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1991

Environmental Sciences

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Articles 1 - 30 of 393

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Biomass Conversion Of Solid-Waste (Newsprint) Into A Clean Fuel (Ethanol) By Enzymic Hydrolysis And Fermentation, Nimesh V. Gandhi Dec 1991

Biomass Conversion Of Solid-Waste (Newsprint) Into A Clean Fuel (Ethanol) By Enzymic Hydrolysis And Fermentation, Nimesh V. Gandhi

Theses

A feasibility study has been performed with two bioprocesses for conversion of newsprint waste to an environmentally safe fuel (ethyl alcohol) and carbon dioxide.

The following areas were investigated to accomplish this task: one hour pretreatment of newsprint by attrition, saccharification of paper slurry to glucose by cellulase and cellobiase, effects of pH, temperature and concentration of enzymes on conversion of paper to sugar, fermentation of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide by immobilized yeast, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of paper to ethanol and carbon dioxide using enzymes and immobilized yeast.

Results indicate that the enzymic hydrolysis of newsprint ...


Factors Affecting Agricultural Chemical Losses To Surface And Ground Water Resources, J. L. Baker, J. L. Hatfield Dec 1991

Factors Affecting Agricultural Chemical Losses To Surface And Ground Water Resources, J. L. Baker, J. L. Hatfield

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The major chemical factors determining concentrations and losses of agricultural chemicals from cropland are their persistence and adsorption to soil. The major hydrologic factors are rate and route of infiltration. The major management factors are the rate, method, timing, and choice of applied chemicals; cropping; and tillage system. To determine the "Best Management Practices" (BMPs) to reduce chemical losses, their mechanisms of interactions with the soil and management practices must be understood. Depending on soil adsorption, pesticides and nutrients can be mostly lost with surface runoff water, sediment, or water percolating out of the root zone (water which may return ...


Impact Of Tillage, Crop Rotation, And Chemical Management Practices On Groundwater Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar Dec 1991

Impact Of Tillage, Crop Rotation, And Chemical Management Practices On Groundwater Quality, Rameshwar S. Kanwar

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Contamination of groundwater by nitrate and pesticides has been documented by various state and federal agencies in the United States. Groundwater pollution is of increasing concern in the United States because about 50 percent of the drinking water comes from groundwater. A recent study suggested that water pollution is the most damaging and widespread environmental effect of agricultural production. Recent research conducted in Iowa and surrounding states has indicated the incidence of groundwater contamination by pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers (Baker and Johnson, 1981; Everts and Kanwar, 1990; Gast et al., 1978; Hallet al., 1989; Hallberg, 1989; Kanwar et al., 1985a ...


The Probe, Issue 117 - December 1991 Dec 1991

The Probe, Issue 117 - December 1991

The Probe: Newsletter of the National Animal Damage Control Association

THE PROBE
National Animal Damage Control Association
DECEMBER 1991
Evaluating Performance of the Soft-Catch® Coyote Trap
Calendar of Upcoming Events
President Bush Has Unique Style Of Animal Damage Control
Soft-Catch® Traps...
Animal Damage Control in the News:
It’s the “Gull War” at Kennedy International
Cyanide Baits May Be Allowed on BLM Land
Pocket Gopher Control Evaluation at Rogue River National Forest
“USA” Today Lists Predator Protection Tips
International Resolution Supports Regulated Trapping
Over Forty NADCA Members Attend 5th Eastern Wildlife Damage Control Conference
USDA Is Helping to Limit Rabies Outbreak In Texas
Wildlife Veterinarians Adopt Position Statement on Oral ...


Bird Response To Monofilament Lines At Backyard Feeders, Kimberly K. Kessler Dec 1991

Bird Response To Monofilament Lines At Backyard Feeders, Kimberly K. Kessler

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

No abstract provided.


Biology And Ecology Of Dioryctria Ponderosae Dyar And Dioryctria Tumicolella Mutuura, Munroe And Ross, Mark A. Brohman Dec 1991

Biology And Ecology Of Dioryctria Ponderosae Dyar And Dioryctria Tumicolella Mutuura, Munroe And Ross, Mark A. Brohman

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

No abstract provided.


Ecological Aspects Of Burrowing Owl Nesting Strategies In The Nebraska Panhandle, Martha J. Desmond Dec 1991

Ecological Aspects Of Burrowing Owl Nesting Strategies In The Nebraska Panhandle, Martha J. Desmond

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

No abstract provided.


Remote Estimation Of The Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient In A Moderately Turbid Estuary, Richard P. Stumpf, Jonathan Pennock Dec 1991

Remote Estimation Of The Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient In A Moderately Turbid Estuary, Richard P. Stumpf, Jonathan Pennock

School of Marine Science and Ocean Engineering

Abstract

Solutions of the radiative transfer equation are used to derive relationships of water reflectance to the diffuse attenuation coefficient (K) in moderately turbid water (K > 0.5 m−1). Data sets collected from the NOAA AVHRR and in situ observations from five different dates confirm the appropriateness of these relationships, in particular the logistic equation. Values of K calculated from the reflectance data agree to within 60% of the observed values, although the reflectance derived using a more comprehensive aerosol correction is sensitive to chlorophyll concentrations greater than 50 μg L−1. Agreement between in situ and remote observations ...


Hepatic Microsomal N-Hydroxylation Of Aniline And 4-Chloroaniline By Rainbow Trout (Onchorhyncus Mykiss), Steven P. Bradbury, J. M. Dady, A. D. Hoffman, M. M. Voit, D. L. Olson Dec 1991

Hepatic Microsomal N-Hydroxylation Of Aniline And 4-Chloroaniline By Rainbow Trout (Onchorhyncus Mykiss), Steven P. Bradbury, J. M. Dady, A. D. Hoffman, M. M. Voit, D. L. Olson

Steven P. Bradbury

N-Hydroxylation of aniline and 4-chloroaniline was quantified in rainbow trout microsomal preparations using h.p.l.c.-liquid scintillation methods. Radioactive phenylhydroxylamine and 4-chlorophenylhydroxylamine metabolites were identified by co-elution with non-labelled standards. The method provided resolution of metabolite standards, and quantification of both N-hydroxylated metabolites was achieved without derivatization. The maximum velocities at 25 degrees C were 33.8 +/- 1.40 and 22.0 +/- 0.98 pmol/min per mg for aniline and 4-chloroaniline N-hydroxylation, respectively. The Km values were 1.0 +/- 0.11 and 0.8 +/- 0.11 mM for aniline and 4-chloroaniline N-hydroxylation, respectively. These activities were not ...


The Precautionary Principle: A Fundamental Principle Of Law And Policy For The Protection Of The Global Environment, James Cameron, Juli Abouchar Dec 1991

The Precautionary Principle: A Fundamental Principle Of Law And Policy For The Protection Of The Global Environment, James Cameron, Juli Abouchar

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Water Current, Volume 23, December 1991 Dec 1991

Water Current, Volume 23, December 1991

Water Current Newsletter

Massengale Presents Challenges at University Water Policy Forum
Governor Nelson Discusses Environmental Concerns at Nebraska Groundwater Foundation Luncheon
Report from the Director: Education and Research High Priorities
Surveys of Water-Related College-Education and Employment in Nebraska
California's Water Problems Explained at NGF Symposium
Cancer and Water Quality, Topic of Seminar
Wetlands Topic for 1992 Nebraska Water Conference
Environmental Cleanup Liabilities Farmers Should Consider
Eight States Evaluated in Groundwater Quality Research
Hungarian Students, Researchers to Collaborate in Environmental Degradation Studies


The Feasibility Of Enhacing Streamflow In The Sevier River Basin Of Utah By Seeding Winter Mountain Clouds, Arlin B. Super, David W. Reynolds, Bureau Of Reclamation, U.S. Department Of The Interior Dec 1991

The Feasibility Of Enhacing Streamflow In The Sevier River Basin Of Utah By Seeding Winter Mountain Clouds, Arlin B. Super, David W. Reynolds, Bureau Of Reclamation, U.S. Department Of The Interior

All U.S. Government Documents (Utah Regional Depository)

The Bureau of Reclamation conducted a feasibility study of seeding winter mountain clouds as a possible means of enhancing the water supplies of the Sevier River Basin of Utah. A considerable body of pertinent meteorological observations from in or near the basin is examined. The evidence indicates that Utah winter mountain clouds often have more supercooled liquid water available than is naturally converted to snowfall. Thus, the needed "raw material" for cloud seeding to be effective is frequently available. Much of the excess liquid water has been found in the lowest kilometer or less over the mountain barriers, a region ...


Biology And Ecology Of Dioryctria Ponderosae Dyar And Dioryctria Tumicolella Mutuura, Munroe And Ross, Mark A. Brohman Dec 1991

Biology And Ecology Of Dioryctria Ponderosae Dyar And Dioryctria Tumicolella Mutuura, Munroe And Ross, Mark A. Brohman

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

No abstract provided.


Environmental Radiocesium In Subarctic And Arctic Alaska Following Chernobyl, M. Baskaran, J. J. Kelley, A. S. Naidu, D. F. Holleman Dec 1991

Environmental Radiocesium In Subarctic And Arctic Alaska Following Chernobyl, M. Baskaran, J. J. Kelley, A. S. Naidu, D. F. Holleman

Geology Faculty Research Publications

Radiocesium (¹³⁴ Cs and ¹³⁷ Cs) concentrations were measured in soil, plant and wildlife samples from subarctic to arctic Alaska. Concentrations of ¹³⁷ Cs ranged from below detectable or low levels in whale and fish samples to as high as 242 Bq/kg in lichen. For all potential human food items, the radiocesium concentrations measured in this study were below accepted permissible levels for human consumption. Chernobyl-derived radiocesium concentrations ranged from below detectable or low levels in all arctic samples (soil, sediment, lichen, whale, fish and caribou) to 32 Bq/kg in subarctic moss. Therefore the distribution and subsequent deposition ...


Stream Of Consciousness (1991), Alliance For Aquatic Resource Monitoring (Allarm) Dec 1991

Stream Of Consciousness (1991), Alliance For Aquatic Resource Monitoring (Allarm)

Stream of Consciousness

Stream of Consciousness is a publication from the Alliance for Aquatic Resource Monitoring (ALLARM) at Dickinson College.

Table of Contents

Drought and Its Effect on Stream Health

It's All in the Rocks! / by Candie Wilderman

Energy Bill Rejected / by Christy White

Activists' Corner

Networking Opportunity

Did You Know... / by John Meckley

ALLARM and Founder Receive EPA Award / by Matthew Kloiber

CAPHE Grant Awarded / by Jennifer Litton

Available to Members

Annual Board Meeting Successful

Financial Report

Meet the Staff


Preliminary Epidemiological Interpretation Of The Intrinsic And Extrinsic Factors Contributing To The Coverage And Participation Rates Of The Vaccination Program In Arssi, Ethiopia, Muchie Kidanu Dec 1991

Preliminary Epidemiological Interpretation Of The Intrinsic And Extrinsic Factors Contributing To The Coverage And Participation Rates Of The Vaccination Program In Arssi, Ethiopia, Muchie Kidanu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many immunization programs in developing countries arr now undergoing a period of rapid utilization. Innovative strategies, such as immunization holidays, are being tried. Political commitment and enthusiasm are high. There is a strong desire by health professionals to protect the lives of many children from the untimely death and/or disability resulting from infectious diseases preventable by vaccination.

Evaluation of an immunization program can benefit other elements of the health system, particularly those that are not amenable to objective evaluation as immunization. In this case, immunization can serve as an indicator of the overall performance of the health system. The ...


Recycling: Knowledge, Demographic & Motivational Factors Which Differentiate Behavior, David Ducoff Dec 1991

Recycling: Knowledge, Demographic & Motivational Factors Which Differentiate Behavior, David Ducoff

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study focuses on motivation -Involved in recycling behavior among residents of Muhlenberg County, Kentucky. Knowledge of recycling and how it was acquired, and the variables of environmental concern, economic incentive and the peer pressure were compared so that behavior could be distinguished that separated recyclers from nonrecyclers. Talcott Parsons' work in action theory and George Homans' work in exchange theory provide the theoretical foundation for my study. The research was approached in a qualitatively based design with interviews of twenty area residents. Demographic factors of age, sex, religious affiliation, church attendance, education and income of respondents were solicited. In ...


Volume 4 - November 17, 1991 Nov 1991

Volume 4 - November 17, 1991

What on Earth

What on Earth was a short-run student publication by the Providence College Environmental and Wildlife Club. (Volume 4 - November 17, 1991 - 8 pages total.)


The Probe, Issue 116 - November 1991 Nov 1991

The Probe, Issue 116 - November 1991

The Probe: Newsletter of the National Animal Damage Control Association

THE PROBE
National Animal Damage Control Association
NOVEMBER 1991
ADC Continues With EIS Process
Calendar of Upcoming Events
NADC Advisory Committee Appointments Announced
Animal Damage Control in the News
Michigan Woman, 62, Fends Off Bear
Recipes Distributed as Remedy for Brown Tree Snake Problem
Caribbean Countries Request Assistance From DWRC
NRA Creates New Wildlife Management Department
WFLA Reports Raid on Wildlife Research Project
Nominations for NADCA For 1992-1993
Where Your NADCA Dues Go...
Co-Editor Schmidt Moves To Utah
Letter to Inside APHIS Draws Fire From Virginia Wildlife Biologist
NADCA Logo Contest Still On!


Limits To Environmental Bonds: Lessons From The Labor Literature, Jason F. Shogren, Joseph A. Herriges, Ramu Govindasamy Nov 1991

Limits To Environmental Bonds: Lessons From The Labor Literature, Jason F. Shogren, Joseph A. Herriges, Ramu Govindasamy

CARD Working Papers

Bonds have recently been promoted as an alternative tool for controlling environmental damages, particularly in those instances when the innovative activities of a firm have uncertain future impacts [Costanza and Perrings (1990)]. Under this mechanism, a firm would post a bond ex ante, forfeiting the bond if its activities caused harm to environmental resources. While the benefits of bonds have been developed, there has been little systematic effort to explore their limitations. The labor literature, on the other hand, has extensively studied the limits of bonds as a mechanism for preventing worker shirking. Using the insights found for this parallel ...


The Effects Of Environmental Policy On Trade-Offs In Weed Control Management, Aziz Bouzaher, David W. Archer, Richard Cabe, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Jason F. Shogren Nov 1991

The Effects Of Environmental Policy On Trade-Offs In Weed Control Management, Aziz Bouzaher, David W. Archer, Richard Cabe, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Jason F. Shogren

CARD Working Papers

This paper presents a novel approach for generating information for regulatory and policy analysis, based on farmers' adoption of weed control technology. A simulation model, WISH, is used to generate cost and risk information on 258 weed control strategies. The environmental policies simulated are bans on triazines and broadcast application technology.


Challenging The Enforcement Of Environmental Regulation, Clifford Nowell, Jason F. Shogren Nov 1991

Challenging The Enforcement Of Environmental Regulation, Clifford Nowell, Jason F. Shogren

CARD Working Papers

If a firm can contest the enforcement of an environmental regulation, then neither increasing the probability nor severity of the fine will guarantee a reduction in the illegal dumping of waste. The only policy that unambiguously decreases illegal dumping is lowering the price at legal dump sites because increasing the probability or severity triggers investment into a legal war chest to challenge the fine, while a decrease in the costs of legal dumping does not. If the regulator can only imperfectly monitor a firm's behavior so the firm can be accused of another firm's behavior, then strategic commitment ...


Efficient Algorithm For Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Problems, Aziz Bouzaher, John B. Braden, Gary V. Johnson, Susan E. Murley Nov 1991

Efficient Algorithm For Nonpoint Source Pollution Control Problems, Aziz Bouzaher, John B. Braden, Gary V. Johnson, Susan E. Murley

CARD Working Papers

A dynamic programming algorithm is proposed for a class of nonpoint source pollution control problems. The inherently combinatorial nature of these problems--stemming from the discrete nature of the decision variables, which are production and conservation practices--gives them a special knapsack structure with multiple right hand sides and additional multiple choice constraints.

This paper focuses on the computer implementation of this algorithm and its numerical testing and behavior compared with standard integer programming codes. The results show the robustness and relative efficiency of the approach.

Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that dynamic programming can be used to generate sensitivity analysis information for ...


A Robust-Resistant Approach To Interpret Spatial Behavior Of Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Of A Glacial Till Soil Under No-Tillage System, Binayak P. Mohanty, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Robert Horton Jr. Nov 1991

A Robust-Resistant Approach To Interpret Spatial Behavior Of Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Of A Glacial Till Soil Under No-Tillage System, Binayak P. Mohanty, Rameshwar S. Kanwar, Robert Horton Jr.

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

A central Iowa glacial till soil under no-tillage condition was studied for its spatial behavior of saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) at the surface soil layers. Hydraulic conductivity measurements both in situ and in the laboratory were made at two depths of 15 and 30 cm at regular intervals of 4.6 m on two perpendicular transects crossing each other at the center of the field. Simplified split-window median polishing in conjunction with a robust semivariogram estimator were used to examine the spatial structure of the glacial till material. Results of this study indicated a nested structure of K at 30 ...


Cottontail Rabbit: Eastern Cottontail (Sylvilagus Floridanis) Nov 1991

Cottontail Rabbit: Eastern Cottontail (Sylvilagus Floridanis)

Nebraska Game and Parks Commission Publications

Cottontail Rabbit:
Description
Distribution and Range
Habitat and Home
Habits
Foods
Reproduction
Mortality
Importance
Management


Agenda: The Law Of International Water Courses: The United Nations International Law Commission's Draft Rules On The Non-Navigational Uses Of International Watercourses, University Of Colorado Boulder. School Of Law, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center, American Bar Association. Section Of International Law And Practice. International Environmental Law Committee, American Society Of International Law. Panel On State Responsibility, United Nations. International Law Commission Oct 1991

Agenda: The Law Of International Water Courses: The United Nations International Law Commission's Draft Rules On The Non-Navigational Uses Of International Watercourses, University Of Colorado Boulder. School Of Law, University Of Colorado Boulder. Natural Resources Law Center, American Bar Association. Section Of International Law And Practice. International Environmental Law Committee, American Society Of International Law. Panel On State Responsibility, United Nations. International Law Commission

The Law of International Watercourses: The United Nations International Law Commission's Draft Rules on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses (October 18)

Colloquium organizers, committee members and/or moderators included University of Colorado School of Law professors Daniel Magraw, James N. Corbridge, Jr. and Lawrence J. MacDonnell (Director, Natural Resources Law Center).

The United Nations International Law Commission has drafted new rules on the non-navigational uses of international watercourses. University of Colorado Law Professor Daniel Magraw has organized a colloquium to review these draft rules on October 18, 1991, sponsored jointly by the Panel on State Responsibility of the American Society of International Law, the University of Colorado School of Law, and the International Environmental Law Committee of the ABA's Section ...


Introduction And Overview On The International Law Commission’S Draft Rules On The Non-Navigational Uses Of International Watercourses, Stephen Mccaffrey Oct 1991

Introduction And Overview On The International Law Commission’S Draft Rules On The Non-Navigational Uses Of International Watercourses, Stephen Mccaffrey

The Law of International Watercourses: The United Nations International Law Commission's Draft Rules on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses (October 18)

15 pages.

Contains footnotes.


Observations On The International Law Commission’S Draft Rules On The Non-Navigational Uses Of International Watercourses (Articles 1-4), Robert D. Hayton Oct 1991

Observations On The International Law Commission’S Draft Rules On The Non-Navigational Uses Of International Watercourses (Articles 1-4), Robert D. Hayton

The Law of International Watercourses: The United Nations International Law Commission's Draft Rules on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses (October 18)

14 pages.

Includes footnotes.


The International Law Commission’S Draft Articles On The Law Of International Watercourses: Principles And Planned Measures, Charles B. Bourne Oct 1991

The International Law Commission’S Draft Articles On The Law Of International Watercourses: Principles And Planned Measures, Charles B. Bourne

The Law of International Watercourses: The United Nations International Law Commission's Draft Rules on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses (October 18)

52 pages.

Contains 6 pages of footnotes.


Protection And Preservation In International Watercourses, C. O. Okidi Oct 1991

Protection And Preservation In International Watercourses, C. O. Okidi

The Law of International Watercourses: The United Nations International Law Commission's Draft Rules on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses (October 18)

56 pages.

Contains 11 pages of footnotes.