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1976

Environmental Sciences

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Groundwater In The Wheatbelt, E P. O'Driscoll Dec 1976

Groundwater In The Wheatbelt, E P. O'Driscoll

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

In general six factors affect the occurence of groundwater; rainfall, topography, rock type, rock structurs, vegetation, and local evaporation.

Variation in even one of these can affect the potential yield of a bore or well, the groundwater salinity, and even whether any groundwater occurs at all.


Ecology Of Suspected Damaging Coyotes And Their Interactions With Domestic Poultry And Livestock, William F. Andelt Dec 1976

Ecology Of Suspected Damaging Coyotes And Their Interactions With Domestic Poultry And Livestock, William F. Andelt

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

No abstract provided.


Biological And Chemical Evaluation Of The Aquatic Environment Of Selected Undeveloped Kentucky Lake Embayments, Marshall Gordon, Morgan E. Sisk Dec 1976

Biological And Chemical Evaluation Of The Aquatic Environment Of Selected Undeveloped Kentucky Lake Embayments, Marshall Gordon, Morgan E. Sisk

KWRRI Research Reports

This report describes research involving biological and chemical analysis of two undeveloped embayments on Kentucky Lake, namely Anderson and Vickers Bays. Field and laboratory studies were made to assess current biotic standing crops, limnological conditions, levels of inorganic and organic pollutants in the embayments.


Leaf Epidermal Transmittance Of Ultraviolet Radiation And Its Implication For Plant Sensitivity To Ultraviolet-Radiation Injury, Ronald Robberecht Dec 1976

Leaf Epidermal Transmittance Of Ultraviolet Radiation And Its Implication For Plant Sensitivity To Ultraviolet-Radiation Injury, Ronald Robberecht

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Leaf epidermal transmittance of ultraviolet radiation (280-400 nm) was examined in several plant species to determine the capability of the epidermis to attenuate solar ultraviolet radiation. Epidermal samples were mechanically isolated and examined with a spectroradiometer/integrating sphere for transmittance. A survey of 25 species exposed to natural insolation was conducted. Although the species differed in life form, habitat type, and epidermal characteristics, epidermal transmittance was generally less than 10%. Ultraviolet radiation was attenuated 95 to 99% in more than half of the species. In 16 species, flavonoid and related pigments in the epidermis accounted for 20 to 57% of ...


Protecting Ripening Sorghum With Methiocarb From Bird Damage In Senegal, Richard L. Bruggers Nov 1976

Protecting Ripening Sorghum With Methiocarb From Bird Damage In Senegal, Richard L. Bruggers

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

The simultaneous completion of the rainy season and nesting of granivorous birds between October and November in the Sudano-sahelian region of Senegal often results in very extensive bird damage to cereal crops. This occurs from both increased bird populations, due to the presence of juveniles as well as from their accompanying change in diet from insects to seeds. The damage is caused by several species of birds, most notable the Red-billed Dioch (Quelea quelea) and the Village and Black-headed Weavers (Ploceus cuculiatus and Ploceus capitalis) . The Buffalo Weaver (Bubalornis albirostris) and the Glossy Starling Lamprotornis chalybaeus) also are at times ...


Experimental Use Of Av-Alarm For Repelling Quelea From Rice In Somalia, Larry C. Holcomb Nov 1976

Experimental Use Of Av-Alarm For Repelling Quelea From Rice In Somalia, Larry C. Holcomb

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

The Av-Alarm is a device for producing loud intermittent sounds which are sometimes effective in repelling pest birds or mammals. (Av-Alarm is manufactured by Av-Alarm Corp, P.O. Box 2488, Santa Maria, California 93454.) The sound is intended to irritate or cause anxiety in animals, perhaps by interfering with normal sound communication sufficiently to repel them from the area. Boudreau(1972) and Stewart (1974) report factors relating to alarm stimuli in bird control. Stewart (1974), HcCracken (1972) and Palmer (1976) reported the use of Av-Alarm in repelling pests under several different situations. However, Jeffrey Jackson (pers. comm.) has reported the ...


Registered Participants -- Seventh Bird Control Seminar, November 1976 Nov 1976

Registered Participants -- Seventh Bird Control Seminar, November 1976

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Proceedings Seventh Bird Control Seminar -- Frontmatter & Contents Nov 1976

Proceedings Seventh Bird Control Seminar -- Frontmatter & Contents

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

Bowling Green State University
Bowling Green, Ohio
November 5 - 11, 1976

DR. WILLIAM B. JACKSON CONFERENCE CHAIRMAN AND EDITOR

SPONSORED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES CENTER, BOWLING GREEN STATE UNIVERSITY WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE AND NATIONAL PEST CONTROL ASSOCIATION, VIENNA, VIRGINIA


Tests Of Bird Damage Control Measures In Sudan, 1975, Lee R. Martin Nov 1976

Tests Of Bird Damage Control Measures In Sudan, 1975, Lee R. Martin

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

The Red-billed Quelea (Quelga quelaa), because of its widespread destruction of grain crops throughout its range in Africa, is one of the most studied and written about granivorous bird species. Less publicized are more local bird pests in Africa which may be equally Important. The Village Weaver, (Ploceus cucullatus), for example, is a pest in many countries, while some other Ploecids with limited destructive habits create local problems. Significant crop losses also occur where there are large populations of Golden Sparrows (Passer luteus), House Sparrows (Passer domesticus), Red Bishops (Euplectes oryx), Doves (Streptopelia spp.), Glossy Starlings (Lamprotornis chalybaeus), Parakeets (Psittacula ...


Species Composition, Food Habits, And The Economic And Ecologic Impact Of Winter Blackbird Flocks, Raleigh J. Robertson, Patrick J. Weatherhead, Frank J. S. Phelan, Geoffrey L. Holroyd, Nigel Lester Nov 1976

Species Composition, Food Habits, And The Economic And Ecologic Impact Of Winter Blackbird Flocks, Raleigh J. Robertson, Patrick J. Weatherhead, Frank J. S. Phelan, Geoffrey L. Holroyd, Nigel Lester

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

Crop depredation by blackbirds (Icteridae) and Starlings (sturnus vulgaris) in North America has long prompted experimentation with control techniques. These efforts have been centered in the northeast and northcentral United States where concentrated cultivation of vulnerable crops coincides with the location where flocks of blackbirds congregate in the fall prior to their migration south (Stone, et al., 1972; Wiens and Dyer, 1975). In these areas the high cost and logistic impracticality of implementing widespread controls has suggested the need for modifying agricultural practices instead (Wiens and Dyer, 1975). More recently, attention has been focused farther south, particularly in Kentucky and ...


Linking Of Breeding And Wintering Populations Of Red-Winged Blackbirds By Color-Marking Territorial Males, Olin E. Bray, Willis C. Royall Jr., Joseph L. Guarino Nov 1976

Linking Of Breeding And Wintering Populations Of Red-Winged Blackbirds By Color-Marking Territorial Males, Olin E. Bray, Willis C. Royall Jr., Joseph L. Guarino

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

Three approaches were taken to link breeding and wintering areas of Red-winged Blackbirds: (1) banding in wintering areas, (2) banding nestlings, and (3) banding territorial males. Information gained from the first two approaches was meager compared to the manpower involved. The third approach was to capture, band, and color-tag male Redwings on northern breeding territories and then search for the birds the following winter in known roosts and surrounding feeding areas to the south. The third approach was very productive. It resulted in the linking of Redwing breeding areas in Wyoming and Montana with wintering areas in Colorado. Infor- mation ...


Plant-Animal Interactions: Simulation Of Bird Damage On Corn Ears, M. I. Dyer Nov 1976

Plant-Animal Interactions: Simulation Of Bird Damage On Corn Ears, M. I. Dyer

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

Within the past decade interactions among plants and animals have received increasing attention, mostly pertaining to selection of plants that produce toxic secondary compounds as a direct result of herbivory (Gilbert and Raven, 1975; Feeny, 1975; and Rhoades and Cates, 1976) and in turn selection of animals that detoxify these plant compounds (Freeland and Janzen,1974). Indeed, the plant-herbivore association has been regarded in the context of predator-prey relationships, especially for seed eaters (Scott, 1970, 1976; Janzen, 1971; Smith, 1975; and Pulliam and Brand, 1975). However, there are other important plant-animal associations. Regulation of plant nutrients (Mattson and Addy, 1975 ...


Survey Of Effectiveness Of Avitrol Fc Corn Chops-99 In Field Corn In Northern Ohio, A. R. Stickley Jr., S. B. Williams, K. M. Simpson Nov 1976

Survey Of Effectiveness Of Avitrol Fc Corn Chops-99 In Field Corn In Northern Ohio, A. R. Stickley Jr., S. B. Williams, K. M. Simpson

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

Goodhue and Baumgartner (1965) described a chemical, 4-aminopyridine (hereafter referred to as "4-AP"), that causes certain flocking birds [e.g., Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), Grackles (Quiscalus guiscula), House Sparrows (passer domesticus), and Starlings (stnrnus vulgaris)] ingesting it to act before death in a manner (squawking, erratic flight, tremors, convulsions) that repels other birds. The 4-AP was found to be effective as a treatment on cracked corn when applied to the ground in cornfields at the rate of 1 lb per acre [1.1 kg per ha (De Grazio, et al., 1972; Stickley, et al., 1972)] and 1.3 lb per ...


Protection Of Ripening Sunflowers From Blackbird Damage By Baiting With Avitrol Fc Corn Chops-99s, Jerome F. Besser, Joseph L. Guarino Nov 1976

Protection Of Ripening Sunflowers From Blackbird Damage By Baiting With Avitrol Fc Corn Chops-99s, Jerome F. Besser, Joseph L. Guarino

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

On August 26, 1976 Avitrol FC Corn Chops-99S (AFCC-99S) was federally registered (EPA Registration No. 11649-15) for use in protecting ripening sunflowers from damage by blackbirds. The registration was the culmination of seven years of effort by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to extend the use of AFCC-99, which was registered for use against blackbirds in field corn in April 1972. Ripening sunflowers are probably more intensively damaged by blackbirds in the U.S. than any other crop. In a 1972 survey in 469 randomly selected sunflower fields in North Dakota and Minnesota, Stone (1973) found that 9 ...


Protecting Ripening Sweet Corn From Blackbirds In Wisconsin With 4-Aminopyridine, C. Edward Knittle, Joseph L. Guarino, Olin E. Bray, John L. Cummings, Mary R. Ouellette Nov 1976

Protecting Ripening Sweet Corn From Blackbirds In Wisconsin With 4-Aminopyridine, C. Edward Knittle, Joseph L. Guarino, Olin E. Bray, John L. Cummings, Mary R. Ouellette

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

Goodhue and Baumgartner (1965) described the use of a chemical, 4-aminopyridine (4AP), that causes birds ingesting it to emit distress calls and exhibit erratic flight behavior that frighten other birds from the Immediate vicinity. Using 4AP baits in Brown County, South Dakota, in 1965, De Grazio, et al. (1972) reported a savings of $6,449 worth of field corn at a cost of $634 for treatment. Baiting field corn with 4AP also provided significant protection from blackbirds in a study in northern Ohio in 1969 (Stickley, et al., 1976). Efficacy data gathered in these and other studies provided a basis ...


Protecting Ripening Sweet Corn From Blackbirds In Idaho With 4-Aminopyridine, Donald P. Mott Nov 1976

Protecting Ripening Sweet Corn From Blackbirds In Idaho With 4-Aminopyridine, Donald P. Mott

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

Chemicals recently have been used to reduce bird damage in a variety of crops. One such chemical, 4-aminopyridine (4AP), first reported for this use by Goodhue, et al. (1964), was tested by De Grazio, et al. (1971, 1972) and was shown to be a safe, economical, and effective chemical for reducing blackbird damage to ripening field corn. Blackbirds ingesting 4AP emit distress cries and perform aerial displays that frighten other members of the flock from the field. An advantage of this method of reducing damage is that usually less than one percent of the blackbird flock ingest baits and become ...


A Progress Report On A New Avicide: 2-Chloro- 4-Acetotoliudine (Cat), S. Anderson Peoples, Anne Barger, A. C. Crabb, R. G. Schwab Nov 1976

A Progress Report On A New Avicide: 2-Chloro- 4-Acetotoliudine (Cat), S. Anderson Peoples, Anne Barger, A. C. Crabb, R. G. Schwab

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

In California Starlings are not only causing serious damage to many agricultural crops, but they are crowding out some of our native birds. In 1966 Decino, et al. found that a compound, DRC 1339 (CPT), was toxic to Starlings but not to mammals. Our laboratory studied this compound; and, due in part to this work, the compound was registered for use as an avicide for use in baits for control of Starlings at feed lots, dairies, and chicken farms with the trade name Starlicide. In our studies on its fate in the mammal, one of the metabolities was CAT, the ...


Response Of Maturing Corn To Simulated Bird Damage, Paul P. Woronecki, Charles R. Ingram, Richard A. Dolbeer Nov 1976

Response Of Maturing Corn To Simulated Bird Damage, Paul P. Woronecki, Charles R. Ingram, Richard A. Dolbeer

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

Economic losses attributed to pests are usually estimated by visual assessments of the damage. In all cases, the amount of injury to plant parts is correlated with reduction in production, and any effects of plant response or compensation are ignored. Some recent experiments, using prairie grass grown with different degrees of grasshopper feeding activity, indicated that some plant processes were triggered by insect feeding (Dyer and Bokhari, 1976). Responses, such as the increase of net primary production on grasslands by livestock grazing, have been suggested in studies by Westlake (1963), Pearson (1965), and Hutchinson (1971); Vickery (1972) confirmed these findings ...


Studies On Diet Overlap Among Icterids, Crows, And Starlings, M. I. Dyer, N. J. Kakalec Nov 1976

Studies On Diet Overlap Among Icterids, Crows, And Starlings, M. I. Dyer, N. J. Kakalec

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

Some of the problems that have been publicized for the past two to three years about blackbirds and Starlings in the southeastern United States are concerned with what these birds eat and the degree to which these granivores compete on their wintering grounds. The assumption by agriculturists has been that these birds cause severe depredations. Futhermore it is presumed by some that food supplies are unlimited and that these birds are simply living off the “fat of the land”; others consider that food is limited and that the birds are “pressured” into direct competition with man's food or food ...


Bird Problems And Food Storage And Processing Facilities, Robert M. Russell, Robert Yeager, Fred Baur, James R. Dupre Nov 1976

Bird Problems And Food Storage And Processing Facilities, Robert M. Russell, Robert Yeager, Fred Baur, James R. Dupre

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

For the bird control problems in the food industry I think we have a good pair to work with us. We have Bob Yeager, a pest control authority. Fred Baur is from Procter and Gamble, a great company with a long record of association with the pest control industry. Third, we have with us Jim Dupre, whose experience is with the Food and Drug Administration. And with all the government controls we've learned to expect from the government in the last few years, I think it's good for us to know that we have had a long and ...


Examination Of Redwinged Blackbird Nestling Growth Rates Using The Logistic Model: A Case For R And K Selection?, M. I. Dyer, Z. Abramsky Nov 1976

Examination Of Redwinged Blackbird Nestling Growth Rates Using The Logistic Model: A Case For R And K Selection?, M. I. Dyer, Z. Abramsky

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

One of the few processes of an avian population that presents the opportunity to collect sensitive information about the performance of that population is growth rates of young throughout the brooding period. Growth rate data are sensitive to many conditions of the breeding cycle: proximate influences, such as food availability and weather (Francis, et al., in prep.), and ultimate factors, such as species-specific characteristics, (Ricklefs, 1968). Additionally, the measurements themselves can be obtained with precision. The ability to make such detailed observations is extremely useful and is not always possible for other population parameters, such as determining life table data ...


Strychnine, Paul Ochs Nov 1976

Strychnine, Paul Ochs

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

I was to come here and talk to you today about the status of strychnine. Strychnine, of course, is one of the older poisons in use today; and, according to information from Fitzwater, Strychnine was known for its toxic properties as early as 1640. It was used to destroy crows, pests, stray dogs, etc. Strychnine was also used by natives of South America and Africa to dispose of neighboring tribes. This material is derived from an extract of the seeds from strychnos nux vomica and other species of the strychnos genus. The alkaloid form is only slightly soluble in boiling ...


A Method Of Evaluating Blackbird Depredation Using Food Habits, Robert E. Williams Nov 1976

A Method Of Evaluating Blackbird Depredation Using Food Habits, Robert E. Williams

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

An accurate economic analysis of pest species, such as birds depredating agricultural systems, would entail a thorough understanding of the species1 ecological relationships with all components of their environment. Understanding behavioral patterns (e.g., seasonal territorialism and gregariousness, reproductive characteristics, and annual food habits), population dynamics (e.g., natality, mortality, and sex ratios), and environmental pressures (e.g., carrying capacity and interspecific competition) would only begin to provide a base for a valid evaluation. No single parameter could integrate the complex interactions which affect agricultural production. However, evaluation of one such parameter, food habits analysis, could provide enough useful information ...


Mesurol 50% Hbt For Protecting Sprouting Corn From Pheasants In Iowa And South Dakota, Jerome F. Besser, C. Edward Knittle Nov 1976

Mesurol 50% Hbt For Protecting Sprouting Corn From Pheasants In Iowa And South Dakota, Jerome F. Besser, C. Edward Knittle

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

The problem of pheasants (phasianus colchicus) pulling sprouting corn in the U.S. is not well understood, because objective surveys have not been conducted. However, a subjective survey by Stone and Mott (1973) indicated the problem is substantial. They estimated losses of corn in five states (IA, ID, IN, KS, and NE), where pheasants were reported as the only bird causing losses, at 7 million bushels ($17.5 million at $2.50/bu). Their survey data are reinforced by estimates that a cock pheasant is capable of consuming an amount of sprouting corn that would yield 15 bushels when mature ...


Redwinged Blackbird Flock Feeding Behavior In Response To Repellent Stress, M. I. Dyer Nov 1976

Redwinged Blackbird Flock Feeding Behavior In Response To Repellent Stress, M. I. Dyer

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

The use of 4-Aminopyridine (Avitrol, a Phillips Petroleum trade-name, or AFCC 99, a name designated by Environmental Protection Agency) as an avian repellent when placed on agricultural crops has been reported upon (DeGrazio, et al., 1971, 1972; Stickley, et al., 1972, 1976); and its status in the United States and elsewhere has been recently reviewed (Bessek, 1976). Much more information has been collected; but unfortunately, it has not been made accessible in published form (see Besser, 1976). Thus, much of the information and opinions about this repellent material is anecdotal, and the scientific community must rely upon relatively sparse information ...


Methiocarb As A Bird Repellent For Mature Sweet Corn, Allan R. Stickley Jr., Charles R. Ingram Nov 1976

Methiocarb As A Bird Repellent For Mature Sweet Corn, Allan R. Stickley Jr., Charles R. Ingram

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

Sweet corn in Ohio is an important high-value truck crop (74,000 acres in 1974--Ohio Crop Rep. Serv., 1975) that is especially vulnerable to blackbird damage. For this reason, a chemical treatment that would repel birds from sweet corn would be advantageous. A candidate chemical for this use is methiocarb [3,5-dimethyl-4-(Methylthio)-phenyl methylcarbamate = Mesurol (product of Chemagro, Division of Mobay Chemical Corporation)]. In addition to insecticidal, acaricidal, and molluscieidal properties (Hermann and Kolbe, 1971:286), Schafer and Brunton (1971) established in cage tests that methiocarb was a promising bird repellent because low concentrations (<0.16%) would repel birds from treated rice seed. The chemical apparently reinforces a bad taste by producing a conditioned aver- sion to its intoxicating effects (Rogers, 1974). When applied to corn seed prior to planting, methiocarb treatments reduced blackbird damage to sprouts (Hermann and Kolbe, 1971; Stickley and Guarino, 1972; Ingram, et al., 1974; Linehan, et al., 1975; Stickley and Ingram, 1975). However, Mitchell, et al. (1975) did not show significant protection, and Linehan, et al, (1975) showed some phytotoxicity in cold, wet growing conditions. Methiocarb treatments also have shown indications of efficacy when applied to mature grain crops [rice at 10.0 and 3.2 lb (active material) per acre (DeHaven, et al., 1971), sorghum at 2.0 lb (active material) per acre (Mott, et al., 1974), and sorghum at 1.6 lb (active material) per acre (Mott and Lewis, 1975)]. Because of these results, we conducted a screening experiment in 1975 to determine the feasibility of methiocarb treatments for repelling blackbirds from ripening sweet corn.


The Need For Practical And Objective Test Protocols For Bird Damage Control Chemicals, E. W. Schafer Jr. Nov 1976

The Need For Practical And Objective Test Protocols For Bird Damage Control Chemicals, E. W. Schafer Jr.

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

The registration and reregistration process for vertebrate pesticides is difficult at best and is becoming more complicated and time consuming each year, particularly for bird-damage control chemicals. Although much of the information that is required for U.S. registrations (such as toxicology, general chemistry, and analytical methodology) is beyond our purview at this seminar, there are some areas where research and management personnel can have a favorable impact on present and future requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). I am speaking in particular of the methodology used to determine the laboratory and field efficacy of bird damage control chemicals ...


Selection Of Toxic Poultry Pellets From Cattle Rations By Starlings, Richard R. West, Jerome F. Besser Nov 1976

Selection Of Toxic Poultry Pellets From Cattle Rations By Starlings, Richard R. West, Jerome F. Besser

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

Populations of wintering Starlings(sturnus vulgaris) causing problems at cattle feedlots have been effectively reduced by broadcasting pellet baits treated with 1 % DRC-1339 (3- chloro-p-toluidine hydrochloride) in their feeding areas (Besser, et al., 1967; West, et al., 1967; West, 1968). Each 1% DRC-1339 pellet (averaging 70 mg in weight) contains an amount of toxicant sufficient to be lethal to a starling (DeCino, et al., 1966). Besser, et al. (1968) estimated that starlings at cattle feedlots take about half their diet from the troughs. However, during severe winter weather, many Starlings take most of their food from troughs, and some appear ...


Preliminary Laboratory And Field Trials Of Curb, A Possible Avian Repellent, Ken Ewing, A. Charles Crabb, Lee R. Martin, Roger Moitoso Nov 1976

Preliminary Laboratory And Field Trials Of Curb, A Possible Avian Repellent, Ken Ewing, A. Charles Crabb, Lee R. Martin, Roger Moitoso

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

Grape growers in California lose between three and four million dollars annually from damage caused principally by two bird species: Linnets (carpodacus mexicanus) and Starlings (sturnus vulgaris) (DeHaven, 1974; Crase, et al., 1975),. Few effective tools exist for the growers to use in reducing crop losses from bird damage; and current bio-political trends may preclude the use of toxicants to control local depredating bird populations, especially Linnets. The use of chemical repellents is a possible alternative. Testing of the chemical repellent methiocarb [3,5-dimethyl-4-(methylthio) phenol methylcarbamate] to protect California wine grapes has been conducted by Denver Wildlife Research Center ...


Behavioral Response Of Quelea To Methiocarb (Mcsurol)*, Stephen A. Shumake, Stanley E. Gaddis, Edward W. Schafer Jr. Nov 1976

Behavioral Response Of Quelea To Methiocarb (Mcsurol)*, Stephen A. Shumake, Stanley E. Gaddis, Edward W. Schafer Jr.

Bird Control Seminars Proceedings

The small African weaver finch commonly known as Quelea (Quelea quelea) has been reported (Crook and Ward, 1968) to be one of the most numerous and destructive birds in the world and is found extensively throughout Africa (DeGrazio, 1974). Quelea have been associated with damage to many agricultural crops including millet, grain sorghum, rice, and wheat. Because current population control programs in Africa have not reduced damage except in a few local areas (Crook and Ward, 1968), more effective damage control methods need to be Inves- tigated. One promising method, protection of the agricultural crop with a chemical repellent, methiocarb ...