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1987

Earth Sciences

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Cenozoic Paleoceanography 1986: An Introduction, W. H. Berger, Larry A. Mayer Dec 1987

Cenozoic Paleoceanography 1986: An Introduction, W. H. Berger, Larry A. Mayer

Affiliate Scholarship

New developments in Cenozoic paleoceanography include the application of climate models and atmospheric general circulation models to questions of climate reconstruction, the refinement of conceptual models for interpretation of the carbon isotope record in terms of carbon mass balance, paleocirculation, paleoproductivity, and the regional mapping of paleoceanographic events by acoustic stratigraphy. Sea level change emerges as a master variable to which changes in the ocean environment must be traced in many cases, and tests of the onlap-offlap paradigm therefore are of crucial importance.


Nutrient Losses From Conventional And No-Till Cornfields, Robert L. Blevins, Wilbur Frye Dec 1987

Nutrient Losses From Conventional And No-Till Cornfields, Robert L. Blevins, Wilbur Frye

Soil Science News and Views

Farmers must be concerned about both the monetary loss and the threat of groundwater and surface water pollution associated with the loss of plant nutrients from their fields. There is also an increasing public concern about pollution and the role of agriculture in nonpoint-source pollution. Movement of water over the surface of the soil as well as through the soil profile increases the potential for loss of water-soluble nutrients, especially nitrates.


Boron-Bearing Kornerupine From Fiskenaesset, West Greenland: A Reexamination Of Specimens From The Type Locality, Edward S. Grew, Richard K. Herd, Nicholas Marquez Dec 1987

Boron-Bearing Kornerupine From Fiskenaesset, West Greenland: A Reexamination Of Specimens From The Type Locality, Edward S. Grew, Richard K. Herd, Nicholas Marquez

Earth Science Faculty Scholarship

In 1884, Lorenzen proposed the formula MgAI2SiO6 for his new mineral kornerupine from Fiskenæsset and did not suspect it to contain boron. Lacroix and de Gramont (1919) reported boron in Fiskenæsset kornerupine, while Herd (1973) found none. New analyses (ion microprobe mass analyser and spectrophotometric) of kornerupine in three specimens from the type locality, including the specimens analysed by Lorenzen and Herd, indicate the presence of boron in all three, in amounts ranging from 0.50 to 1.44 wt.% B203, e.g. (Li0.04 Na0.01 Ca0.01) (Mg3 ...


A Trace Element Geochemical Analysis Of The Lake Ellen Kimberlite, Crystal Falls, Michigan, U.S.A., Michelle Ellen Fults Dec 1987

A Trace Element Geochemical Analysis Of The Lake Ellen Kimberlite, Crystal Falls, Michigan, U.S.A., Michelle Ellen Fults

Masters Theses

The Lake Ellen kimberlite located in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan represents a possible bedrock source for the diamonds found in the glacial deposits around the Great Lakes. The purpose of this research was to undertake a geochemical analysis in order to better understand the evolution of the kimberlite body and to elucidate on the garnet xenolith paragenesis.

Both instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and scanning electron microscope analysis (SEM) were utilized in this research. The INAA revealed that with respect to other types of upper mantle rocks, the Lake Ellen kimberlite is enriched in both the light rare earth ...


Feasibility Of The Proposed Garden Lane Recharge Basin In Portage, Michigan, Sandra K. Barnick Dec 1987

Feasibility Of The Proposed Garden Lane Recharge Basin In Portage, Michigan, Sandra K. Barnick

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of proposed artificial recharge basins at the Garden Lane Well Field in Portage, Michigan. The area is underlain by 7 feet of muck, 27 feet of sand and gravel, and a 10 foot semiconfining till over a semiconfined aquifer.

The vertical permeability of the semiconfining layer, and the hydraulic head difference between the upper unconfined aquifer and the lower semiconfined aquifer were determined. This was accomplished by conducting a constant-rate pump test. Test data were interpreted by three methods: (1) drawdown vs. time (both logarithmic and semilogarithmic), (2) recovery ...


Deposition, Diagenesis, And Porosity Development Of The Middle Devonian, Lucas Formation In The West Branch Oil Field, Ogemaw County, Michigan, Scott Gregory Park Dec 1987

Deposition, Diagenesis, And Porosity Development Of The Middle Devonian, Lucas Formation In The West Branch Oil Field, Ogemaw County, Michigan, Scott Gregory Park

Masters Theses

The Lucas Formation in the West Branch Oil Field contains over 1000 feet of carbonates and evaporites deposited in restricted marine environments. Deposition ranged from a tidal flat environment (Richfield Member) to subaqueous basin central type deposition (Iutzi and Horner Members).

Early diagenesis of the Lucas Formation carbonates included dolomitization and related porosity development in certain depositional facies where physiochemical conditions were favorable. Significant porosity and permeability reduction occurred during burial resulting from anhydrite, celestite, and halite cementation. Calcite pseudopar and microspar (a neomorphic product) also reduced porosity.

Hydrocarbon production from the Lucas Formation in the West Branch Field is ...


A Seismic Reflection Survey Over The Wayne-25 Oil Field In Cass County, Michigan, Paul D. Horton Dec 1987

A Seismic Reflection Survey Over The Wayne-25 Oil Field In Cass County, Michigan, Paul D. Horton

Masters Theses

The "optimum window" seismic reflection method was used in an endeavor to further define an oil producing structure in the Traverse Limestone. This method entails using a source-geophone offset which allows desired reflections to arrive in an undisturbed time zone.

Several sources in the study area produced seismic pulses with relatively high dominant frequency components ranging from 80 to 120 hertz. However, only small charges of dynamite produced sufficient energy to penetrate the glacial drift in the study area.

Preliminarily identified reflection arrivals from the targeted horizon were consistently masked in seismic profiling records by high amplitude, low velocity seismic ...


Soil Heat And Water Flow With A Partial Surface Mulch, Sang-Ok Chung, Robert Horton Jr. Dec 1987

Soil Heat And Water Flow With A Partial Surface Mulch, Sang-Ok Chung, Robert Horton Jr.

Agronomy Publications

A computer model using the alternating direction implicit (ADI) finite difference method to study two-dimensional coupled soil heat and water flow with a partial surface mulch cover is developed. A new, simplified computational procedure, which has only tridiagonal matrix problems, for the ADI method is introduced. The model uses a soil surface energy balance equation to determine soil surface boundary conditions for both heat and water flow. The inputs required for the computer simulations are weather data, soil thermal and hydraulic properties, and mulch data. Numerical experiments are performed to examine the effects of soil type, mulch width, and weather ...


Depth Profiles And Soil Textures Of The Vernal Pools Of The Santa Rosa Plateau Preserve, Riverside County, California, Ralph Charles Workman Jr. Dec 1987

Depth Profiles And Soil Textures Of The Vernal Pools Of The Santa Rosa Plateau Preserve, Riverside County, California, Ralph Charles Workman Jr.

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

The purpose of this project was to study the edaphic and topographic characteristics of the 13 vernal pools on the Santa Rosa Plateau Preserve, thus documenting the role soil texture plays in vernal pool formation.

Several field and laboratory procedures were used to demonstrate that there is a higher percentage of clay present within vernal pools than in soils outside the margin of the pools, for 11 out of the 13 pools. Statistical tests showed that the percentage of clay was highly significant within the center soil of the pool as compared to the soil outside the margin of the ...


The Onset Of Spring Melt In First-Year Ice Regions Of The Arctic As Determined From Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer Data For 1979 And 1980, Mark R. Anderson Nov 1987

The Onset Of Spring Melt In First-Year Ice Regions Of The Arctic As Determined From Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer Data For 1979 And 1980, Mark R. Anderson

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Sea ice ablation is an important physical process affecting the global climate system. During the Arctic melt season, rapid changes occur in both sea ice surface conditions and the extent of ice. These changes alter the albedo and vary the surface energy budget. Understanding variations in Arctic sea ice is critical for global climate studies. This paper investigates the spring onset of melt in the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone through analysis of melt signatures derived from Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer data. Satellite-derived melt signatures, determined by 18- and 37-GHz vertical brightness temperatures, are associated with the initial ...


Geology Newsletter- 1987, Department Of Geology Nov 1987

Geology Newsletter- 1987, Department Of Geology

Geological and Environmental Sciences News

Vol.1, No. 12

  • Dear Alumni and Friends
  • Groundwater Research Center
  • Core Research Laboratory
  • W. David Kuenzi Scholarship Fund
  • Geology Development and Scholarship Fund
  • Faculty Briefs
  • 1987 Speakers Program
  • Geology/Earth Science Club
  • Awards & Scholarships
  • Graduate Students
  • Alumni Lines


Potassium Mineralogy Of Kentucky Soils, Anastasios D. Karathanasis Nov 1987

Potassium Mineralogy Of Kentucky Soils, Anastasios D. Karathanasis

Soil Science News and Views

Feldspars and mica minerals are the two primary natural sources of potassium for most agricultural soils in Kentucky. Potassium feldspars are common mineral constituents of loess deposits in western Kentucky. Mica minerals, although dominant in shales, are also found in variable quantities in siltstone, sandstone and limestone parent materials of soils in the other regions of Kentucky. Because most of the soils in the western Coalfields and western Pennyroyal, and to a lesser extent in eastern Pennyroyal and Bluegrass, are covered by a loess cap of variable thickness, their surface mineralogy has been influenced by the feldspar-rich mineralogy of the ...


Water Erosion In The Geraldton Area During June-July 1986, K J. Bligh Nov 1987

Water Erosion In The Geraldton Area During June-July 1986, K J. Bligh

Resource management technical reports

No abstract provided.


An Economical Field Datalogger, Norbert H. Maerz, M. B. Dusseault, R. W. Gillham Oct 1987

An Economical Field Datalogger, Norbert H. Maerz, M. B. Dusseault, R. W. Gillham

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Data acquisition is important in geotechnical and hydrological field investigations. Commercially available data acquisitions systems are often not well suited to field use, and can be costly. An alternative to buying a data acquisition system is to build one, and recent advances in computer micro-chip technology have made it easy to understand, design and build simple data acquisition devices.

The design of a data acquisition system developed at the University of Waterloo, along with an example of its use, is discussed in the paper. The intent was to sample 16 channels at 12 bit resolution for prolonged periods under adverse ...


Microcomputer Image Analysis Of Rock Fabric, Norbert H. Maerz, C. P. Bennettt, B. A. Dony Oct 1987

Microcomputer Image Analysis Of Rock Fabric, Norbert H. Maerz, C. P. Bennettt, B. A. Dony

Geosciences and Geological and Petroleum Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

The behavior of many types of rock is largely dependent on the fabric of the rock mass. Current methods of manually measuring the discontinuity networks in rock masses are slow, tedious and error prone. The alternative is to make automated measurements of rock jointing parameters on digital images of rock faces in mines, tunnels, and surface excavations.

Photoanalysis techniques are being developed to measure various rock fabric parameters. Techniques presented here include the generation of a joint trace map from a photograph, and the measurement of simple statistics on the joint trace map. Methods are also presented for the determination ...


Fox Squirrel Interaction With Electrical Transformers, J. Christipher Hamilton Oct 1987

Fox Squirrel Interaction With Electrical Transformers, J. Christipher Hamilton

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

No abstract provided.


Fox Squirrel Interaction With Electrical Transformers, J. Christopher Hamilton Oct 1987

Fox Squirrel Interaction With Electrical Transformers, J. Christopher Hamilton

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

No abstract provided.


Using Residual Soil Fertility Effectively, Grant W. Thomas Oct 1987

Using Residual Soil Fertility Effectively, Grant W. Thomas

Soil Science News and Views

During the past 30 years, the use of commercial fertilizer in Kentucky has resulted in increases in the levels of phosphorus and potassium in soils. As might be expected, the soil test levels are higher with tobacco than with any other crop. but all soils for all crops show increases in fertility levels. Comparisons between 1975 and 1985 (the latest year available) show the proportion of samples sent to the University of Kentucky that are medium or high in soil test phosphorus has increased considerably. Even more striking is the decrease in very low values of phosphorus.


Neogene And Quaternary Lacustrine Diatom Biochronology, Western Usa, William Krebs, J. Platt Bradbury, Edward Theriot Oct 1987

Neogene And Quaternary Lacustrine Diatom Biochronology, Western Usa, William Krebs, J. Platt Bradbury, Edward Theriot

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Neogene and Quaternary lacustrine diatomaceous deposits are numerous in the western United States, particularly in the Great Basin. Some of these sediments are interbedded with volcanic rocks that have been dated radiometrically or by the fssion track method. Fossil lacustrine diatom floras can thus be arranged in geochronological order. By this means, a biochronological pattern of lacustrine diatom evolution has emerged: obligate nonmarine Actinocyclus Ehrenberg (Family Hemidiscaceae) appeared in the early Miocene and attained maximum diversity in the middle middle Miocene. A single species of non-marine Actinocyclus persisted to the end of the middle Miocene. Only two species of marine ...


A Review Of Machinery For Cropping With Reduced Water Erosion, K J. Bligh Oct 1987

A Review Of Machinery For Cropping With Reduced Water Erosion, K J. Bligh

Resource management technical reports

No abstract provided.


Eruptions Of Pavlof Volcano And Their Possible Modulation By Ocean Load And Tectonic Stresses, Stephen R. Mcnutt, R. J. Beavan Oct 1987

Eruptions Of Pavlof Volcano And Their Possible Modulation By Ocean Load And Tectonic Stresses, Stephen R. Mcnutt, R. J. Beavan

School of Geosciences Faculty and Staff Publications

All nine magmatic eruptions at Pavlof Volcano in six of the years from 1973 to 1984 have occurred between September 9 and November 20. Volumes of erupted material range from 0.1 to 15.9 × 106 m3 (dense rock equivalent) at an average rate of ∼3 × 106 m3 yr−1. The volumes are estimated from eyewitness reports for two eruptions; the others are estimated from a relationship that we derive between eruption volume and harmonic tremor duration and amplitude. The volume of lava erupted is approximately time predictable. A significant correlation exists between the eruptions and ...


Petrogenesis Of Mount St. Helens Dacitic Magmas, Diane R. Smith, W. P. Leeman Sep 1987

Petrogenesis Of Mount St. Helens Dacitic Magmas, Diane R. Smith, W. P. Leeman

Geosciences Faculty Research

The most frequent and voluminous eruptive products at Mount St. Helens are dacitic in composition, although a wide variety of magma types (basalt to rhyodacite) is represented. To address the petrogenesis of the dacites, we present major and trace element analyses of samples of pumice clasts and dome or flow lavas erupted during the past ∼40,000 years. The dacites have similar (in some cases even lower) contents of many incompatible elements (e.g., Zr, Hf, REE, U, Be, Ta, Nb) compared with those in associated basalts and andesites, whereas Ba, Rb, K, Cs, and Sr are relatively enriched. The ...


Sludge For Agricultural Land, William O. Thom Sep 1987

Sludge For Agricultural Land, William O. Thom

Soil Science News and Views

Sludge is a product of municipal wastewater treatment with characteristics dependent on both the initial wastewater composition and the subsequent treatment processes used. The sludge composition influences the options that are available its use. For decades, the objective has been disposal. generally meaning that it was buried in a landfill or incinerated. Efforts in recent years have been directed toward application of sludge to agricultural land. Farmers should be aware of several potential problems when deciding whether or not to use sludge for such purposes.


Magnetic Polarity Stratigraphy And Biostratigraphy Of Middle-Late Paleocene Continental Deposits Of South-Central Montana, Robert F. Butler, David W. Krause, Philip D. Gingerich Sep 1987

Magnetic Polarity Stratigraphy And Biostratigraphy Of Middle-Late Paleocene Continental Deposits Of South-Central Montana, Robert F. Butler, David W. Krause, Philip D. Gingerich

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications and Presentations

Exposures of the Fort Union Formation on the divide between Hunt Creek and Cub Creek in the northern Clark's Fork Basin, Carbon County, Montana, were selected for magnetostratigraphic study of the transition between the Torrejonian and Tiffanian Land-Mammal Ages. Paleomagnetic samples were collected from 25 sites within a 160 m-thick section of the Fort Union Formation at that location. Rock-magnetic analyses indicate that alternating-field demagnetization to peak fields in the 10 to 40 mT interval successfully removed secondary components of natural remanent magnetism (NRM). Characteristic NRM directions define three polarity zones, a 50 m-thick normal polarity zone bracketed by ...


Problems And Current Trends In Rock Magnetism And Paleomagnetism, Subir K. Banerjee, Robert F. Butler, Victor A. Schmidt Sep 1987

Problems And Current Trends In Rock Magnetism And Paleomagnetism, Subir K. Banerjee, Robert F. Butler, Victor A. Schmidt

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications and Presentations

Continental drift, seafloor spreading, plate tectonics: These terms conjure up a picture of the whole of Earth's lithospheric plates in motion, a picture that truly represents a revolution in the earth sciences that took place in the 1960s and permanently changed our view of a more static world. If someone were to ask which subdiscipline of the geosciences has provided the crucial quantitative evidence about the past locations of discrete parts of continental and oceanic plates, the answer would be geomagnetism and paleomagnetism. Polarity stratigraphy, based on radiometrically dated 180° reversals of the dipolar geomagnetic field, informs us about ...


An Assessment Of Land Capability For Residential Land Uses : Babbage Island, Carnarvon, Western Australia, M R. Wells, Veronica P M Oma Sep 1987

An Assessment Of Land Capability For Residential Land Uses : Babbage Island, Carnarvon, Western Australia, M R. Wells, Veronica P M Oma

Resource management technical reports

No abstract provided.


Preliminary Groundwater And Salinity Investigations In The Eastern Wheatbelt. 3. Welbungin And Beacon River Catchments, Richard J. George Dr, P W C Frantom Sep 1987

Preliminary Groundwater And Salinity Investigations In The Eastern Wheatbelt. 3. Welbungin And Beacon River Catchments, Richard J. George Dr, P W C Frantom

Resource management technical reports

Water-tables show no obvious signs of a nett annual rise in the bores monitored in the valley floor, lower slope areas over the three year period. Groundwaters are extremely saline, the sedimentary and saprolite aquifers permeable (hydraulic conductivity range 0.1-2.0 m/day) (0.0001). Future management systems should seek to decrease recharge by changing rotations and farm practises while increasing discharge by using trees, pumps and halophytes. Options are available for drainage.


A Field Test Of Habitat Evaluation Procedures For Creek Chub (Semotilus Atromaculatus) And Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus), Donald W. Zaroban Aug 1987

A Field Test Of Habitat Evaluation Procedures For Creek Chub (Semotilus Atromaculatus) And Channel Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus), Donald W. Zaroban

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

No abstract provided.


Soil Microbes And Biotechnology, M. Scott Smith Aug 1987

Soil Microbes And Biotechnology, M. Scott Smith

Soil Science News and Views

There is nothing new about attempts to develop and market microbial products for crop or soil improvement. Several types of microbes have been sold for a variety of agronomic purposes for many years. With the important exception of rhizobial inoculants. these have been generally unsuccessful. Recently however. the scientific revolution in genetics and molecular biology, the need for low cost agronomic inputs. and widespread concern for environmental safety have tremendously stimulated research and commercial activity on microbial products. Claims that cheap, effective microbial inoculants can be developed for pest control, detoxifying pollutants, providing plant nutrients and improving soils have been ...


Development Of Dynamic Non-Hortonian Watershed Models For Steeply Sloping Forested Watersheds: Application To Eastern Kentucky, Lindell E. Ormsbee, Abdul Q. Khan Aug 1987

Development Of Dynamic Non-Hortonian Watershed Models For Steeply Sloping Forested Watersheds: Application To Eastern Kentucky, Lindell E. Ormsbee, Abdul Q. Khan

KWRRI Research Reports

A comprehensive conceptual watershed model is developed to simulate the hydrologic response of steeply sloping forested watersheds. Two non-Hortonian and two Hortonian models were first tested with data from selected watersheds in West Virginia and eastern Kentucky in order to understand the different mechanisms of flow responsible for storm hydrograph generation in this type of watersheds. The two non-Hortonian models tested were the kinematic storage model (Sloan et al. 1983) and the saturation deficit model (Beven and Wood, 1983). Both models were unable to adequately reproduce the observed hydrographs in the four forested watersheds considered in this research. The two ...