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Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

From Field To Shore: Policy Improvements To Better Protect Ecosystem And Human Health From Poultry Wastes In Virginia, Rachael A. King Jan 2023

From Field To Shore: Policy Improvements To Better Protect Ecosystem And Human Health From Poultry Wastes In Virginia, Rachael A. King

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Commercial poultry production is a large industry with economic importance in Virginia. However, mismanagement of manures and wastes generated from the poultry industry can be a serious threat to ecosystem and human health. Primarily, there is a concern about nutrient pollution related to runoff and infiltration of poultry wastes. High nutrient loading can cause groundwater contamination, eutrophication, and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Additional concerns include metals, antibiotics, and pesticides that can be found in poultry wastes. To determine existing threats to ecosystem and human health from the poultry industry, Virginia policies regulating the industry are reviewed and their strengths and …


Environmental Justice In The Elizabeth River Watershed: Exploring The Utility Of Environmental Justice Screening Tools, Julianna M. Ramirez Jan 2022

Environmental Justice In The Elizabeth River Watershed: Exploring The Utility Of Environmental Justice Screening Tools, Julianna M. Ramirez

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The Environmental Justice (EJ) movement has long highlighted the disproportionate exposure to environmental hazards experienced by Black, Indigenous, People of Color (BIPOC) and low-income communities across the country. Environmental practitioners have recently focused on utilizing EJ screening tools, which combine environmental and social data to visualize vulnerable communities, to begin to address environmental injustice rampant in BIPOC and low-income communities. This project explores EJ theoretical frameworks and the historical context of social oppression and environmental pollution in the Elizabeth River watershed (ERW) of Virginia to: 1) understand the social, political, and economic context behind environmental injustice; and 2) generate goals …


Importance Of Muddy Bed Aggregate Processes In Cohesive Sediment Dynamics Associated With Sediment Management Projects, David Perkey Jan 2022

Importance Of Muddy Bed Aggregate Processes In Cohesive Sediment Dynamics Associated With Sediment Management Projects, David Perkey

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The erosion and transport processes of fine sediment is largely impacted by the aggregation state. Understanding fine sediment transport processes is a key component to managing the nation’s navigation channels, ports, and reservoirs. To improve its ability to apply management strategies related to fine sediments, the USACE has undertaken research that focusses on the aggregation state of fine sediment. Of particular interest is the ability to expand the use of fine-grained sediment in projects that seek to beneficially use dredge material. In this study, a newly developed camera system was used to evaluate the aggregation state of eroded sediment from …


Toward A Comprehensive Water Quality Model For The Chesapeake Bay Using Unstructured Grids, Xun Cai Jan 2022

Toward A Comprehensive Water Quality Model For The Chesapeake Bay Using Unstructured Grids, Xun Cai

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Chesapeake Bay is one of the most productive ecosystems on the US east coast which supports various living resources and habitat, and therefore has significant impacts on human beings and ecosystem health. Developing the capability of accurately simulating the water quality condition in the Chesapeake Bay, such as seasonal hypoxia, phytoplankton production, and nutrient dynamics, helps to better understand the interactions of hydrodynamical and biochemical processes, and more importantly, to predict conditions under changing climate and human intervention. Currently, most Chesapeake Bay models use structured grids that lack the flexibility for local refinements to fit complex geometry over both large …


Practical Gpgpu Application Resilience Estimation And Fortification, Lishan Yang Jan 2022

Practical Gpgpu Application Resilience Estimation And Fortification, Lishan Yang

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are becoming a de facto solution for accelerating a wide range of applications but remain susceptible to transient hardware faults (soft errors) that can easily compromise application output. One of the major challenges in the domain of GPU reliability is to accurately measure general purpose GPU (GPGPU) application resilience to transient faults. This challenge stems from the fact that a typical GPGPU application spawns a huge number of threads and then utilizes a large amount of potentially unreliable compute and memory resources available on the GPUs. As the number of possible fault locations can be in …


Flexible And Robust Iterative Methods For The Partial Singular Value Decomposition, Steven Goldenberg Jan 2022

Flexible And Robust Iterative Methods For The Partial Singular Value Decomposition, Steven Goldenberg

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is one of the most fundamental matrix factorizations in linear algebra. As a generalization of the eigenvalue decomposition, the SVD is essential for a wide variety of fields including statistics, signal and image processing, chemistry, quantum physics and even weather prediction. The methods for numerically computing the SVD mostly fall under three main categories: direct, iterative, and streaming. Direct methods focus on solving the SVD in its entirety, making them suitable for smaller dense matrices where the computation cost is tractable. On the other end of the spectrum, streaming methods were created to provide an …


Quantum Sensing For Low-Light Imaging, Savannah Cuozzo Jan 2022

Quantum Sensing For Low-Light Imaging, Savannah Cuozzo

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In high-precision optical measurements, noise due to quantum fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of the probing field becomes the limiting factor in detection sensitivity. While this quantum noise is fundamental and not a result of detection, it is possible to engineer a quantum state that has reduced noise in either amplitude or phase (at the cost of increasing noise in the other) called a quadrature-squeezed state. In this dissertation, we study the use of quadrature-squeezed vacuum states for low-light imaging and develop a quantum detection method to measure the spatial dependence of the quantum noise using a camera instead …


Techniques For Accelerating Large-Scale Automata Processing, Hongyuan Liu Jan 2022

Techniques For Accelerating Large-Scale Automata Processing, Hongyuan Liu

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The big-data era has brought new challenges to computer architectures due to the large-scale computation and data. Moreover, this problem becomes critical in several domains where the computation is also irregular, among which we focus on automata processing in this dissertation. Automata are widely used in applications from different domains such as network intrusion detection, machine learning, and parsing. Large-scale automata processing is challenging for traditional von Neumann architectures. To this end, many accelerator prototypes have been proposed. Micron's Automata Processor (AP) is an example. However, as a spatial architecture, it is unable to handle large automata programs without repeated …


Across-Scale Energy Transfer In The Southern Ocean, Laur Ferris Jan 2022

Across-Scale Energy Transfer In The Southern Ocean, Laur Ferris

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Numerous physics are responsible for forward energy cascade at oceanic fronts but their roles are not fully clear. This dissertation investigates wind-sheared turbulence in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL), internal wave interactions in the ocean interior, and instability-driven turbulence in energetic jets; with attention paid to the parameterizations used to quantify them. At the OSBL, meteorological forcing injects turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), mixing the upper ocean and rapidly transforming its density structure. In the absence of direct observations or capability to resolve sub-grid scale turbulence in ocean models, the community relies on boundary layer scalings (BLS) of shear and …


Ecosystem Enriching And Efficient Solar Energy: Exploring The Effects Of Pollinator-Friendly Solar Facilities On Ecosystem Function And Solar Panel Efficiency, Jordan Martin Jan 2022

Ecosystem Enriching And Efficient Solar Energy: Exploring The Effects Of Pollinator-Friendly Solar Facilities On Ecosystem Function And Solar Panel Efficiency, Jordan Martin

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

As the solar energy industry grows, many hundreds of thousands of acres of land will be transformed into solar panel facilities. With this large change in land use, there is the opportunity to promote biodiversity and support pollinators by using pollinator-friendly management practices at the solar facilities. This paper explores the ecological and economic effects of a pollinator-friendly solar facility compared to a turfgrass solar facility.

I hypothesized that a pollinator-friendly solar facility would be functionally equivalent in pollinator support and overall insect diversity to a pollinator-friendly non-solar field and that both sites would have far greater pollinator support and …


Radiative Width Of K*(892) From Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics, Archana Radhakrishnan Jan 2022

Radiative Width Of K*(892) From Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics, Archana Radhakrishnan

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In this dissertation, we use lattice quantum chromodynamics to explore the radiative transitions of πK to K, to calculate the radiative width of the resonant K*(892) which appears in the P-wave πK → γK transition amplitude. The matrix elements are extracted from three-point functions calculated in a finite-volume discretized lattice with a pion mass of 284 MeV. The finite-volume amplitudes, which are constrained over a large number of πK energy points and four-momentum transfers, are mapped to the infinite volume transition amplitude by using the Lellouch-Lüscher formalism. The radiative width is determined to be …


Exploring The Effects Of Microplastics On Marine Biota, Meredith Evans Seeley Jan 2022

Exploring The Effects Of Microplastics On Marine Biota, Meredith Evans Seeley

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

There is mounting evidence that microplastics are a persistent and increasing hazard for aquatic organisms. The effects of microplastics on organisms and ecosystems are complex, however, and may be linked to a wide variety of particle characteristics including size, shape, polymer, additive chemistry, and degree of weathering. Assessing risk is complicated by the fact that many known effects of microplastics are sublethal, and that plastics have been postulated to interact with other stressors, such as pathogens. The work presented here expands our understanding of these complex effects. First, the impacts of microplastics on sedimentary microbial ecosystems and biogeochemical carbon and …


Roles Of Hydrodynamics And Topographies On The Transport Of Dissolved Material, Particulates, And Harmful Algae In Chesapeake Bay, Jilian Xiong Jan 2022

Roles Of Hydrodynamics And Topographies On The Transport Of Dissolved Material, Particulates, And Harmful Algae In Chesapeake Bay, Jilian Xiong

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Estuaries are highly productive and characterized by complex shoreline geometry and topography. Multiple materials produced within or transported into estuaries include non-living dissolved/particulate materials and living organisms. Estuarine circulation determines material transport and distributions, which further impact estuarine ecosystem to support abundant fauna/flora and their vulnerability to escalated anthropogenic inputs. Short-term material transport process in Chesapeake Bay (CB) has been studied for years, yet its long-term characteristics and the transport of materials with settling and biological behaviors that interact with physical transport have not been fully studied. This study aims to understand the transport of non-living and non-motile dissolved/particulate materials, …


The Role Of Zooplankton Community Composition In Fecal Pellet Carbon Production In The York River Estuary, Chesapeake Bay, Kristen Nicole Sharpe Jan 2022

The Role Of Zooplankton Community Composition In Fecal Pellet Carbon Production In The York River Estuary, Chesapeake Bay, Kristen Nicole Sharpe

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The biological pump is a critical component of carbon transformation in aquatic ecosystems, but the role that zooplankton play in carbon production and vertical export is rarely studied in estuaries. Zooplankton produce carbon-rich fecal pellets which sink to depth and can fuel benthic community metabolism. The body size and taxonomic structure of the zooplankton community varies on interannual, seasonal, and diel time scales, and can lead to varying carbon production and export rates. We quantified fecal pellet carbon (FPC) production by the whole mesozooplankton community (> 200 µm) in the York River, a sub-estuary of Chesapeake Bay. Biomass and taxonomic …


Communication And Computation Efficient Deep Learning, Zeyi Tao Jan 2022

Communication And Computation Efficient Deep Learning, Zeyi Tao

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Recent advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) are characterized by ever-increasing datasets and rapid growth of model complexity. Many modern machine learning models, especially deep neural networks (DNNs), cannot be efficiently carried out by a single machine. Hence, distributed optimization and inference have been widely adopted to tackle large-scale machine learning problems. Meanwhile, quantum computers that process computational tasks exponentially faster than classical machines offer an alternative solution for resource-intensive deep learning. However, there are two obstacles that hinder us from building large-scale DNNs on the distributed systems and quantum computers. First, when distributed systems scale to many nodes, the training …


Inclusive And Inelastic Scattering In Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions, Amy Filkins Jan 2022

Inclusive And Inelastic Scattering In Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions, Amy Filkins

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Neutrino-nucleus cross section measurements can provide both insights into nuclear physics and important data that can be used to improve model predictions used for neutrino oscillation physics. Two measurements of neutrino-nucleus cross sections were performed using data from the MINERvA experiment, each probing different classes of neutrino interactions. Double and single-differential flux-integrated measurements of inclusive charged current neutrino-nucleus cross sections at a peak neutrino energy of 3.5 GeV are presented as a function of the longitudinal and transverse momentum of the muon produced in the interaction. Additionally, an analysis of charged-current deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of muon neutrinos was performed …


Sediment Transport And Trapping On The Ayeyarwady-Martaban Continental Shelf, Matthew Joshua Fair Jul 2021

Sediment Transport And Trapping On The Ayeyarwady-Martaban Continental Shelf, Matthew Joshua Fair

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The Ayeyarwady and Thanlwin Rivers, which primarily drain Myanmar, are together one of the largest point sources of freshwater and sediment to the global ocean. Much of the estimated 600 Mt of river sediment annually carried by the combined Ayeyarwady and Thanlwin River system is delivered to a wide continental shelf in the northern Andaman Sea. Called here the Ayeyarwady-Martaban continental shelf, this area is influenced by strong tides, monsoon conditions, and periodic cyclones; however, the processes that dominate dispersal of fluvial material in the coastal ocean of this system remain poorly understood. The shelf exhibits a dramatic asymmetry of …


Impact Of Canyon Upwelling And Downwelling In The Mid-Atlantic Bight, Haixing Wang Jul 2021

Impact Of Canyon Upwelling And Downwelling In The Mid-Atlantic Bight, Haixing Wang

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Submarine canyons can impact regional oceanography and provide a conduit for shelf-slope exchanges via topographically induced processes such as canyon upwelling and downwelling. Between Virginia and New York in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB), there are five major shelf-incising canyons (Norfolk, Washington, Baltimore, Wilmington, and Hudson canyons) and four sizable slope-confined canyons (Accomac, Spencer, Lindenkhol, and Toms canyons). Canyon upwelling and downwelling at these canyons have not been well studied. Consequently, the associated hydrographic variability and dynamics inside the canyons and on the adjacent shelf are largely unknown, and the integrated impact of submarine canyons on MAB shelf hydrography and shelf-slope …


Ultrafast Optical Control And Characterization Of Carrier And Spin Dynamics In Novel Magnetic Topological Insulator Systems, Peiwen Liu Jul 2021

Ultrafast Optical Control And Characterization Of Carrier And Spin Dynamics In Novel Magnetic Topological Insulator Systems, Peiwen Liu

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Magnetic topological insulators (MTIs) are of considerable interest in developing novel spintronics and quantum computing applications. Under the topological protection by time-reversal Z2 invariant number, magnetic topological insulators are provided with robust electronic and magnetic properties against local perturbations. The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), which harbors dissipationless chiral edge states in MTIs, provides a competitive platform for future low-power consumption and high-speed spintronic devices. Although the present studies on both bulk and surface magnetic properties in MTIs have made significant progress, the in-depth understanding of the exchange couplings and the interaction between the two magnetization sources is far from …


Estuarine Microbiomes And Biogeochemistry: Impacts Of Spatiotemporal Variation, Algal Blooms, And Microplastics, Samantha Grace Fortin Jul 2021

Estuarine Microbiomes And Biogeochemistry: Impacts Of Spatiotemporal Variation, Algal Blooms, And Microplastics, Samantha Grace Fortin

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Estuaries are biogeochemical hotspots connecting terrestrial and coastal ecosystems. Anthropogenic disturbances, including increased nitrogen loading and plastic pollution, may have significant impacts on estuarine carbon and nitrogen cycling by altering microbiome structure and functions. The overarching goal of this dissertation was to examine how microbiomes and their associated biogeochemical processes are influenced by natural variation and anthropogenic disturbances in the York River Estuary (YRE). In chapter 2, spatial and temporal variation in benthic microbiomes and the rates of denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) were examined to determine biotic and abiotic drivers of nitrogen …


Performance Optimization With An Integrated View Of Compiler And Application Knowledge, Ruiqin Tian Jul 2021

Performance Optimization With An Integrated View Of Compiler And Application Knowledge, Ruiqin Tian

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Compiler optimization is a long-standing research field that enhances program performance with a set of rigorous code analyses and transformations. Traditional compiler optimization focuses on general programs or program structures without considering too much high-level application operations or data structure knowledge. In this thesis, we claim that an integrated view of the application and compiler is helpful to further improve program performance. Particularly, we study integrated optimization opportunities for three kinds of applications: irregular tree-based query processing systems such as B+ tree, security enhancement such as buffer overflow protection, and tensor/matrix-based linear algebra computation. The performance of B+ tree query …


Evaluating Epoxy Cure And Adhesion Strength Through Single-Sided Nmr Measurements Of Molecular Mobility, Kayla Copeman Jul 2021

Evaluating Epoxy Cure And Adhesion Strength Through Single-Sided Nmr Measurements Of Molecular Mobility, Kayla Copeman

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Commonly used in aerospace, automotive, marine, defense, electronic, and manufacturing industries, epoxy adhesives offer advantages over mechanical joints by providing stronger and/or more flexible bonds, more uniform stress distribution, low shrinkage, and lightweight connections between materials. Determination of curing kinetics and properties of interfaces between epoxy and inorganic substrates provides insight that is useful for quality control and defect detection for such applications. Single-sided NMR provides a nondestructive and inexpensive method for probing epoxy materials and spatially resolving the decay of spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times (T1 and T2) during and after curing of epoxy resins onto substrates. In this …


Data-Driven Reflectance Estimation Under Natural Lighting, Victoria Cooper Jul 2021

Data-Driven Reflectance Estimation Under Natural Lighting, Victoria Cooper

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions, (BRDFs), describe how light is reflected off of a material. BRDFs are captured so that the materials can be re-lit under new while maintaining accuracy. BRDF models can approximate the reflectance of a material, but are unable to accurately represent the full BRDF of the material. Acquisition setups for BRDFs trade accuracy for speed with the most accurate methods, gonioreflectometers, being the slowest. Image-based BRDF acquisition approaches range from using complicated controlled lighting setups to uncontrolled known lighting to assuming the lighting is unknown. We propose a data-driven method for recovering BRDFs under known, but uncontrolled …


Low-Overhead Techniques For Secure And Reliable Gpu Computing, Gurunath Kadam Jul 2021

Low-Overhead Techniques For Secure And Reliable Gpu Computing, Gurunath Kadam

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In recent years, Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have become a de facto choice to accelerate the computations in various domains such as machine learning, security, financial and scientific computing. GPUs leverage the inherent data parallelism in the target applications to provide high throughput at superior energy efficiency. Due to the rising usage of GPUs for a large number of applications, they are facing new challenges, especially in the security and reliability domains. From the security side, recently several microarchitectural attacks targeting GPUs have been demonstrated. These attacks leak the secret information stored on GPUs, for example, the parameters of a …


Water Clarity And Suspended Particle Dynamics In The Chesapeake Bay: Local Effects Of Oyster Aquaculture, Regional Effects Of Reduced Shoreline Erosion, And Long-Term Trends In Remotely Sensed Reflectance, Jessica Turner Jul 2021

Water Clarity And Suspended Particle Dynamics In The Chesapeake Bay: Local Effects Of Oyster Aquaculture, Regional Effects Of Reduced Shoreline Erosion, And Long-Term Trends In Remotely Sensed Reflectance, Jessica Turner

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Water clarity is a key indicator of the ecosystem health in the Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine water clarity fluctuates due to external inputs from the watershed as well as processes occurring within the estuary itself, such as sediment resuspension and organic matter production. Therefore, water clarity requires study at multiple spatial and temporal scales and with multiple metrics. One local-scale process potentially influencing water clarity is shellfish aquaculture. One part of this dissertation examined how water quality and hydrodynamics varied among oyster farms as well as inside versus outside the extent of caged areas located in southern Chesapeake Bay. Current speed …


Controls On Estuarine Sediment Bed Erodibility: Insights From The York River Estuary, Cristin Lee Wright Jan 2021

Controls On Estuarine Sediment Bed Erodibility: Insights From The York River Estuary, Cristin Lee Wright

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The erodibility of estuarine sediment beds has a number of ecological and societal implications, including alteration of benthic habitats, light-limitation of primary production, and reintroduction of pollutants to the water column, as well as impacts on dredging operations and on the fate of potentially dangerous objects on the seafloor. The objectives of this study are to better understand controls on bed erodibility in estuarine environments, including the roles of sediment grain size, water content, percent organics, and bed fabric, as well as effects of tides, storms, salinity distribution, river discharge, and location within the estuary. An extensive set of erosion …


Investigating The Electron Transfer Dynamics Of Eosin Y Photosensitizers Using Single Molecule Spectroscopy, Kelly Margaret Kopera Jan 2021

Investigating The Electron Transfer Dynamics Of Eosin Y Photosensitizers Using Single Molecule Spectroscopy, Kelly Margaret Kopera

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Growing global energy demands have necessitated the search for alternative sources of renewable fuels. Dye-sensitized photocatalysis (DSP) is a promising low cost, sustainable method that directly converts solar energy to readily usable forms of energy such as hydrogen fuel. While DSP is a promising technology, its efficiency is limited by back electron transfer and kinetic redundancy. In order to fully understand these processes, single-molecule spectroscopy (SMS) is used to probe the electron transfer (ET) dynamics of photosensitizers. In particular, eosin Y (EY), a brominated fluorescein derivative that undergoes intersystem crossing prior to injection, is investigated using SMS. In this approach, …


Ac & Dc Zeeman Interferometric Sensing With Ultracold Trapped Atoms On A Chip, Shuangli Du Jan 2021

Ac & Dc Zeeman Interferometric Sensing With Ultracold Trapped Atoms On A Chip, Shuangli Du

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This thesis presents progress in developing a trapped atom interferometer on a chip, based on AC Zeeman potentials. An atom interferometer is a high-precision measuring tool that can detect various types of forces and potentials. The trapped atom interferometer introduced in this thesis targets the shortcomings of traditional ballistic atom interferometers, which are typically meter-scale in height. Notably, a trapped atom interferometer has a localized atomic sample, a potentially longer interferometric phase accumulation time, and the prospect of being the basis for a more compact instrument. This thesis presents multiple projects in the development of a trapped atom interferometer based …


Improving Observation, Assessment, And Management Of Atlantic Coastal Sharks, Cassidy Dawn Peterson Jan 2021

Improving Observation, Assessment, And Management Of Atlantic Coastal Sharks, Cassidy Dawn Peterson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Coastal sharks represent a group of stocks for which observation, assessment, and management are particularly challenging. Large distributional ranges, complex migratory behavior, low economic value, and relatively few observations in fishery independent surveys hinder relative abundance estimation. Assessing stock status of coastal sharks is encumbered by limited data availability, data quality, and knowledge of life history strategy. Further, coastal sharks are challenging to manage due to their slow intrinsic population growth rates, competing stakeholder interests, history of overexploitation, and in some cases, subjection to international exploitation. This dissertation aimed to improve the capacity to observe relative abundance of coastal sharks. …


Proton Spin Structure From Simultaneous Monte Carlo Global Qcd Analysis, Yiyu Zhou Jan 2021

Proton Spin Structure From Simultaneous Monte Carlo Global Qcd Analysis, Yiyu Zhou

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Despite the great effort and achievements made towards understanding proton spin structure in the past few decades, a complete picture is still elusive. Parton distribution functions (PDFs), which in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) encode the momentum and helicity distributions of quarks and gluons inside a proton, provide the means by which to quantify the proton structure information. Being inherently nonperturbative, PDFs have to be extracted from unpolarized and polarized lepton-hadron and hadron-hadron scattering data. In particular, experiments that measure unpolarized and polarized jet observables can provide insight into the momentum and helicity distributions of gluons, which have generally been more difficult …