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Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Sediment Transport And Trapping On The Ayeyarwady-Martaban Continental Shelf, Matthew Joshua Fair Jul 2021

Sediment Transport And Trapping On The Ayeyarwady-Martaban Continental Shelf, Matthew Joshua Fair

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The Ayeyarwady and Thanlwin Rivers, which primarily drain Myanmar, are together one of the largest point sources of freshwater and sediment to the global ocean. Much of the estimated 600 Mt of river sediment annually carried by the combined Ayeyarwady and Thanlwin River system is delivered to a wide continental shelf in the northern Andaman Sea. Called here the Ayeyarwady-Martaban continental shelf, this area is influenced by strong tides, monsoon conditions, and periodic cyclones; however, the processes that dominate dispersal of fluvial material in the coastal ocean of this system remain poorly understood. The shelf exhibits a dramatic asymmetry of ...


Performance Optimization With An Integrated View Of Compiler And Application Knowledge, Ruiqin Tian Jul 2021

Performance Optimization With An Integrated View Of Compiler And Application Knowledge, Ruiqin Tian

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Compiler optimization is a long-standing research field that enhances program performance with a set of rigorous code analyses and transformations. Traditional compiler optimization focuses on general programs or program structures without considering too much high-level application operations or data structure knowledge. In this thesis, we claim that an integrated view of the application and compiler is helpful to further improve program performance. Particularly, we study integrated optimization opportunities for three kinds of applications: irregular tree-based query processing systems such as B+ tree, security enhancement such as buffer overflow protection, and tensor/matrix-based linear algebra computation. The performance of B+ tree ...


Low-Overhead Techniques For Secure And Reliable Gpu Computing, Gurunath Kadam Jul 2021

Low-Overhead Techniques For Secure And Reliable Gpu Computing, Gurunath Kadam

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In recent years, Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have become a de facto choice to accelerate the computations in various domains such as machine learning, security, financial and scientific computing. GPUs leverage the inherent data parallelism in the target applications to provide high throughput at superior energy efficiency. Due to the rising usage of GPUs for a large number of applications, they are facing new challenges, especially in the security and reliability domains. From the security side, recently several microarchitectural attacks targeting GPUs have been demonstrated. These attacks leak the secret information stored on GPUs, for example, the parameters of a ...


Ultrafast Optical Control And Characterization Of Carrier And Spin Dynamics In Novel Magnetic Topological Insulator Systems, Peiwen Liu Jul 2021

Ultrafast Optical Control And Characterization Of Carrier And Spin Dynamics In Novel Magnetic Topological Insulator Systems, Peiwen Liu

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Magnetic topological insulators (MTIs) are of considerable interest in developing novel spintronics and quantum computing applications. Under the topological protection by time-reversal Z2 invariant number, magnetic topological insulators are provided with robust electronic and magnetic properties against local perturbations. The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), which harbors dissipationless chiral edge states in MTIs, provides a competitive platform for future low-power consumption and high-speed spintronic devices. Although the present studies on both bulk and surface magnetic properties in MTIs have made significant progress, the in-depth understanding of the exchange couplings and the interaction between the two magnetization sources is far from ...


Impact Of Canyon Upwelling And Downwelling In The Mid-Atlantic Bight, Haixing Wang Jul 2021

Impact Of Canyon Upwelling And Downwelling In The Mid-Atlantic Bight, Haixing Wang

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Submarine canyons can impact regional oceanography and provide a conduit for shelf-slope exchanges via topographically induced processes such as canyon upwelling and downwelling. Between Virginia and New York in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB), there are five major shelf-incising canyons (Norfolk, Washington, Baltimore, Wilmington, and Hudson canyons) and four sizable slope-confined canyons (Accomac, Spencer, Lindenkhol, and Toms canyons). Canyon upwelling and downwelling at these canyons have not been well studied. Consequently, the associated hydrographic variability and dynamics inside the canyons and on the adjacent shelf are largely unknown, and the integrated impact of submarine canyons on MAB shelf hydrography and shelf-slope ...


Estuarine Microbiomes And Biogeochemistry: Impacts Of Spatiotemporal Variation, Algal Blooms, And Microplastics, Samantha Grace Fortin Jul 2021

Estuarine Microbiomes And Biogeochemistry: Impacts Of Spatiotemporal Variation, Algal Blooms, And Microplastics, Samantha Grace Fortin

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Estuaries are biogeochemical hotspots connecting terrestrial and coastal ecosystems. Anthropogenic disturbances, including increased nitrogen loading and plastic pollution, may have significant impacts on estuarine carbon and nitrogen cycling by altering microbiome structure and functions. The overarching goal of this dissertation was to examine how microbiomes and their associated biogeochemical processes are influenced by natural variation and anthropogenic disturbances in the York River Estuary (YRE). In chapter 2, spatial and temporal variation in benthic microbiomes and the rates of denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were examined to determine biotic and abiotic drivers of nitrogen ...


Epidemic Spread Modeling For Covid-19 Using Hard Data, Anna Schmedding Jul 2021

Epidemic Spread Modeling For Covid-19 Using Hard Data, Anna Schmedding

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

We present an individual-centric model for COVID-19 spread in an urban setting. We first analyze patient and route data of infected patients from January 20, 2020 ,to May 31, 2020, collected by the Korean Center for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC) and illustrate how infection clusters develop as a function of time. This analysis offers a statistical characterization of mobility habits and patterns of individuals. We use this characterization to parameterize agent-based simulations that capture the spread of the disease, we evaluate simulation predictions with ground truth, and we evaluate different what-if counter-measure scenarios. Although the presented agent-based model is not ...


Data-Driven Reflectance Estimation Under Natural Lighting, Victoria Cooper Jul 2021

Data-Driven Reflectance Estimation Under Natural Lighting, Victoria Cooper

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions, (BRDFs), describe how light is reflected off of a material. BRDFs are captured so that the materials can be re-lit under new while maintaining accuracy. BRDF models can approximate the reflectance of a material, but are unable to accurately represent the full BRDF of the material. Acquisition setups for BRDFs trade accuracy for speed with the most accurate methods, gonioreflectometers, being the slowest. Image-based BRDF acquisition approaches range from using complicated controlled lighting setups to uncontrolled known lighting to assuming the lighting is unknown. We propose a data-driven method for recovering BRDFs under known, but uncontrolled ...


Water Clarity And Suspended Particle Dynamics In The Chesapeake Bay: Local Effects Of Oyster Aquaculture, Regional Effects Of Reduced Shoreline Erosion, And Long-Term Trends In Remotely Sensed Reflectance, Jessica Turner Jul 2021

Water Clarity And Suspended Particle Dynamics In The Chesapeake Bay: Local Effects Of Oyster Aquaculture, Regional Effects Of Reduced Shoreline Erosion, And Long-Term Trends In Remotely Sensed Reflectance, Jessica Turner

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Water clarity is a key indicator of the ecosystem health in the Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine water clarity fluctuates due to external inputs from the watershed as well as processes occurring within the estuary itself, such as sediment resuspension and organic matter production. Therefore, water clarity requires study at multiple spatial and temporal scales and with multiple metrics. One local-scale process potentially influencing water clarity is shellfish aquaculture. One part of this dissertation examined how water quality and hydrodynamics varied among oyster farms as well as inside versus outside the extent of caged areas located in southern Chesapeake Bay. Current speed ...


Recruitment And Post-Settlement Mortality Of The Soft-Shell Clam, Mya Arenaria, Shantelle Landry Jul 2021

Recruitment And Post-Settlement Mortality Of The Soft-Shell Clam, Mya Arenaria, Shantelle Landry

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria, is a benthic, filter-feeding, infaunal clam typically found in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters. Chesapeake Bay stocks of M. arenaria have been depleted since the 1960s due to various factors including predation, temperature, low recruitment, habitat loss, disease mortalities, and commercial harvest. As an important prey item for many commercial species, low abundances of these clams are mostly the result of the voracious appetite of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. In addition to predation, summer water temperatures in the Chesapeake Bay are likely driving the low abundances of M. arenaria, as water temperatures commonly surpass ...


Evaluating Epoxy Cure And Adhesion Strength Through Single-Sided Nmr Measurements Of Molecular Mobility, Kayla Copeman Jul 2021

Evaluating Epoxy Cure And Adhesion Strength Through Single-Sided Nmr Measurements Of Molecular Mobility, Kayla Copeman

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Commonly used in aerospace, automotive, marine, defense, electronic, and manufacturing industries, epoxy adhesives offer advantages over mechanical joints by providing stronger and/or more flexible bonds, more uniform stress distribution, low shrinkage, and lightweight connections between materials. Determination of curing kinetics and properties of interfaces between epoxy and inorganic substrates provides insight that is useful for quality control and defect detection for such applications. Single-sided NMR provides a nondestructive and inexpensive method for probing epoxy materials and spatially resolving the decay of spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times (T1 and T2) during and after curing of epoxy resins onto substrates. In ...


Investigating The Electron Transfer Dynamics Of Eosin Y Photosensitizers Using Single Molecule Spectroscopy, Kelly Margaret Kopera Jan 2021

Investigating The Electron Transfer Dynamics Of Eosin Y Photosensitizers Using Single Molecule Spectroscopy, Kelly Margaret Kopera

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Growing global energy demands have necessitated the search for alternative sources of renewable fuels. Dye-sensitized photocatalysis (DSP) is a promising low cost, sustainable method that directly converts solar energy to readily usable forms of energy such as hydrogen fuel. While DSP is a promising technology, its efficiency is limited by back electron transfer and kinetic redundancy. In order to fully understand these processes, single-molecule spectroscopy (SMS) is used to probe the electron transfer (ET) dynamics of photosensitizers. In particular, eosin Y (EY), a brominated fluorescein derivative that undergoes intersystem crossing prior to injection, is investigated using SMS. In this approach ...


Controls On Estuarine Sediment Bed Erodibility: Insights From The York River Estuary, Cristin Lee Wright Jan 2021

Controls On Estuarine Sediment Bed Erodibility: Insights From The York River Estuary, Cristin Lee Wright

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The erodibility of estuarine sediment beds has a number of ecological and societal implications, including alteration of benthic habitats, light-limitation of primary production, and reintroduction of pollutants to the water column, as well as impacts on dredging operations and on the fate of potentially dangerous objects on the seafloor. The objectives of this study are to better understand controls on bed erodibility in estuarine environments, including the roles of sediment grain size, water content, percent organics, and bed fabric, as well as effects of tides, storms, salinity distribution, river discharge, and location within the estuary. An extensive set of erosion ...


Combining Performance Profiling And Modeling For Accuracy And Efficiency, Hao Xu Jan 2021

Combining Performance Profiling And Modeling For Accuracy And Efficiency, Hao Xu

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Modern computer systems have evolved to employ powerful parallel architectures, including multi-core processors, multi-socket chips, large memory subsystems, and fast network communication. Given such powerful hardware, developers rely on performance profiling and modeling to guide their performance optimization. However, performance optimization is facing new challenges on efficiency and accuracy with emerging computer systems. In this dissertation, we propose approaches to address these challenges. We first study memory contention in Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) architectures. We present DR-BW, a new tool based on machine learning to identify bandwidth contention in NUMA architectures and provide optimization guidance. DR-BW collects performance data with ...


Excited J-- Resonances In Meson-Meson Scattering From Lattice Qcd, Christopher Johnson Jan 2021

Excited J-- Resonances In Meson-Meson Scattering From Lattice Qcd, Christopher Johnson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Understanding the excited light meson spectrum is vital to our understanding of how quarks and gluons bind to become hadrons. This sector is home to a plethora of states including hadrons laying outside the quark model. Distinguishing the from the rest of the spectrum would be made easier if we first had a handle on the light quark anti-quark spectrum. I present the first determination of excited light JPC=1--,2--,3-- resonances in meson-meson scattering at the SU(3) flavor point from lattice QCD. This system can be described in the context of pseudoscalar-vector elastic scattering and I determine ...


Forward & Off-Forward Parton Distributions From Lattice Qcd, Colin Paul Egerer Jan 2021

Forward & Off-Forward Parton Distributions From Lattice Qcd, Colin Paul Egerer

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The interpretation of (semi-)inclusive and certain exclusive scattering processes relies on the factorization of hard parton level cross sections from long-range and non-perturbative parton correlations. The familiar Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) and Generalized Parton Distributions quantify the non-perturbative dynamics in these situations and address a number of key questions surrounding the structure of hadrons. A certain class of matrix elements accessible in lattice QCD, so called Lattice Cross Sections, have been shown to factorize into these collinear distributions in a manner akin to the factorization of hadronic cross sections. In the short-distance regime, matrix elements of space-like separated two-current ...


Improving Observation, Assessment, And Management Of Atlantic Coastal Sharks, Cassidy Dawn Peterson Jan 2021

Improving Observation, Assessment, And Management Of Atlantic Coastal Sharks, Cassidy Dawn Peterson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Coastal sharks represent a group of stocks for which observation, assessment, and management are particularly challenging. Large distributional ranges, complex migratory behavior, low economic value, and relatively few observations in fishery independent surveys hinder relative abundance estimation. Assessing stock status of coastal sharks is encumbered by limited data availability, data quality, and knowledge of life history strategy. Further, coastal sharks are challenging to manage due to their slow intrinsic population growth rates, competing stakeholder interests, history of overexploitation, and in some cases, subjection to international exploitation. This dissertation aimed to improve the capacity to observe relative abundance of coastal sharks ...


Ac & Dc Zeeman Interferometric Sensing With Ultracold Trapped Atoms On A Chip, Shuangli Du Jan 2021

Ac & Dc Zeeman Interferometric Sensing With Ultracold Trapped Atoms On A Chip, Shuangli Du

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This thesis presents progress in developing a trapped atom interferometer on a chip, based on AC Zeeman potentials. An atom interferometer is a high-precision measuring tool that can detect various types of forces and potentials. The trapped atom interferometer introduced in this thesis targets the shortcomings of traditional ballistic atom interferometers, which are typically meter-scale in height. Notably, a trapped atom interferometer has a localized atomic sample, a potentially longer interferometric phase accumulation time, and the prospect of being the basis for a more compact instrument. This thesis presents multiple projects in the development of a trapped atom interferometer based ...


Proton Spin Structure From Simultaneous Monte Carlo Global Qcd Analysis, Yiyu Zhou Jan 2021

Proton Spin Structure From Simultaneous Monte Carlo Global Qcd Analysis, Yiyu Zhou

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Despite the great effort and achievements made towards understanding proton spin structure in the past few decades, a complete picture is still elusive. Parton distribution functions (PDFs), which in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) encode the momentum and helicity distributions of quarks and gluons inside a proton, provide the means by which to quantify the proton structure information. Being inherently nonperturbative, PDFs have to be extracted from unpolarized and polarized lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron scattering data. In particular, experiments that measure unpolarized and polarized jet observables can provide insight into the momentum and helicity distributions of gluons, which have generally been more difficult ...


Rethinking Cache Hierarchy And Interconnect Design For Next-Generation Gpus, Mohamed Assem Abd Elmohsen Ibrahim Jan 2021

Rethinking Cache Hierarchy And Interconnect Design For Next-Generation Gpus, Mohamed Assem Abd Elmohsen Ibrahim

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

To match the increasing computational demands of GPGPU applications and to improve peak compute throughput, the core counts in GPUs have been increasing with every generation. However, the famous memory wall is a major performance determinant in GPUs. In other words, in most cases, peak throughput in GPUs is ultimately dictated by memory bandwidth. Therefore, to serve the memory demands of thousands of concurrently executing threads, GPUs are equipped with several sources of bandwidth such as on-chip private/shared caching resources and off-chip high bandwidth memories. However, the existing sources of bandwidth are often not sufficient for achieving optimal GPU ...


Quantifying The Increased Resiliency Of Chesapeake Bay Hypoxia To Environmental Conditions: A Benefit Of Nutrient Reductions, Luke Thomas Frankel Jan 2021

Quantifying The Increased Resiliency Of Chesapeake Bay Hypoxia To Environmental Conditions: A Benefit Of Nutrient Reductions, Luke Thomas Frankel

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Seasonal hypoxia is a characteristic feature of the Chesapeake Bay as a result of anthropogenic eutrophication from agriculture and urban development throughout the watershed. Although in recent years coordinated management efforts have successfully reduced the flux of nutrients into the Bay, the overall goal of sufficient oxygen concentrations below the pycnocline for living resources remains unfulfilled. This was particularly apparent in 2018 and 2019 when the volume of hypoxic water exceeded the long-term (35-year) average due to anomalously high riverine discharge. To quantify the impact of watershed nutrient reductions, conventional statistical methods were employed in concert with a 3-D numerical ...


Dealing With Many Species: Improving Methodology For Forming And Assessing Species Complexes, Kristen Omori Jan 2021

Dealing With Many Species: Improving Methodology For Forming And Assessing Species Complexes, Kristen Omori

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In the United States, the Magnuson-Stevens Reauthorization Act mandates that all federally fished species must have catch limits, which can be challenging for data-limited species. One approach is to assess and manage a group of species with similar life history characteristics, vulnerability to the fishery, and overlapping geographic distributions in a single management unit, or a complex (i.e., stock or species complex). Using the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) Other Rockfish complex as a case study, the main goals of this dissertation are five-fold: 1) review species complexes in the United States; 2) compare multivariate techniques for assigning species to ...


Radiofrequency Ac Zeeman Trapping For Neutral Atoms, Andrew Peter Rotunno Jan 2021

Radiofrequency Ac Zeeman Trapping For Neutral Atoms, Andrew Peter Rotunno

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This thesis presents the first experimental demonstration of a two-wire AC Zeeman trap on an atom chip. The AC Zeeman energy is a resonant, bipolar, state-dependent atomic energy shift produced by alternating magnetic fields with frequencies near hyperfine transitions. We demonstrate that high gradients in this energy, as near an atom chip, can produce a spin-state selective force greater than gravity for ultracold rubidium atoms. Our novel trap is generated by a local minimum in AC Zeeman energy. Using less than one watt of power, we demonstrate trap frequency on the order of a few hundred Hz, trap depth about ...


Dihadron Beam Spin Asymmetries On An Unpolarized Hydrogen Target With Clas12, Timothy Barton Hayward Jan 2021

Dihadron Beam Spin Asymmetries On An Unpolarized Hydrogen Target With Clas12, Timothy Barton Hayward

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering process, where an electron scatters off a proton target at high enough energy that the process can be described by the scattering off a single constituent particle, offers targeted access to the internal structure of the nucleon. The process can be described in two phases by parton distribution functions (PDFs), which describe the likelihood of finding a quark or gluon in a particular state inside of the nucleon and then by fragmentation functions (FFs) which describe the likelihood of forming a particular final state particle. One way to study these properties is via the measurement ...


Deep Learning In Software Engineering, Cody Watson Jan 2020

Deep Learning In Software Engineering, Cody Watson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Software evolves and therefore requires an evolving field of Software Engineering. The evolution of software can be seen on an individual project level through the software life cycle, as well as on a collective level, as we study the trends and uses of software in the real world. As the needs and requirements of users change, so must software evolve to reflect those changes. This cycle is never ending and has led to continuous and rapid development of software projects. More importantly, it has put a great responsibility on software engineers, causing them to adopt practices and tools that allow ...


Quantitative Analysis Of Ekg And Blood Pressure Waveforms, Denise Erin Mckaig Jan 2020

Quantitative Analysis Of Ekg And Blood Pressure Waveforms, Denise Erin Mckaig

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In the intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital, patients are monitored continuously and the data on those patients provide powerful diagnostic tools for the medical community. However, the patient data creates incredibly large data sets with instruments measuring multiple signals simultaneously. This work seeks to improve monitoring techniques through analysis of large data sets from former ICU patients. By knowing the outcomes of patients in the past, can we detect patterns to diagnose future patients while also reducing the amount of recorded information? This thesis first seeks to improve methods of storing infant electrocardiograms (EKGs) by reducing the full ...


Unravelling The Aggregation Of Eosin Y Photosensitisers For Solar Energy Conversion, Huw Richards Jan 2020

Unravelling The Aggregation Of Eosin Y Photosensitisers For Solar Energy Conversion, Huw Richards

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The impact of molecular aggregation on the photophysics of eosin y adsorbed to TiO2 was investigated using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, steady-state fluorescence and time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurements. Deconvolution of the diffuse reflectance spectra of eosin y on TiO2 revealed the formation of H-aggregates, with the extent of H-aggregation increasing with increasing dye-loading concentration. The resultant bathochromic shift from the monomer diffuse reflectance maximum is due to Charge-transfermediated H-aggregates The fluorescent maximum also shifts with increasing dye loading concentration starting at 537.5 nm at a dye loading concentration of 7.5x10-7 M and shifting ...


Impacts Of Fertilization On Salt Marsh Resilience: Altered By Location-Specific Drivers, Kenneth Michael Czapla Jan 2020

Impacts Of Fertilization On Salt Marsh Resilience: Altered By Location-Specific Drivers, Kenneth Michael Czapla

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Salt marshes provide valuable ecosystem services to human society, but are currently under threat from accelerating sea level rise and nutrient enrichment. Carbon (C) and mineral accumulation allow salt marshes to maintain elevation above sea level and survive. Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loading is increasing in many salt marshes, causing negative impacts on marsh resilience such as increased decomposition and decreased below-ground production. However, increasing N may also have simultaneous positive effects such as increased primary production and above-ground biomass, surface sediment accretion, and denitrification rates, which remove excess N from coastal waters. Many studies have been conducted to determine the ...


Cross-Scale Simulations: An Innovative Approach To Evaluate The Impacts Of Sea-Level Rise On Tidal Marsh Habitats, Mirtha Karinna Nunez Jan 2020

Cross-Scale Simulations: An Innovative Approach To Evaluate The Impacts Of Sea-Level Rise On Tidal Marsh Habitats, Mirtha Karinna Nunez

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

There is a universal consensus that global sea levels will rise at an increased rate from those in the recent past. Rising seas will dramatically increase the vulnerability of coastal communities and ecosystems. Tidal marshes are considered to be among the most valuable and vulnerable ecosystems in the world. The effects of sea-level rise (SLR) on tidal marshes are diverse, comprising changes in tidal amplitude and flow patterns, changes in sediment transport, shoreline erosion, changes in salinity gradients, landward migration of tidal habitats, variations in species composition, and habitat loss. There is an increasing concern over how accelerated rates of ...


Experiments And Theory On Dynamical Hamiltononian Monodromy, Matthew Perry Nerem Jan 2020

Experiments And Theory On Dynamical Hamiltononian Monodromy, Matthew Perry Nerem

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In classical mechanics, one of the advanced topics is the study of action and angle variables. These variables are quite abstract, but very powerful tools for describing classical motion. If a system has a full set of conservation laws, and if the motion of the system is bounded, then the motion can be described as flow on a torus. Action variables are functions of the conservation laws that identify the torus on which the motion lies, while angle variables tell the location of the system on that torus. In certain cases, the functional relationship between the conservation laws and the ...