. The primary objective was to determine the importance of geological substrate on the structure of the diatom assemblages. The second objective was to examine the effect of flow on these assemblages, and the third part of the research was to develop a seasonal model of temporal and spatial annual succession. The temporal and spatial models represent the effect of seasons, stream order, substrate characteristics, storm events, and periods of ...


Determination Of Optimal Timing Of Poultry Waste Disposal By Meteorological, Hydrological, And Water Quality Modeling Techniques, D. R. Edwards, T. C. Daniel Jun 1991

Determination Of Optimal Timing Of Poultry Waste Disposal By Meteorological, Hydrological, And Water Quality Modeling Techniques, D. R. Edwards, T. C. Daniel

Technical Reports

Approximately one million Mg of broiler litter were generated in conjunction with Arkansas' 1989 broiler production. Common practices for disposal of the waste have the potential to damage the quality of downstream rivers and lakes. This possibility is enhanced due to the concentration of broiler production in areas of the state with shallow soils, steep slopes, and limited suitable disposal area. Since the risk of pollution is greatest immediately following disposal and increases with rainfall depth and intensity, adverse water quality impacts may be mitigated by timing the application to coincide with low probability of surface losses of the nutrients ...


Investigation Of The Relationship Of Earthquakes And Underground Waste Disposal In The El Dorado Area, Arkansas, Randel Cox, Roy B. Vanarsdale Apr 1991

Investigation Of The Relationship Of Earthquakes And Underground Waste Disposal In The El Dorado Area, Arkansas, Randel Cox, Roy B. Vanarsdale

Technical Reports

From December, 1983 to September, 1989 twelve small earthquakes were recorded for the El Dorado, Arkansas area. Magnitudes of these earthquakes were well below damaging levels. Prior to this time no seismicity was reported in the area, suggesting that the earthquakes were not naturally occurring and may have been the result of human activity. El Dorado is located at the margin of a region of underground waste brine disposal and along a major fault zone. Elevated pore pressures resulting from brine disposal may have reduced the normal (locking) stresses across fault surfaces and triggered fault movement. Two injection wells (Great ...


The Role Of Inositol Phosphate Cascade In Visual Excitation Of Invertebrate Microvillar Photoreceptors, Tamara M. Frank, A. Fein Apr 1991

The Role Of Inositol Phosphate Cascade In Visual Excitation Of Invertebrate Microvillar Photoreceptors, Tamara M. Frank, A. Fein

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

The identity of the transmitter(s) involved in visual transduction in invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors remains unresolved. In this study, the role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) was examined in Limulus ventral photoreceptors by studying the effects on the light response of heparin and neomycin, agents that inhibit the production or action of IP3. Both heparin and neomycin reduce responses to brief flashes of light and the transient component of responses to steps of light, and also inhibit IP3-induced calcium release, indicating that IP3 plays a direct role in invertebrate visual excitation. The effects of ...


Water Quality In Chesapeake Bay : Virginia Portion, Water Year 1989 : A Report To The Virginia Water Control Board, Kevin Curling, Bruce Neilson Mar 1991

Water Quality In Chesapeake Bay : Virginia Portion, Water Year 1989 : A Report To The Virginia Water Control Board, Kevin Curling, Bruce Neilson

Reports

The purpose of this report is to characterize water quality conditions during the 1909 water year, October 1988 through September 1989. For the most part, the information is provided in graphical format. Only data for the Virginia portion of Chesapeake Bay is included. No data analysis or interpretation i:s included, since this is the stated purpose of a number of other reports a. We believe that the report will be useful to both scientists and managers who need ready access to some portion of the data on a regular basis. With this report one could, for example, quickly examine ...


Water Quality In Chesapeake Bay : Virginia Portion, Water Year 1985 : A Report To The Virginia Water Control Board, Kevin Curling, Bruce Neilson Mar 1991

Water Quality In Chesapeake Bay : Virginia Portion, Water Year 1985 : A Report To The Virginia Water Control Board, Kevin Curling, Bruce Neilson

Reports

The purpose of this report is to characterize water quality conditions during the 1985 water year, October 1984 through September 1985. For the most part, the information is provided in graphical format. Only data for the Virginia portion of Chesapeake Bay is included. No data analysis or interpretation is included, since this is the stated purpose of a number of other reports. We believe that the report will be useful to both scientists and managers who need ready access to some portion of the data on a regular basis. With this report one could, for example, quickly examine seasonal patterns ...


Final Report: Biological Monitoring Of The John U. Lloyd Beach Renourishment: 1989, Richard E. Dodge, Steven C. Hess, Charles Messing Jan 1991

Final Report: Biological Monitoring Of The John U. Lloyd Beach Renourishment: 1989, Richard E. Dodge, Steven C. Hess, Charles Messing

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Reports

In 1987, Nova University (Contractor) with ERM South (Subcontractor) was awarded a contract to provide biological monitoring services for the John U Lloyd State Recreation Area Beach Renourishment Project. A notice to proceed for the initial biological monitoring (Phase I - Preconstruction) was issued in February, 1989. Phase I preconstruction field monitoring took place in February and March, 1989. Phase II post-construction field work took place in August and Spetember, 1989. Phase III post-construction field monitoring took place in August, 1990. Laboratory work occurred from March, 1989 to January, 1991. Renourishment dredging took place from May 16, 1989 to July 14 ...


Reservoir Sedimentation Studies, D C. Boudurant, R H. Livesey Jan 1991

Reservoir Sedimentation Studies, D C. Boudurant, R H. Livesey

US Army Corps of Engineers

It must be recognized that, when a reservoir is constructed on a stream, all or most of the sediment transported into the reservoir by the stream will be deposited there. With few exceptions, there is no practical method for reducing or eliminating the sediment inflow; thus it is necessary to anticipate and to provide for resulting problems. The major problem is, of course, the accumulative loss of storage capacity. Other items of importance include the distribution of the sediment with respect to various storage increments, the effect on the chemical or physical quality of the water, ecological effects, and the ...


The Oil Pollution Act Of 1990: A Solution Or A Problem?, Kevin M. Carey Jan 1991

The Oil Pollution Act Of 1990: A Solution Or A Problem?, Kevin M. Carey

Theses and Major Papers

The signing of the Oil Pollution Control Act of 1990, Public law 101-380, (OPA 90) on August 18, 1990 was a significant landmark in the struggle to control pollution by oil and the activities associated with the recovery, transport, and refinement of oil and associated products in the territorial waters of the United States, and was long overdue. The aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, which was the impetus that finally prodded Congress to pass the oil spill legislation that had been under consideration for years, has been filled with controversy over how the spill occurred, how the clean up ...


Mariculture Management For Pohnpei State, Federated States Of Micronesia, Kevin Brooks Foster Jan 1991

Mariculture Management For Pohnpei State, Federated States Of Micronesia, Kevin Brooks Foster

Theses and Major Papers

The Marine Resources Division of Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia is currently engaged in development activities that include the establishment of family scale mariculture projects for community members of remote villages and outer islands. The goal of this undertaking is to supplement subsistence and income generation ventures for community members through the wise use and exploitation of the marine environment. These aims may be jeopardized unless a management plan is devised that reflects the customary marine resource practices as embraced by islanders from each community. The intent of this thesis projects is to devise a mariculture management model that ...