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Honors Theses

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Gavel And The Camera: Environmental Law And Photojournalism's Relationship To Appalachian Identity, Emily S. Patton Aug 2024

The Gavel And The Camera: Environmental Law And Photojournalism's Relationship To Appalachian Identity, Emily S. Patton

Honors Theses

Both the federal government and photojournalism have played a substantial role in the “othering” of Appalachia while simultaneously attempting to save it. Examining both institutions demonstrates the exploitative processes that alter the perception of rural communities and their surrounding environment. Stacey Kranitz’s archival exhibit, As It Was Give(n) To Me, internalizes this precarious role of the camera in a region heavily journalized. By inhabiting the area for years, establishing close relationships, and researching the documented history of Appalachia, Kranitz’s work becomes her livelihood in the dissolution of profession vs. personal. She is critical of past projects whose objective portrayal of …


Effects Of Urbanization On Eutrophication Parameters In Three Tidal Creeks, Ella Swantek May 2024

Effects Of Urbanization On Eutrophication Parameters In Three Tidal Creeks, Ella Swantek

Honors Theses

Marshes and swashes are vital environments as a controlling barrier between land affected by various pollutants and the ocean. Eutrophication and the effects of this process can be detrimental for the areas experiencing it. I am interested in ways areas that have little contact with human interactions compare to areas that are heavily urbanized, and whether either of these locations is at a higher risk for eutrophication. Using spectrophotometry and fluorometry, I analyzed samples collected from the relatively undeveloped and restricted-access locations of Waities Island Beach and Dunn Sound monthly for dissolved nutrients, and chlorophyll. At the time of sampling, …


Impacts Of Hurricane Idalia’S Surge On Coastal Sand Biogeochemistry, Wendy "Cor" Mchone May 2024

Impacts Of Hurricane Idalia’S Surge On Coastal Sand Biogeochemistry, Wendy "Cor" Mchone

Honors Theses

Beaches are heavily influenced by extreme events, such as hurricanes. Biological and chemical processes, such as primary production and diagenesis are often interrupted by these events. To examine the effects of hurricanes on coastal biogeochemistry, this study used sand and porewater samples from Waties Island, SC, which were collected before and after Hurricane Idalia. The samples were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations, organic content, and chlorophyll concentrations. Macronutrient pore water concentration changes were not uniform. The inventory of nitrite decreased significantly after the storm, which was reflected in slight increases in the inventories of nitrate and ammonium. Concentrations of nitrate, which …


Sedimentary Conditions At A Tidal Creek That Exhibits Seasonal Pelagic-Benthic Variations, Jack B. Corbin May 2024

Sedimentary Conditions At A Tidal Creek That Exhibits Seasonal Pelagic-Benthic Variations, Jack B. Corbin

Honors Theses

Tidal creeks in the Grand Strand of South Carolina are small but numerous connectors between land and ocean. One of these creeks, White Point Swash, exhibits a seasonal switch between planktonic and benthic photosynthesizers. As plankton become less abundant in fall, benthic macroalgae bloom, aided by lower water levels due to fall-winter dredging of the main channel, until late Spring. This study builds on previous findings and examines sedimentary conditions at this site further. Sedimentary chlorophyll a (in microphytobenthos) and pore water nutrient concentrations are confirmed to be higher than water-column concentrations. Sedimentary nutrient fluxes to the sediment-water interface, calculated …


Guardians Of The Data: Government Use Of Ai And Iot In The Digital Age, Jannat Saeed May 2024

Guardians Of The Data: Government Use Of Ai And Iot In The Digital Age, Jannat Saeed

Honors Theses

The exponential growth of technology, epitomized by Moore's Law – “the observation that the number of transistors on an integrated circuit will double every two years”– has propelled the swift evolution of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. This phenomenon has revolutionized various facets of daily life, from smart home devices to autonomous vehicles, reshaping how individuals interact with the world around them. However, as governments worldwide increasingly harness these innovations to monitor and collect personal data, profound privacy concerns have arisen among the general populace. Despite the ubiquity of AI and IoT in modern society, formal …


Modeling Vibration Stiffness: An Analytical Extension Of Hertzian Theory For Angular Contact Bearings With A Thin Viscoelastic Coating, Davis R. Burton May 2024

Modeling Vibration Stiffness: An Analytical Extension Of Hertzian Theory For Angular Contact Bearings With A Thin Viscoelastic Coating, Davis R. Burton

Honors Theses

This thesis considers the novel angular contact rolling-element bearings proposed by NASA’s Glenn Research Center, which are coated with a thin solid lubricant that exhibits viscoelastic behavior. Current analytical models for the dynamic stiffness matrix of angular contact bearings, critical for vibration analysis, lack the ability to model the effects of a solid coating, as well as the time dependencies inherent in viscoelastic theory. The author first presents an overview of the stiffness matrix derivation, followed by a treatment of the underlying Hertzian contact theory. An analytical extension of this theory is proposed which accounts for a thin elastic layer …


Measurement Of Transmission Efficiency Of Blue Light Blocking Devices, Jada Lee May 2024

Measurement Of Transmission Efficiency Of Blue Light Blocking Devices, Jada Lee

Honors Theses

Technology and light sources have experienced a revolution in recent years leading to the production of light emitting diode (LED) bulbs. White-light LED bulbs undergo degradation over time, leading to a rise in color temperature and a proportional increase in the emission of blue light from these bulbs. The small size of LEDs makes them the optimal choice for electronic devices because of their limited screen size. This means that blue light now exists in red, green, and blue solid-state illumination systems that did not exist a decade ago. It is debated if blue light induces toxic effects on the …


Do You Know The Pangolin?: Analyzing Biodiversity Awareness And Attitudes, Ariel "Jazz" Holcomb May 2024

Do You Know The Pangolin?: Analyzing Biodiversity Awareness And Attitudes, Ariel "Jazz" Holcomb

Honors Theses

Understanding the impact education has on environmental knowledge and values is critical for knowing how we can promote pro-environmental awareness and attitudes. Thus, this study investigated how environmental education level influences awareness and attitudes on environmental issues, specifically the Biodiversity Crisis. Through a survey primarily utilizing Likert scale statements, the researcher evaluated the differences in knowledge and care levels between classes taking an introductory environmental science course, one class of environmental science majors and one for non-majors. One focus point of the course is the world’s most trafficked mammal, the pangolin, so this species was used as a focus species …


Screening Full-Sib And Half-Sib Families Of Chestnut Seedlings For Resistance To Cryphonectria Parasitica Using A Small Stem Assay And A Leaf-Disc Assay, Uma Plambeck May 2024

Screening Full-Sib And Half-Sib Families Of Chestnut Seedlings For Resistance To Cryphonectria Parasitica Using A Small Stem Assay And A Leaf-Disc Assay, Uma Plambeck

Honors Theses

Cryphonectria parasitica is the ascomycete fungus species that causes chestnut blight disease. Symptoms of chestnut blight include bark cankers and eventually the death of American chestnut, Castanea dentata. However, not all Castanea species are equally affected by the disease, and some Asian species appear highly resistant. The OALDS and SSA in this study aim to assist in screening for resistance to C. parasitica within a year. We investigated the effect of C. parasitica on three North American species, one European species, four East Asian species of Castanea, and nine full-sib families of TACF backcross hybrids. Our study used both a …


The Synthesis And Characterization Of 9,10-Bis-(Iodoethynyl)Anthracene For 2d Molecular Crystals From Halogen-Bonding, Nehemiah Antoine May 2024

The Synthesis And Characterization Of 9,10-Bis-(Iodoethynyl)Anthracene For 2d Molecular Crystals From Halogen-Bonding, Nehemiah Antoine

Honors Theses

Two-dimensional crystals have unique properties, giving them the potential to develop practical items such as electronics, biomedicine, and sensors. Our goal is to use chemical principles to synthesize molecules that spontaneously form 2D crystals with designed patterns and properties. For this, we will exploit directional, non-covalent interactions to determine what pattern will form in 2D. In this project halogen-bonding will be utilized: halogen-bonding is the interaction between the electrophilic region of a halogen and a nucleophilic region of a Lewis base. We are functionalizing anthracenes with iodine and nitrogen to form halogen bonds that enable the molecules to pack more …


Side Channel Detection Of Pc Rootkits Using Nonlinear Phase Space, Rebecca Clark May 2024

Side Channel Detection Of Pc Rootkits Using Nonlinear Phase Space, Rebecca Clark

Honors Theses

Cyberattacks are increasing in size and scope yearly, and the most effective and common means of attack is through malicious software executed on target devices of interest. Malware threats vary widely in terms of behavior and impact and, thus, effective methods of detection are constantly being sought from the academic research community to offset both volume and complexity. Rootkits are malware that represent a highly feared threat because they can change operating system integrity and alter otherwise normally functioning software. Although normal methods of detection that are based on signatures of known malware code are the standard line of defense, …


Synthesis And Characterization Of Silver(I) And Manganese(Ii) Complexes With Thione Imidazoles, Shannon Keyser, Audrey Lawrence, Jaime M. Murphy Ph.D. Apr 2024

Synthesis And Characterization Of Silver(I) And Manganese(Ii) Complexes With Thione Imidazoles, Shannon Keyser, Audrey Lawrence, Jaime M. Murphy Ph.D.

Honors Theses

Coordination polymers are chemical complexes with versatile applications such as catalysts, electrical conduc-tors, non-linear optics, magnetics, chemical sensing, and molecular storage. The polymers are comprised of a repeating series of metal-ligand complexes, which form various structures in varying ratios depending on the metal and ligand used. Certain metal-ligand combinations have shown particular promise as potentially being polymers or, if not polymers, possessing other useful features such as electromagnetic conductivity. Complexes were synthesized using silver(I) and manganese(II) with the ligands methimazole, 2-mercaptoimidazole, and thiocarbanilide with counterions of either chloride or nitrate. These com-plexes were characterized using elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and …


An Analysis Of Pollution In Liverpool, Uk, Luke W. Lawson Apr 2024

An Analysis Of Pollution In Liverpool, Uk, Luke W. Lawson

Honors Theses

Within this experiment the different levels of pollution in areas around Liverpool were tested. These areas were Stanley Park, Lunt Meadows, and Woolton Road. At Stanley Park one of two transects had a geochemical analysis as well as magnetic measurements run to investigate source attribution within the urban environment resulting in data showing high variability in soil properties among the transect. With data supporting evidence of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic properties in soil along the same transect. At Lunt Meadows, through the use of XRF for soil samples and nitrate and phosphate testing for water samples, it was found that …


The Mathematical And Historical Significance Of The Four Color Theorem, Brock Bivens Apr 2024

The Mathematical And Historical Significance Of The Four Color Theorem, Brock Bivens

Honors Theses

Researching how the Four Color Theorem was proved, its implications on the mathematical community, and interviews with working mathematicians to develop my own personal opinions on the significance of the Four Color Theorem.


A Cohomological Perspective To Nonlocal Operators, Nicholas White Mar 2024

A Cohomological Perspective To Nonlocal Operators, Nicholas White

Honors Theses

Nonlocal models have experienced a large period of growth in recent years. In particular, nonlocal models centered around a finite horizon have been the subject of many novel results. In this work we consider three nonlocal operators defined via a finite horizon: a weighted averaging operator in one dimension, an averaging differential operator, and the truncated Riesz fractional gradient. We primarily explore the kernel of each of these operators when we restrict to open sets. We discuss how the topological structure of the domain can give insight into the behavior of these operators, and more specifically the structure of their …


Quantum Computing And U.S. Cybersecurity: A Case Study Of The Breaking Of Rsa And Plan For Cryptographic Algorithm Transition, Helena Holland Mar 2024

Quantum Computing And U.S. Cybersecurity: A Case Study Of The Breaking Of Rsa And Plan For Cryptographic Algorithm Transition, Helena Holland

Honors Theses

The invention of a cryptographically relevant quantum computer would revolutionize computing power, transforming industry and national security. While a theoretical possibility at the time of this writing, the ability of quantum algorithms to solve the factoring and discrete logarithm problems, upon which all currently employed public-key cryptography depends, presents a serious threat to digital communications. This research examines both the mathematics and government policy behind these risks and their implications for cybersecurity. Specifically, a case study of RSA, Shor’s algorithm, and the American Intelligence Community’s plan to transition toward quantum-resistant algorithms is presented to analyze quantum threats and opportunities and …


Echolocation On Manifolds, Kerong Wang Jan 2024

Echolocation On Manifolds, Kerong Wang

Honors Theses

We consider the question asked by Wyman and Xi [WX23]: ``Can you hear your location on a manifold?” In other words, can you locate a unique point x on a manifold, up to symmetry, if you know the Laplacian eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the manifold? In [WX23], Wyman and Xi showed that echolocation holds on one- and two-dimensional rectangles with Dirichlet boundary conditions using the pointwise Weyl counting function. They also showed echolocation holds on ellipsoids using Gaussian curvature.

In this thesis, we provide full details for Wyman and Xi's proof for one- and two-dimensional rectangles and we show that …


Self-Quenching Of Carbon Monoxide In The Presence Of Noble Gases, Madeline V. Hinkle Jan 2024

Self-Quenching Of Carbon Monoxide In The Presence Of Noble Gases, Madeline V. Hinkle

Honors Theses

Precise rate coefficients for the vibrational relaxation pathways of CO(v)-CO in the presence of Ar and Kr have been determined through the work of this thesis. This work was motivated by the need to find a more cost-effective alternative to using xenon as a bath gas, which has increased significantly in price in the past few years. Similar experiments within this lab at Bucknell have been conducted in the past using argon, which can be used in the same manner as xenon but comes at a much lower price, but the experiments yielded inferior results compared to those using xenon. …


The Precedence-Constrained Quadratic Knapsack Problem, Changkun Guan Jan 2024

The Precedence-Constrained Quadratic Knapsack Problem, Changkun Guan

Honors Theses

This thesis investigates the previously unstudied Precedence-Constrained Quadratic Knapsack Problem (PC-QKP), an NP-hard nonlinear combinatorial optimization problem. The PC-QKP is a variation of the traditional Knapsack Problem (KP) that introduces several additional complexities. By developing custom exact and approximate solution methods, and testing these on a wide range of carefully structured PC-QKP problem instances, we seek to identify and understand patterns that make some cases easier or harder to solve than others. The findings aim to help develop better strategies for solving this and similar problems in the future.


Computationally Modeling The Human-Structure Interaction Response Of An Occupied Cantilevered Structure, Brennan Smith Jan 2024

Computationally Modeling The Human-Structure Interaction Response Of An Occupied Cantilevered Structure, Brennan Smith

Honors Theses

There is a limited understanding of the impact that passive human occupants have on a dynamic structural system, referred to as Human-Structure Interaction (HSI). Cantilevers are naturally prone to excessive vibrations due to their long unsupported spans, and cantilevered structures such as those commonly found in the seating area of a stadium facility or concert hall are designed to support a high density of occupancy.

This study determined that HSI in cantilevered structures can be modeled using a simple two-degree-of-freedom system. The results of the model were validated by data that was collected on a small-scale laboratory structure intentionally designed …


Centers Of N-Degree Poncelet Circles, Georgia Corbett Jan 2024

Centers Of N-Degree Poncelet Circles, Georgia Corbett

Honors Theses

Given a circle inscribed in a polygon inscribed in the unit circle, if one connects all the vertices with line segments we get a family of circles called a package of Poncelet circles, due to its connection to a theorem of Poncelet. We are interested in where the centers of the Poncelet circles can be. Specifically, we have shown that if one of the circles in the Poncelet package is centered at 0, then all of the circles must be centered at 0 as well. This was proven by Spitkovsky and Wegert in 2021 using elliptic integrals but we …


Evaluating Field Evidence Of Fine-Grained Sediment Abrasion In Gravel-Bedded Rivers: A Case Study Of The Lillooet And Suiattle Rivers In The Cascade Volcanic Arc (British Columbia, Canada, And Washington, Usa), Devin T. Johnson Jan 2024

Evaluating Field Evidence Of Fine-Grained Sediment Abrasion In Gravel-Bedded Rivers: A Case Study Of The Lillooet And Suiattle Rivers In The Cascade Volcanic Arc (British Columbia, Canada, And Washington, Usa), Devin T. Johnson

Honors Theses

Steep, gravel-bedded rivers are important sites for studying gravel abrasion, where material transported as bed load experiences size reduction and rounding due to grain-to-grain collisions. Studying fine sediment (diameter) abrasion and grain shape changes in fluvial systems is more challenging due to difficulties in quantifying sediment shape at this scale, but it is assumed that fine particles traveling in suspension do not experience abrasion. Improvements in particle characterization technology now allow for the accurate, rapid quantification of particle shape for sediments as fine as 0.8 μm through dynamic image analysis. Here we use the Camsizer X2 (CX2) to test the …


Exploration Of Sulfonamides And Benzothiazoles As Peptide-Based Cleavable Linkers, Abigail Dalton Jan 2024

Exploration Of Sulfonamides And Benzothiazoles As Peptide-Based Cleavable Linkers, Abigail Dalton

Honors Theses

Cleavable linkers have demonstrated great potential in various applications of medicinal organic chemistry, such as in modern therapeutic development. Linkers are stable compounds that cleave in specific conditions to release molecular cargo. We have developed cleavable linkers based on nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions on sulfonamide and benzothiazole substrates in small molecule and in peptide studies. Sulfonamides, commonly with an electron-withdrawing group, reacted in high conversion of starting material to the sulfide product in small molecule studies, but was unable to successfully cleave the sulfonamide linker on peptide in mild conditions. Next, a benzothiazole sulfone substrate was analyzed and optimized in …


Modeling The Opioid Crisis In Virginia: A Differential Equations Model Assessing The Impact Of Medication-Assisted Treatment On The Addicted Population, Maniha Zehra Akram Jan 2024

Modeling The Opioid Crisis In Virginia: A Differential Equations Model Assessing The Impact Of Medication-Assisted Treatment On The Addicted Population, Maniha Zehra Akram

Honors Theses

The opioid epidemic is prevalent in countless communities throughout the United States and has yet to be mitigated. Treatments for OUD (opioid use disorder) include Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) and treatment without medication (non-MAT), with the former being judged as more effective in terms of lower relapse rates, death rates, and criminal activity (U.S. Food & Drug Administration, 2023; SAMHSA, 2024). Motivated by the promising research on MAT, this paper models the relationship

between the treatment and addicted populations using a system of ordinary differential equations. In addition to producing closed-form equilibrium solutions, the model leads to the conclusion that expanding …


The Effect Of Solvent Identity And Hydride-Donor On The Reduction Of Co2 Into Useful Fuels, Abigail Mcentire Jan 2024

The Effect Of Solvent Identity And Hydride-Donor On The Reduction Of Co2 Into Useful Fuels, Abigail Mcentire

Honors Theses

One possible strategy for decreasing CO2 emissions is through electrocatalytic reduction reactions to convert the CO2 back into combustible fuels , such as methane or methanol. However, it can be challenging to control the reaction to select one of these useful fuels as opposed to carbon monoxide or formate. Our strategy is to investigate a specific hydride donor and solvent combinations for which the reaction favors conversion to methanol. It was found that in acetonitrile , several hydride donors were capable of selective reduction of CO2 to the methanol oxidation state.


The Effect Of The Expanded Child And Dependent Care Tax Credit On Maternal Labor Supply, Abby Letocha Jan 2024

The Effect Of The Expanded Child And Dependent Care Tax Credit On Maternal Labor Supply, Abby Letocha

Honors Theses

Policies that subsidize childcare have many potential economic benefits such as mitigating the high cost of childcare, incentivizing families to have more children, increasing paid childcare participation, and increasing parental labor supply. In this paper, I focus on the effect of childcare subsidies on maternal labor supply through a tax policy expansion. The Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit (CDCTC) is the primary federal childcare subsidy in the United States, and it was temporarily expanded in 2021 under the American Rescue Plan Act. This expansion increased the generosity of the credit and made it fully refundable for the 2021 tax …


Investigation Of Zinc And Iron In Wildflower Honey, Savannah Simpson Dec 2023

Investigation Of Zinc And Iron In Wildflower Honey, Savannah Simpson

Honors Theses

Honey acts as a valuable food source for both animals and humans. When found in contaminated environments, there is an increased likelihood that honey samples will have high metal concentrations. It has been discovered that honey concentrations in metals can be different based on location. This experiment aims to determine the amount of two valuable metals, zinc, and iron, in various honey sources. These metals can be important to the human body because they help boost immunity and allow the body to carry out the functions required for survival. However, if these elements are present in copious quantities, then it …


Development Of An App For The Kalamazoo Nature Center, Ernest Au Dec 2023

Development Of An App For The Kalamazoo Nature Center, Ernest Au

Honors Theses

Kalamazoo Nature Center (KNC), which has been recognized by its peers as one of the top nature centers in the country, is home to over 14 miles of hiking trails winding through woods, wetlands, and prairies. There are numerous places/plots in KNC that have an interesting and impressive history besides being home to a variety of animals and hundreds of wildflowers and other plant life. To improve the visitor’s experience at KNC, we will design a software app via the senior capstone project at the department of Computer Science at WMU. As the first step towards establishing a reference model …


In Situ Water Sensing Systems: Research On Advancements In Environmental Monitoring, Abigail Seibel Dec 2023

In Situ Water Sensing Systems: Research On Advancements In Environmental Monitoring, Abigail Seibel

Honors Theses

In this work, two sensing systems were researched in order to improve in situ environmental monitoring. The first is a pH and Total Alkalinity sensor used to determine these characteristics of sea water. I explored the facets of this sensor over a 7-week internship with Dr. Ellen Briggs in her lab in summer of 2023. The second is a more holistic sensing system that reads temperature, turbidity, and pressure used for studying environmental characteristics of Alaskan bever ponds. Both systems were developed in close collaboration with scientists who are collecting data to better understand the impacts of climate change. Better …


Stress-Sensing In Flexible Epoxy Adhesives, Christine Rukeyser Dec 2023

Stress-Sensing In Flexible Epoxy Adhesives, Christine Rukeyser

Honors Theses

In mechanochemistry, mechanical force causes a chemical change using small molecules, called mechanophores, by covalently connecting them into polymer materials. Stress-sensing mechanophores give a visual signal of mechanical force on the molecular level within a material. To our knowledge, stress-sensing mechanophores have never been incorporated into a commercially available epoxy kit. In this work, the characterization of two 3MTM Scotch-Weld TM Epoxy Adhesive kits: DP100 Plus Clear and DP190 Translucent have been completed through FT-IR Spectroscopy. The addition of the mechanophore spiropyran to the 3M kits will be discussed; as well as preparation and characterization of three dimerized anthracene derivatives. …