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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Ecosystem Transitions And State Changes Rapidly Alter The Coastal Carbon Landscape: Evidence From The Chesapeake Bay Region, Alexander Jason Smith Jan 2023

Ecosystem Transitions And State Changes Rapidly Alter The Coastal Carbon Landscape: Evidence From The Chesapeake Bay Region, Alexander Jason Smith

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The coastal landscape is a naturally shifting mosaic of distinct ecosystems that are rapidly migrating with climate change. While directional changes in climate, such as warming and sea level rise, are fundamentally reorganizing the coastal landscape, ecosystem function, especially carbon storage, is affected to an unknown degree. This dissertation presents four chapters that examine the role of ecosystem transitions in coastal carbon dynamics across a range of spatial scales – within individual ecosystems, between two ecosystems, and at the landscape between an array of ecosystems. Ghost forests, or the marsh-forest ecotone, serves as an ideal example of a migratory ecotone. …


A Reevaluation Of Why Crypto-Detectors Fail: A Systematic Revaluation Of Cryptographic Misuse Detection Techniques, Scott Marsden Jan 2023

A Reevaluation Of Why Crypto-Detectors Fail: A Systematic Revaluation Of Cryptographic Misuse Detection Techniques, Scott Marsden

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The correct use of cryptography is central to ensuring data security in modern software systems. Hence, several academic and commercial static analysis tools have been developed for detecting and mitigating crypto-API misuse. While developers are optimistically adopting these crypto-API misuse detectors (or crypto-detectors) in their software development cycles, this momentum must be accompanied by a rigorous understanding of their effectiveness at finding crypto-API misuse in practice. The original paper presents the MASC framework, which enables a systematic and data-driven evaluation of crypto-detectors using mutation testing. MASC was grounded in a comprehensive view of the problem space by developing a data-driven …


Domain-Specific Optimization For Machine Learning System, Yu Chen Jan 2023

Domain-Specific Optimization For Machine Learning System, Yu Chen

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The machine learning (ML) system has been an indispensable part of the ML ecosystem in recent years. The rapid growth of ML brings new system challenges such as the need of handling more large-scale data and computation, the requirements for higher execution performance, and lower resource usage, stimulating the demand for improving ML system. General-purpose system optimization is widely used but brings limited benefits because ML applications vary in execution behaviors based on their algorithms, input data, and configurations. It's difficult to perform comprehensive ML system optimizations without application specific information. Therefore, domain-specific optimization, a method that optimizes particular types …


Appearance Driven Reflectance Modeling, James Christopher Bieron Jan 2023

Appearance Driven Reflectance Modeling, James Christopher Bieron

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Creating realistic computer generated imagery is essential for modern movies and video games. Recreating the appearance of materials is integral to generating such photo-realistic images. While the problem of how to model materials is well studied, here we will focus on the question of how to recreate the appearance of specific materials found in the real world. In this dissertation we will begin with a short introduction to rendering, followed by a discussion of various material models, techniques for measuring reflectance, and strategies for fitting these models to reflectance data. We will then introduce a novel two-stage process for fitting, …


Emerging Red Sore Disease Of American Eel (Anguilla Rostrata) In Chesapeake Bay: Etiology, Epidemiology, And Impacts In Aquaculture And The Wild, Amanpreet Kaur Kohli Jan 2023

Emerging Red Sore Disease Of American Eel (Anguilla Rostrata) In Chesapeake Bay: Etiology, Epidemiology, And Impacts In Aquaculture And The Wild, Amanpreet Kaur Kohli

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Emerging infectious diseases in aquatic systems, both in aquaculture and in the wild, are a global concern. Many have proposed an uptick in marine diseases as a result of environmental changes including a warming climate, habitat modifications, trade and transfer of wildlife and aquaculture products, pollution, overharvesting of resources, and other anthropogenic impacts. These perturbations can disturb the delicate host-pathogen relationships and result in new diseases or exacerbate the existing diseases in a population. Diseases can lead to several direct and indirect effects in the ecosystem such as population declines and extinctions, and thereby a change in population dynamics, as …


Exploring Software Licensing Issues Faced By Legal Practitioners, Nathan James Wintersgill Jan 2023

Exploring Software Licensing Issues Faced By Legal Practitioners, Nathan James Wintersgill

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Most modern software products incorporate open source components, which requires compliance with each component’s licenses. As noncompliance can lead to significant repercussions, organizations often seek advice from legal practitioners to maintain license compliance, address licensing issues, and manage the risks of noncompliance. While legal practitioners play a critical role in the process, little is known in the software engineering community about their experiences within the open source license compliance ecosystem. To fill this knowledge gap, a joint team of software engineering and legal researchers designed and conducted a survey with 30 legal practitioners and related occupations and then held 16 …


Program Analysis For Software Engineers And Students, Jialiang Tan Jan 2023

Program Analysis For Software Engineers And Students, Jialiang Tan

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Software inefficiencies are inevitable in computer systems. At the code level, software packages have become increasingly complex, they are comprised of a large amount of source code, sophisticated control and data flow, and growing levels of abstraction. This complexity often introduces inefficiencies across software stacks, leading to performance degradation. At the resource level, the evolution of hardware outpaces the performance optimization of software, leading to resource wastage and energy dissipation in emerging architecture. To better understand program behaviors, software developers take advantage of performance profiling tools. Existing profiling techniques, whether fine-grained profilers or coarse-grained profilers focus on identifying hotspots, which …


Artificial Illumination Of Trawl Gear Components To Reduce Pacific Halibut (Hippoglossus Stenolepis) Bycatch In The U.S. West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Fishery, Derek Jackson Jan 2023

Artificial Illumination Of Trawl Gear Components To Reduce Pacific Halibut (Hippoglossus Stenolepis) Bycatch In The U.S. West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Fishery, Derek Jackson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) is a prohibited species for the U.S. West Coast Bottom Trawl Fishery and in the last decade, there has been a concentrated interest in the use of artificial illumination serving as a potential bycatch reduction device. Previous studies conducted off the coast of Oregon have found that the addition of green light-emitting diodes to the bridles of low-rise, cutback trawls greatly reduced the number of Pacific halibut caught. However, recent regulation changes now permit high-rise trawls, a gear configuration that fishes a very different volume of water than the previously permissible gear profile, in areas where …


Environmental Education In The Classroom: Selected Early-Career Teachers' Experiences Navigating Pre-Service And In-Service Activity Systems, Sarah Mcguire Nuss Jan 2023

Environmental Education In The Classroom: Selected Early-Career Teachers' Experiences Navigating Pre-Service And In-Service Activity Systems, Sarah Mcguire Nuss

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Recent publications argue that to prepare teachers of all grade levels to be confident and competent in incorporating environmental education into their classrooms, pre-service teacher training is effective (e.g., J. T. McDonald & Dominguez, 2010). But the systems in which teachers learn and work are complex, making professional learning about, and implementation of, environmental education both disparate and limited (Franzen, 2017). This study sought to understand the nature of participants’ experiences within and between teacher preparation and in-service learning systems as they relate to environmental education. Cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) provided a framework to allow for deeper understanding of …


From Field To Shore: Policy Improvements To Better Protect Ecosystem And Human Health From Poultry Wastes In Virginia, Rachael A. King Jan 2023

From Field To Shore: Policy Improvements To Better Protect Ecosystem And Human Health From Poultry Wastes In Virginia, Rachael A. King

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Commercial poultry production is a large industry with economic importance in Virginia. However, mismanagement of manures and wastes generated from the poultry industry can be a serious threat to ecosystem and human health. Primarily, there is a concern about nutrient pollution related to runoff and infiltration of poultry wastes. High nutrient loading can cause groundwater contamination, eutrophication, and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Additional concerns include metals, antibiotics, and pesticides that can be found in poultry wastes. To determine existing threats to ecosystem and human health from the poultry industry, Virginia policies regulating the industry are reviewed and their strengths and …


Learning-Based Ubiquitous Sensing For Solving Real-World Problems, Woosub Jung Jan 2023

Learning-Based Ubiquitous Sensing For Solving Real-World Problems, Woosub Jung

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Recently, as the Internet of Things (IoT) technology has become smaller and cheaper, ubiquitous sensing ability within these devices has become increasingly accessible. Learning methods have also become more complex in the field of computer science ac- cordingly. However, there remains a gap between these learning approaches and many problems in other disciplinary fields. In this dissertation, I investigate four different learning-based studies via ubiquitous sensing for solving real-world problems, such as in IoT security, athletics, and healthcare. First, I designed an online intrusion detection system for IoT devices via power auditing. To realize the real-time system, I created a …


Tracing Atlantic Sea Scallops Using Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) Technology, Will Shoup Jan 2023

Tracing Atlantic Sea Scallops Using Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) Technology, Will Shoup

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Traceable seafood can be linked back to its origin and method of catch. Improving the traceability of marine organisms involves establishing a transparent Chain of Custody (CoC) by collecting data at checkpoints throughout the supply chain, from ship to shore to store. This report explores the feasibility of integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into the United States Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) fishery in order to improve traceability. This report serves as a forward-looking evaluation of RFID technology that is intended to inform interested stakeholders of its functionality and capabilities. It is not intended to serve as a management …


Constraining Of The Minerνa Medium Energy Neutrino Flux Using Neutrino-Electron Scattering, Luis Zazueta Jan 2023

Constraining Of The Minerνa Medium Energy Neutrino Flux Using Neutrino-Electron Scattering, Luis Zazueta

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments rely on the flux from accelerator-based neutrino beams. As experimental neutrino physics moves to the next generation of experiments a precise characterization of the neutrino flux on a given experiment becomes crucial to the goals of the experiments: to precisely determine the neutrino oscillation parameters.This work takes advantage of neutrino-electron scattering processes for their precisely predicted cross section. The observed number of scattering events can be used as a benchmark to constrain the neutrino flux. A measurement was made of the energy spectrum of neutrino-electron elastic scattering (νe-→νe-), using data from the antineutrino-enhanced run period …


Chesapeake Bay Carbonate Cycle: Past, Present, And Future, Fei Da Jan 2023

Chesapeake Bay Carbonate Cycle: Past, Present, And Future, Fei Da

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Multiple natural and anthropogenic drivers are expanding the variability of the estuarine carbonate system (CO2 system). These changes in the CO2 system are threatening the health of ecologically and economically important bivalve species. This dissertation investigates the Chesapeake Bay CO2 system by using numerical models and historical water quality data, focusing on the past three decades, the contemporary period, and the late 2060s. In Chapter 2, sensitivity experiments are conducted with a 3-D Chesapeake Bay hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model and reveal that the magnitude of decadal trends in the CO2 system over the past 30 years is much greater than that observed …


Impacts And Uncertainties Of Climate Change On The Chesapeake Bay, Kyle E. Hinson Jan 2023

Impacts And Uncertainties Of Climate Change On The Chesapeake Bay, Kyle E. Hinson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Climate change impacts in the Chesapeake Bay will limit the efficacy of nutrient reduction efforts and decrease dissolved oxygen, but uncertainties associated with the magnitude of these effects remain. An understanding of underlying mechanisms that have driven recent warming trends will narrow uncertainties for future pathways of temperature change. Additionally, future simulations of climate impacts in the estuary are dependent on multiple different sources of uncertainty, many of which have not yet been fully evaluated. This dissertation used a three- dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model to investigate recent warming trends as well as underlying uncertainties likely to influence regional projections of …


Experimental Studies Of Neutral Particles And The Isotope Effect In The Edge Of Tokamak Plasmas, Ryan Chaban Jan 2023

Experimental Studies Of Neutral Particles And The Isotope Effect In The Edge Of Tokamak Plasmas, Ryan Chaban

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The H-mode plasma edge is a region of steep gradients in density and temperature known as the “pedestal” which greatly increases energy confinement. The complex links between neutral-plasma interactions and both diffusive and convective transport in the pedestal must be understood to model, predict, and achieve the high performance required for a fusion power plant. This dissertation explores the effects of different hydrogenic isotope neutral particles and plasma transport from the edge pedestal region into the Scrape-Off Layer. Current experiments typically use deuterium (H with amu=2 or D), however future fusion power plants may startup with hydrogen (H), and eventually …


Mattanock Town Restoration Plan, Katlin Mccarter Grigsby Jan 2023

Mattanock Town Restoration Plan, Katlin Mccarter Grigsby

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Mattanock Town's Restoration Plan is a science-based restoration process that evaluates the site's history, the tribal history, and the most current research to maximize native habitats, enhance coastal resilience, and reconnect the Nansemond people to the local river. Restoration priorities include increasing native plant species, incorporating oyster habitat, and addressing erosion. This plan details how synthesizing existing and new physical, biological, and cultural information can help the Nansemond Indian Nation prioritize projects that benefit their community and the surrounding environment.


Achieving Equitable Offshore Wind Development: Lessons From European Stakeholders, Kacey Hirshfeld Jan 2023

Achieving Equitable Offshore Wind Development: Lessons From European Stakeholders, Kacey Hirshfeld

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The Biden Administration has set aggressive offshore wind energy goals, aiming to have 30 gigawatts of offshore energy in place by 2030. This amount of energy has the potential to power 10 million homes (White House, 2022), helping the administration to reach larger clean energy goals. In Virginia, Dominion Energy aims to have 2.6 gigawatts of offshore wind energy by 2026, enough to power up to 660,000 homes (Dominion Energy).

While the upcoming offshore wind energy development will create clean energy and green jobs, the ocean is no longer an open field for development and already supports a complex matrix …


Development Of 3d And 360 Gis-Based Models To Visualize Projected Sea Level Rise In Coastal Virginia, Candice M. Vinson Jan 2023

Development Of 3d And 360 Gis-Based Models To Visualize Projected Sea Level Rise In Coastal Virginia, Candice M. Vinson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Science communication is a skill that can be strengthened with practice. Like any skill, it helps to know what you need to practice in order to get better at it. When presenting information to an audience, the skill of science communication comes into play as early as the first draft of a presentation. As you think about how you will tell your story to the audience, you likely consider including text on slides, images, graphs, maps, or even videos. However, it is crucial to remember that accessibility barriers are something we must often consciously work to rid our presentations of, …


Matfusion: A Generative Diffusion Model For Svbrdf Capture, Samuel Lee Sartor Jan 2023

Matfusion: A Generative Diffusion Model For Svbrdf Capture, Samuel Lee Sartor

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

We formulate SVBRDF estimation from photographs as a diffusion task. To model the distribution of spatially varying materials, we first train a novel unconditional SVBRDF diffusion backbone model on a large set of 312,165 synthetic spatially varying material exemplars. This SVBRDF diffusion backbone model, named MatFusion, can then serve as a basis for refining a conditional diffusion model to estimate the material properties from a photograph under controlled or uncontrolled lighting. Our backbone MatFusion model is trained using only a loss on the reflectance properties, and therefore refinement can be paired with more expensive rendering methods without the need for …


Intelligent Software Tooling For Improving Software Development, Nathan Allen Cooper Jan 2023

Intelligent Software Tooling For Improving Software Development, Nathan Allen Cooper

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Software has eaten the world with many of the necessities and quality of life services people use requiring software. Therefore, tools that improve the software development experience can have a significant impact on the world such as generating code and test cases, detecting bugs, question and answering, etc. The success of Deep Learning (DL) over the past decade has shown huge advancements in automation across many domains, including Software Development processes. One of the main reasons behind this success is the availability of large datasets such as open-source code available through GitHub or image datasets of mobile Graphical User Interfaces …


Gas-Phase Proton Affinities Of Proline- And Pipecolic Acid-Containing Dipeptides, Trinh Ton Jan 2023

Gas-Phase Proton Affinities Of Proline- And Pipecolic Acid-Containing Dipeptides, Trinh Ton

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the most used techniques in proteomics because it allows for both high-throughput and quantitative analyses. Bottom-up MS-based proteomics involves breaking down proteins into smaller chains of amino acids called peptides, ionizing and fragmenting the peptides, and identifying the fragments using sequencing databases. These databases depend on the random fragmentation at the backbone peptide bond of the peptides, as predicted by the mobile proton model. Research has shown that peptides containing proline or pipecolic acid have selective fragmentations that could lead to incorrect identification in the sequencing algorithms. These selective cleavages are called “the proline …


Efficient Parallelization Of Irregular Applications On Gpu Architectures, Qihan Wang Jan 2023

Efficient Parallelization Of Irregular Applications On Gpu Architectures, Qihan Wang

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

With the enlarging computation capacity of general Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), leveraging GPUs to accelerate parallel applications has become a critical topic in academia and industry. However, a wide range of irregular applications with a computation-/memory-intensive nature cannot easily achieve high GPU utilization. The challenges mainly involve the following aspects: first, data dependence leads to a coarse-grained kernel; second, heavy GPU memory usage may cause frequent memory evictions and extra overhead of I/O; third, specific computation patterns produce memory redundancies; last, workload balance and data reusability conjunctly benefit the overall performance, but there may exist a dynamic trade-off between them. …


Characterizing Molecular Environments In Acrylic Paint Via Single-Sided Nmr, Lyndi Kiple Jan 2023

Characterizing Molecular Environments In Acrylic Paint Via Single-Sided Nmr, Lyndi Kiple

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Acrylic paint is a modern artistic material made of colored pigment and polymeric binder. Acrylic binder requires fundamental study at the molecular level to understand its physical properties for purposes of art conservation and general polymer chemistry. The research presented in this thesis uses single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a non-invasive and non-destructive way to measure relaxation and self-diffusion, which provide insight to molecular mobility and physical properties of proton-containing samples. Specifically, this study relies on T2 relaxation to gain insight to regions within acrylic paint with different molecular mobilities. In both dry and wet paint, relaxometry data revealed …


A Comprehensive Study Of Bills Of Materials For Software Systems, Trevor Stalnaker Jan 2023

A Comprehensive Study Of Bills Of Materials For Software Systems, Trevor Stalnaker

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Software Bills of Materials (SBOMs) have emerged as tools to facilitate the management of software dependencies, vulnerabilities, licenses, and the supply chain. Significant effort has been devoted to increasing SBOM awareness and developing SBOM formats and tools. Despite this effort, recent studies have shown that SBOMs are still an early technology not adequately adopted in practice yet, mainly due to limited SBOM tooling and lack of industry consensus on SBOM content, tool usage, and practical benefits. Expanding on previous research, this paper reports a comprehensive study that first investigates the current challenges stakeholders encounter when creating and using SBOMs. The …


Recoverable Memory Bank For Class-Incremental Learning, Jiangtao Kong Jan 2023

Recoverable Memory Bank For Class-Incremental Learning, Jiangtao Kong

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Incremental learning aims to enable machine learning systems to sequentially learn new tasks without forgetting the old ones. While some existing methods, such as data replay-based and parameter isolation-based approaches, achieve remarkable results in incremental learning, they often suffer from memory limits, privacy issues, or generation instability. To address these problems, we propose Recoverable Memory Bank (RMB), a novel non-exemplar-based approach for class incremental learning (CIL). Specifically, we design a dynamic memory bank that stores only one aggregated memory representing each class of the old tasks. Next, we propose a novel method that combines a high-dimensional space rotation matrix and …


Roles Of Hydrodynamics And Topographies On The Transport Of Dissolved Material, Particulates, And Harmful Algae In Chesapeake Bay, Jilian Xiong Jan 2022

Roles Of Hydrodynamics And Topographies On The Transport Of Dissolved Material, Particulates, And Harmful Algae In Chesapeake Bay, Jilian Xiong

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Estuaries are highly productive and characterized by complex shoreline geometry and topography. Multiple materials produced within or transported into estuaries include non-living dissolved/particulate materials and living organisms. Estuarine circulation determines material transport and distributions, which further impact estuarine ecosystem to support abundant fauna/flora and their vulnerability to escalated anthropogenic inputs. Short-term material transport process in Chesapeake Bay (CB) has been studied for years, yet its long-term characteristics and the transport of materials with settling and biological behaviors that interact with physical transport have not been fully studied. This study aims to understand the transport of non-living and non-motile dissolved/particulate materials, …


Investigation Of Stripes, Spin Density Waves And Superconductivity In The Ground State Of The Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model, Hao Xu Jan 2022

Investigation Of Stripes, Spin Density Waves And Superconductivity In The Ground State Of The Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model, Hao Xu

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The Hubbard model is a "paradigmatic" model in the realm of condensed matter physics. Recently a work with various state-or-art methods established the ground state stripe order near 1/8 doping and strong on-site interaction. Therefore, in this thesis, we determine the spin and charge order of ground state of 2D doped Hubbard model in its simplest form (with only on site repulsion and nearest-neighbor hoping) with various doping and small to medium interaction. At half-filling, the ground state is known to be an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator. Doping Mott insulators is believed to be relevant to the superconductivity observed in cuprates. …


Importance Of Muddy Bed Aggregate Processes In Cohesive Sediment Dynamics Associated With Sediment Management Projects, David Perkey Jan 2022

Importance Of Muddy Bed Aggregate Processes In Cohesive Sediment Dynamics Associated With Sediment Management Projects, David Perkey

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The erosion and transport processes of fine sediment is largely impacted by the aggregation state. Understanding fine sediment transport processes is a key component to managing the nation’s navigation channels, ports, and reservoirs. To improve its ability to apply management strategies related to fine sediments, the USACE has undertaken research that focusses on the aggregation state of fine sediment. Of particular interest is the ability to expand the use of fine-grained sediment in projects that seek to beneficially use dredge material. In this study, a newly developed camera system was used to evaluate the aggregation state of eroded sediment from …


Feedbacks Among Benthic Metabolism, Nitrogen Cycling, And Intense Phytoplankton Blooms In The York River Estuary, Michelle H. Woods Jan 2022

Feedbacks Among Benthic Metabolism, Nitrogen Cycling, And Intense Phytoplankton Blooms In The York River Estuary, Michelle H. Woods

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Benthic-pelagic coupling is defined as the deposition of organic matter from the water column to the sediments, and the subsequent remineralization of this organic matter and release of inorganic nutrients back to the water column. This process plays an important role in determining the magnitude of benthic net community production (NCP), a metric that reflects the balance between gross primary production and respiration. Environmental factors, such as the presence or absence of intense phytoplankton blooms can influence the direction and magnitude of benthic-pelagic coupling and determine if benthic NCP is net autotrophic or heterotrophic. The objective this thesis was to …