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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Rhetorics Of Species Revivalism And Biotechnology – A Roundtable Dialogue, Eva Kasprzycka, Charlotte Wrigley, Adam Searle, Richard Twine Jan 2023

Rhetorics Of Species Revivalism And Biotechnology – A Roundtable Dialogue, Eva Kasprzycka, Charlotte Wrigley, Adam Searle, Richard Twine

Animal Studies Journal

This informal dialogue contextualises and explores contemporary practices of nonhuman animal gene-modification in de-extinction projects. Looking at recent developments in biotechnology’s role in de-extinction sciences and industries, these interdisciplinary scholars scrutinise the neoliberal impetus driving ‘species revivalism’ in the wake of the Capitalocene. Critical examinations of species integrity, cryo-preservation, techno-optimism, rewilding initiatives and projects aimed at restoring extinct animals such as the woolly mammoth and bucardo are used to map some of the necessary restructuring of conservation policies and enterprises that could secure viably sustainable – and just – futures for nonhuman animals at risk of extinction. The authors question …


Reference Phantom Method For Ultrasonic Imaging Of Thin Dynamic Constructs, Andres Ruland, James M. Hill, Gordon G. Wallace Jan 2021

Reference Phantom Method For Ultrasonic Imaging Of Thin Dynamic Constructs, Andres Ruland, James M. Hill, Gordon G. Wallace

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Quantitative ultrasound has a great potential for the non-destructive evaluation of tissue engineered constructs, where the local attenuation and the integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC) can be used for monitoring the development of biological processes. The local determination of both parameters can be achieved using the reference phantom method (RPM). However, its accuracy can be affected when evaluating constructs of evolving sound speed, attenuation and thickness, for example, when evaluating biodegradable hydrogels developing neocartilage. To assess the feasibility of using the RPM under such dynamic conditions while employing a 50-MHz transducer, we conducted a series of experiments on 3-mm-thick acellular hydrogels …


In Situ Simultaneous Encapsulation Of Defective Mos2 Nanolayers And Sulfur Nanodots Into Span Fibers For High Rate Sodium-Ion Batteries, Fenqiang Luo, Xiaoshan Feng, Lingxing Zeng, Liangxu Lin, Xinye Li, Biyu Kang, Liren Xiao, Qinghua Chen, Mingdeng Wei, Qingrong Qian Jan 2021

In Situ Simultaneous Encapsulation Of Defective Mos2 Nanolayers And Sulfur Nanodots Into Span Fibers For High Rate Sodium-Ion Batteries, Fenqiang Luo, Xiaoshan Feng, Lingxing Zeng, Liangxu Lin, Xinye Li, Biyu Kang, Liren Xiao, Qinghua Chen, Mingdeng Wei, Qingrong Qian

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) with layered structure has emerged as a promising anode material for sodium ion batteries (SIBs) in light of its particular surface chemistry and physical structures. However, the MoS2-based SIBs usually suffered from the weaknesses of the low rate capability and poor cycling stability induced by the sluggish kinetics of Na+ intercalation and the diffluent discharge products. Herein, the defective MoS2 nanocrystals and sulfur nanodots simultaneously embedded in sulfurized polyacrylonitrile (SPAN) fibers were fabricated via an electrospunning technology, followed by a simple annealing treatment. The unique architecture, in which MoS2 nanolayers and sulfur nanodots …


Electrical Stimulation-Induced Osteogenesis Of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Using A Conductive Graphene-Cellulose Scaffold, Jianfeng Li, Xiao Liu, Jeremy Micah Crook, Gordon G. Wallace Jan 2020

Electrical Stimulation-Induced Osteogenesis Of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells Using A Conductive Graphene-Cellulose Scaffold, Jianfeng Li, Xiao Liu, Jeremy Micah Crook, Gordon G. Wallace

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

The versatile properties of graphene-based materials are enabling various tissue regeneration, towards meeting an ever increasing demand for replacement tissues due to injury through trauma and disease. In particular, an innate ability for graphene to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells, combined with the potential to enhance the biological activity of cells through electrical stimulation (ES) using graphene, supports its use for osteoinduction or reconstruction. In this paper, we describe a miniaturized graphene-cellulose (G-C) scaffold-based device that incorporates electroactive G-C 'paper' within a polystyrene chamber for concomitant cell culture and ES. The G-C electrodes possessed lower impedance and higher charge …


Multiphase Identification In Ni-Pbte Contacts By Ebsd And Aberration-Corrected Stem, Xavier Reales Ferreres, Gilberto Casillas, Sima Aminorroaya-Yamini, Azdiar Adil Gazder Jan 2020

Multiphase Identification In Ni-Pbte Contacts By Ebsd And Aberration-Corrected Stem, Xavier Reales Ferreres, Gilberto Casillas, Sima Aminorroaya-Yamini, Azdiar Adil Gazder

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

EBSD in combination with aberration-corrected STEM is used to study the interfacial layer forming at Ni electrode - PbTe thermoelectric material interfaces. Contrary to previous studies, both orthorhombic and monoclinic phases are identified within the interfacial layer. EBSD and STEM data at interphase boundaries demonstrate an approximately smooth transition from orthorhombic to monoclinic phase with almost no crystal defects due to the small differences in lattice parameters and the prevalence of one of two previously unknown orientation relationships between the phases. Moreover, the presence of special boundaries resulting in orientation domains within both phases throughout the interfacial nickel telluride layer …


Electrochemical And Optical Aspects Of Cobalt Meso-Carbazole Substituted Porphyrin Complexes, Katarzyna Laba, Mieczyslaw Lapkowski, David L. Officer, Pawel W. Wagner, Przemyslaw Data Jan 2020

Electrochemical And Optical Aspects Of Cobalt Meso-Carbazole Substituted Porphyrin Complexes, Katarzyna Laba, Mieczyslaw Lapkowski, David L. Officer, Pawel W. Wagner, Przemyslaw Data

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

A series of cobalt (II) porphyrin complexes modified with carbazole rings at one or more meso positions of the macrocycle were synthesized and characterized as to their spectroscopic and basic electrochemical properties in non-aqueous media. The effect of the number and position (syn and anti) of carbazole groups on the complexes properties were investigated. The comparison was made to cobalt (II) porphyrin containing mesityl groups at the meso-positions. The relation between the site of redox processes in cobalt meso-carbazole substituted porphyrins were analysed. It was shown that the conjugated π-ring system of the porphyrin macrocycle, the cobalt central metal ion …


Carboxybetaine Functionalized Nanosilicas As Protein Resistant Surface Coatings, Brianna Knowles, Pawel W. Wagner, Shane A. Maclaughlin, Michael J. Higgins, Paul J. Molino Jan 2020

Carboxybetaine Functionalized Nanosilicas As Protein Resistant Surface Coatings, Brianna Knowles, Pawel W. Wagner, Shane A. Maclaughlin, Michael J. Higgins, Paul J. Molino

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Materials with protein resistant properties are increasingly sought after for their potential application as low-fouling surface coatings. Hydrophilic coatings with improved resistance to protein fouling have been prepared from zwitterionic carboxybetaine (CB) functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiNPs). The authors report three methods of coating preparation via direct tethering of CB to predeposited particle films, a two-step surface functionalization process, and deposition of CB functionalized particle dispersions. The pH at which aqueous CB solutions were prepared and reacted to SiNPs was found to drastically influence the mechanism of CB attachment and affect the protein resistance of the resultant coatings. Depending on the …


A Multifunctional Hierarchical Porous Sio2/Go Membrane For High Efficiency Oil/Water Separation And Dye Removal, Yue Liu, Fengrui Zhang, Wenxia Zhu, Dong Su, Zhiyuan Sang, Xiao Yan, Sheng Li, Ji Liang, Shi Xue Dou Jan 2020

A Multifunctional Hierarchical Porous Sio2/Go Membrane For High Efficiency Oil/Water Separation And Dye Removal, Yue Liu, Fengrui Zhang, Wenxia Zhu, Dong Su, Zhiyuan Sang, Xiao Yan, Sheng Li, Ji Liang, Shi Xue Dou

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2020 Elsevier Ltd Removing contaminants from wastewater is critical to secure the global water supply. Membrane technologies for water purification are exceptionally attractive due to their high efficiency and low energy consumption. The traditional porous polymer films, however, are easy to be fouled by the organic pollutants, causing pore blockage and deteriorated separation performance. We herein report the rational design of a porous SiO2/GO hybrid membrane by coupling graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with SiO2 nanoparticles and using ethylenediamine to crosslink them, for efficient oil/water separation and dye removal. The SiO2 nanoparticles provide an excellent hydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity interface, resulting …


S/N-Doped Carbon Nanofibers Affording Fe7s8 Particles With Superior Sodium Storage, Xiu Li, Tao Liu, Yunxiao Wang, Shulei Chou, Xun Xu, Anmin Cao, Libao Chen Jan 2020

S/N-Doped Carbon Nanofibers Affording Fe7s8 Particles With Superior Sodium Storage, Xiu Li, Tao Liu, Yunxiao Wang, Shulei Chou, Xun Xu, Anmin Cao, Libao Chen

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2020 Iron sulfides draw much attention as electrode candidates for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) due to the rich chemical stoichiometries and high capacity. However, they usually exhibit poor cycling performance due to the large volume change during sodiation/desodiation process. In this work, we embed Fe7S8 nanoparticles into sulfur, nitrogen-doped carbon (S/N-C) nanofibers through electrospinning/sulfurization processes. The heteroatom doped carbon matrixes could effectively protect the Fe7S8 from structural collapse, obtaining a stable cycling performance. Moreover, the conductive matrixes with 1D structure can facilitate the diffusion of electrons, leading to good rate capability. As results, the as-designed Fe7S8@S/N-C nanofibers present a discharge capacity …


A High-Kinetics Sulfur Cathode With A Highly Efficient Mechanism For Superior Room-Temperature Na-S Batteries, Zichao Yan, Yaru Liang, Jin Xiao, Weihong Lai, Wanlin Wang, Qingbing Xia, Yunxiao Wang, Qinfen Gu, Huanming Lu, Shulei Chou, Yong Liu, Hua-Kun Liu, Shi Xue Dou Jan 2020

A High-Kinetics Sulfur Cathode With A Highly Efficient Mechanism For Superior Room-Temperature Na-S Batteries, Zichao Yan, Yaru Liang, Jin Xiao, Weihong Lai, Wanlin Wang, Qingbing Xia, Yunxiao Wang, Qinfen Gu, Huanming Lu, Shulei Chou, Yong Liu, Hua-Kun Liu, Shi Xue Dou

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Applications of room-temperature-sodium sulfur (RT-Na/S) batteries are currently impeded by the insulating nature of sulfur, the slow redox kinetics of sulfur with sodium, and the dissolution and migration of sodium polysulfides. Herein, a novel micrometer-sized hierarchical S cathode supported by FeS2 electrocatalyst, which is grown in situ in well-confined carbon nanocage assemblies, is presented. The hierarchical carbon matrix can provide multiple physical entrapment to polysulfides, and the FeS2 nanograins exhibit a low Na-ion diffusion barrier, strong binding energy, and high affinity for sodium polysulfides. Their combination makes it an ideal sulfur host …


The Influence Of A Novel Inorganic-Polymer Lubricant On The Microstructure Of Interstitial-Free Steel During Ferrite Rolling, Ning Kong, Jie Zhang, Hongbo Li, Boyu Wei, David R. G Mitchell Jan 2020

The Influence Of A Novel Inorganic-Polymer Lubricant On The Microstructure Of Interstitial-Free Steel During Ferrite Rolling, Ning Kong, Jie Zhang, Hongbo Li, Boyu Wei, David R. G Mitchell

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. A novel polyphosphate lubricant was used and evaluated during hot (ferrite) rolling of an interstitial-free (IF) steel. The texture evolution of these rolled IF steels have been examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. The polyphosphate lubricant shows an improved lubrication performance in terms of the texture optimization compared with lubricating oil and with unlubricated conditions. The γ-fiber texture is enhanced, and less shear texture is produced. This microstructure is responsible for enhanced drawability of ferrite rolled IF steels. The very high thermal stability of the …


Green Synthesis And Stabilization Of Silver Nanoparticles Using Lysimachia Foenum-Graecum Hance Extract And Their Antibacterial Activity, Widsanusan Chartarrayawadee, Phattaraporn Charoensin, Juthaporn Saenma, Thearum Rin, Phichaya Khamai, Pitak Nasomjai, Chee O. Too Jan 2020

Green Synthesis And Stabilization Of Silver Nanoparticles Using Lysimachia Foenum-Graecum Hance Extract And Their Antibacterial Activity, Widsanusan Chartarrayawadee, Phattaraporn Charoensin, Juthaporn Saenma, Thearum Rin, Phichaya Khamai, Pitak Nasomjai, Chee O. Too

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2020 Chartarrayawadee et al., published by De Gruyter 2020. The Lysimachia foenumgraecum Hance extract (LHE) was used for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis. In this study, the herbal plant of Lysimachia foenumgraecum Hance (LH) was extracted with deionized water and we are the first to successfully use LHE as reducing and stabilizing agents for the green synthesis of AgNPs. The concentration of LHE used in this study was in the range of 0.003 to 1.0 wt%. Aqueous colloidal solutions of AgNPs reduced and stabilized by LHE show long-term stability due to the steric stabilization effect. This can be confirmed by zeta …


Design, Synthesis And Characterization Of A Novel Type Of Thermo-Responsible Phospholipid Microcapsule-Alginate Composite Hydrogel For Drug Delivery, Liang Ding, Xinxia Cui, Rui Jiang, Keya Zhou, Yalei Wen, Chenfeng Wang, Zhilian Yue, Shigang Shen, Xuefeng Pan Jan 2020

Design, Synthesis And Characterization Of A Novel Type Of Thermo-Responsible Phospholipid Microcapsule-Alginate Composite Hydrogel For Drug Delivery, Liang Ding, Xinxia Cui, Rui Jiang, Keya Zhou, Yalei Wen, Chenfeng Wang, Zhilian Yue, Shigang Shen, Xuefeng Pan

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

Liposomes are extensively used in drug delivery, while alginates are widely used in tissue engineering. However, liposomes are usually thermally unstable and drug-leaking when in liquids, while the drug carriers made of alginates show low loading capacities when used for drug delivery. Herein, we developed a type of thermo-responsible liposome-alginate composite hydrogel (TSPMAH) by grafting thermo-responsive liposomes onto alginates by using Ca2+ mediated bonding between the phosphatidic serine (PS) in the liposome membrane and the alginate. The temperature-sensitivity of the liposomes was actualized by using phospholipids comprising dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and PS and the liposomes were prepared by a thin-film dispersion …


Effects Of Boron Content On Microstructure And Wear Properties Of Fecocrnibx High-Entropy Alloy Coating By Laser Cladding, Dezheng Liu, Jing Zhao, Yan Li, Wenli Zhu, Liangxu Lin Jan 2020

Effects Of Boron Content On Microstructure And Wear Properties Of Fecocrnibx High-Entropy Alloy Coating By Laser Cladding, Dezheng Liu, Jing Zhao, Yan Li, Wenli Zhu, Liangxu Lin

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

The FeCoCrNiBx high-entropy alloy (HEA) coatings with three different boron (B) contents were synthesized on Q245R steel (American grade: SA515 Gr60) by laser cladding deposition technology. Effects of B content on the microstructure and wear properties of FeCoCrNiBx HEA coating were investigated. In this study, the phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness, and wear resistance (rolling friction) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a micro hardness tester, and a roller friction wear tester, respectively. The FeCoCrNiBx coatings exhibited a typical dendritic and interdendritic structure, and the microstructure was refined with the increase of B content. Additionally, the …


Ultrahigh Energy Storage Properties In (Sr0.7bi0.2)Tio3-Bi(Mg0.5zr0.5)O3 Lead-Free Ceramics And Potential For High-Temperature Capacitors, Xi Kong, Letao Yang, Zhenxiang Cheng, Shujun Zhang Jan 2020

Ultrahigh Energy Storage Properties In (Sr0.7bi0.2)Tio3-Bi(Mg0.5zr0.5)O3 Lead-Free Ceramics And Potential For High-Temperature Capacitors, Xi Kong, Letao Yang, Zhenxiang Cheng, Shujun Zhang

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

2020 by the authors. Due to the enhanced demand for numerous electrical energy storage applications, including applications at elevated temperatures, dielectric capacitors with optimized energy storage properties have attracted extensive attention. In this study, a series of lead-free strontium bismuth titanate based relaxor ferroelectric ceramics have been successfully synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction. The ultrahigh recoverable energy storage density of 4.2 J/cm3 under 380 kV/cm, with the high efficiency of 88%, was obtained in the sample with x = 0.06. Of particular importance is that this ceramic composition exhibits excellent energy storage performance over a wide work temperature up …


Flexible Lead-Free Bfo-Based Dielectric Capacitor With Large Energy Density, Superior Thermal Stability, And Reliable Bending Endurance, Chang Hong Yang, Jin Qian, Panpan Lv, Haitao Wu, Xiujuan Lin, Kun Wang, Jun Ouyang, Shifeng Huang, Xin Cheng, Zhenxiang Cheng Jan 2020

Flexible Lead-Free Bfo-Based Dielectric Capacitor With Large Energy Density, Superior Thermal Stability, And Reliable Bending Endurance, Chang Hong Yang, Jin Qian, Panpan Lv, Haitao Wu, Xiujuan Lin, Kun Wang, Jun Ouyang, Shifeng Huang, Xin Cheng, Zhenxiang Cheng

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

As an essential energy-stored device, the inorganic dielectric film capacitor plays an irreplaceable role in high-energy pulse power technology area. In this work, propelled by the challenge of overcoming the bottlenecks of inflexibility and inferior energy storage density of the pure BiFeO3 films, the mica with high bendability and thermal stability is adopted as substrate, and the relaxor ferroelectric (Sr0.7Bi0.2)TiO3 is introduced to form solid solution to introduce relaxor behavior. The subsequently fabricated 0.3Bi(Fe0.95Mn0.05)O3-0.7(Sr0.7Bi0.2)TiO3 (BFMO-SBT) thin film capacitor exhibits a high recoverable energy storage density (Wrec = 61 J cm−3) and a high efficiency (η = 75%) combined with a …


Synthesis Of Hierarchical Sn/Sno Nanosheets Assembled By Carbon-Coated Hollow Nanospheres As Anode Materials For Lithium/Sodium Ion Batteries, Fengrong He, Qi Xu, Baoping Zheng, Jun Zhang, Zhenguo Wu, Yanjun Zhong, Yanxiao Chen, Wei Xiang, Benhe Zhong, Xiaodong Guo Jan 2020

Synthesis Of Hierarchical Sn/Sno Nanosheets Assembled By Carbon-Coated Hollow Nanospheres As Anode Materials For Lithium/Sodium Ion Batteries, Fengrong He, Qi Xu, Baoping Zheng, Jun Zhang, Zhenguo Wu, Yanjun Zhong, Yanxiao Chen, Wei Xiang, Benhe Zhong, Xiaodong Guo

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry. Tin-based anode materials have aroused interest due to their high capacities. Nevertheless, the volume expansion problem during lithium insertion/extraction processes has severely hindered their practical application. In particular, nano-micro hierarchical structure is attractive with the integrated advantages of nano-effect and high thermal stability of the microstructure. Herein, hierarchical Sn/SnO nanosheets assembled by carbon-coated hollow nanospheres were successfully synthesized by a facile glucose-assisted hydrothermal method, in which the glucose served as both morphology-control agent and carbon source. The hierarchical Sn/SnO nanosheets exhibit excellent electrochemical performances owing to the unique configuration and carbon coating. …


Snell's Law For Spin Waves At A 90° Magnetic Domain Wall, Tomosato Hioki, Rei Tsuboi, Tom H. Johansen, Yusuke Hashimoto, Eiji Saitoh Jan 2020

Snell's Law For Spin Waves At A 90° Magnetic Domain Wall, Tomosato Hioki, Rei Tsuboi, Tom H. Johansen, Yusuke Hashimoto, Eiji Saitoh

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 Author(s). We report the experimental observation of the refraction and reflection of propagating magnetostatic spin waves crossing a 90° domain wall (DW). Time-resolved magneto-optical imaging was used to observe the propagation dynamics of magnetostatic spin waves. Due to the magnetization rotation across such a DW, the dispersion relation of magnetostatic spin waves rotates by 90°. This results in a change in the propagation dynamics of spin waves on both sides of the DW. We observed the refraction and reflection of magnetostatic spin waves at the DW and reveal their characteristics that include negative refraction. The incident-angle dependence of …


Non-Zero Spontaneous Magnetic Moment Along Crystalline B-Axis For Rare Earth Orthoferrites, Mohanad Hazim Mohammed, Zhenxiang Cheng, Shixun Cao, Kirrily C. Rule, Christopher Richardson, A Edwards, Andrew J. Studer, Josip Horvat Jan 2020

Non-Zero Spontaneous Magnetic Moment Along Crystalline B-Axis For Rare Earth Orthoferrites, Mohanad Hazim Mohammed, Zhenxiang Cheng, Shixun Cao, Kirrily C. Rule, Christopher Richardson, A Edwards, Andrew J. Studer, Josip Horvat

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 Author(s). Rare earth orthoferrites demonstrate great application potentials in spintronics and optical devices due to their multiferroic and magnetooptical properties. In RFeO3, magnetic R3+ undergo a spontaneous spin reorientation in a temperature range determined by R (rare earth), where the magnetic structure changes from Γ2 to Γ4. The b-axis component of their magnetic moment, Mb, is reported in numerous neutron diffraction studies to remain zero at all temperatures. More sensitive magnetometer measurements reveal a small non-zero Mb, which is minute above ∼200 K. Mb increases with cooling and reaches values of ∼10-3 μB/f.u. at temperatures within or below …


H-Infinity Adaptive Observer Enhancements For Vehicle Chassis Dynamics-Based Navigation Sensor Fault Construction, Linlin Xia, Jingyu Cong, Xun Xu, Yiping Gao, Shufeng Zhang Jan 2020

H-Infinity Adaptive Observer Enhancements For Vehicle Chassis Dynamics-Based Navigation Sensor Fault Construction, Linlin Xia, Jingyu Cong, Xun Xu, Yiping Gao, Shufeng Zhang

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© The Author(s) 2020. The issues of chassis dynamics-based navigation sensor fault and state estimation in land vehicles are specialized in this study. Owing to the essential attributes of robust theory-based observers, an H-infinity adaptive observer is proposed to implement the fault reconstructions of faulty sensors, offering a reference to vehicles for further favorable control decision-making. This observer fuses a linear matrix inequality convex optimization strategy, with the dynamics of land vehicles established mathematically, the consequent problems associated with augmented descriptor system state-space model, Lyapunov stability and linear matrix inequality convex optimization are discussed in detail. The numerical simulations on …


Stabilization Of Skyrmions In A Nanodisk Without An External Magnetic Field, Hang Li, Collins Akosa, Peng Yan, Yuanxu Wang, Zhenxiang Cheng Jan 2020

Stabilization Of Skyrmions In A Nanodisk Without An External Magnetic Field, Hang Li, Collins Akosa, Peng Yan, Yuanxu Wang, Zhenxiang Cheng

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

We study, in the absence of a magnetic field, the stability of skyrmions in a disk-shaped ferromagnetic multilayer in the presence of locally pinned spins at the edge. This particular boundary condition suppresses the formation of helical states yet enhances the stabilization of states with rotational symmetry, such as Neél skyrmions. Numerical simulation shows that the size of the disk is a viable parameter to control the creation and annihilation of skyrmionic states. We also find that the demagnetization field renormalizes the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. This study opens an alternative avenue to the generation, stabilization, and control of magnetic skyrmions in …


Synergistic Amplification Of (Photo)Catalytic Oxygen And Hydrogen Generation From Water By Thin-Film Polypyrrole Composites, Mohammed Alsultan, Jaecheol Choi, Rouhollah Jalili, Pawel W. Wagner, Gerhard F. Swiegers Jan 2020

Synergistic Amplification Of (Photo)Catalytic Oxygen And Hydrogen Generation From Water By Thin-Film Polypyrrole Composites, Mohammed Alsultan, Jaecheol Choi, Rouhollah Jalili, Pawel W. Wagner, Gerhard F. Swiegers

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Thin films of polypyrrole (PPy) containing nano-Ni ('nano-Ni’) (as catalyst) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (as conductor) have been studied as (photo)electrocatalysts of the oxygen (O2)-evolution reaction (OER) (at 0.8 V vs Ag/AgCl, in 0.2M Na2SO4, pH 12) and the hydrogen (H2)-evolution reaction (HER) (at -0.75 V vs Ag/AgCl, in 0.05M H2SO4/0.2M Na2SO4) under light illumination of 0.25 sun. The above conditions were the most favorable for O2/H2-evolution under which the PPy and/or the nano-Ni constituents were not degraded. The industry benchmark catalyst, bare Pt, generated 0.15 mA/cm2 for O2-evolution and 2.2 mA/cm2 for H2-evolution under …


Graphene Oxide–Based Nanomaterials: An Insight Into Retinal Prosthesis, Jia Yang, Zih Yu, Sheng Cheng, Johnson Chung, Xiao Liu, Chung Wu, Shien Lin, Guan Chen Jan 2020

Graphene Oxide–Based Nanomaterials: An Insight Into Retinal Prosthesis, Jia Yang, Zih Yu, Sheng Cheng, Johnson Chung, Xiao Liu, Chung Wu, Shien Lin, Guan Chen

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Retinal prosthesis has recently emerged as a treatment strategy for retinopathies, providing excellent assistance in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa. The potential application of graphene oxide (GO), a highly biocompatible nanomaterial with superior physicochemical properties, in the fabrication of electrodes for retinal prosthesis, is reviewed in this article. This review integrates insights from biological medicine and nanotechnology, with electronic and electrical engineering technological breakthroughs, and aims to highlight innovative objectives in developing biomedical applications of retinal prosthesis.


Voltage-Induced Penetration Effect In Liquid Metals At Room Temperature, Fei Yun, Zhenwei Yu, Yahua He, Lei Jiang, Zhao Wang, Haoshuang Gu, Xiaolin Wang Jan 2020

Voltage-Induced Penetration Effect In Liquid Metals At Room Temperature, Fei Yun, Zhenwei Yu, Yahua He, Lei Jiang, Zhao Wang, Haoshuang Gu, Xiaolin Wang

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of China Science Publishing & Media Ltd. Room-temperature liquid metal is discovered to be capable of penetrating through macro- and microporous materials by applying a voltage. The liquid metal penetration effects are demonstrated in various porous materials such as tissue paper, thick and fine sponges, fabrics, and meshes. The underlying mechanism is that the high surface tension of liquid metal can be significantly reduced to near-zero due to the voltage-induced oxidation of the liquid metal surface in a solution. It is the extremely low surface tension and gravity …


Atomically Thin Superconductors, Zhi Li, Lina Sang, Peng Liu, Zengji Yue, Michael Fuhrer, Qikun Xue, Xiaolin Wang Jan 2020

Atomically Thin Superconductors, Zhi Li, Lina Sang, Peng Liu, Zengji Yue, Michael Fuhrer, Qikun Xue, Xiaolin Wang

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim In recent years, atomically thin superconductors, including atomically thin elemental superconductors, single layer FeSe films, and few-layer cuprate superconductors, have been studied extensively. This hot research field is mainly driven by the discovery of significant superconductivity enhancement and high-temperature interface superconductivity in single-layer FeSe films epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 substrates in 2012. This study has attracted tremendous research interest and generated more studies focusing on further enhancing superconductivity and finding the origin of the superconductivity. A few years later, research on atomically thin superconductors has extended to cuprate superconductors, unveiling many …


Hierarchical Architectures Of Mesoporous Pd On Highly Ordered Tio2 Nanotube Arrays For Electrochemical Co2 Reduction, Jinshuo Zou, Muhammad Iqbal, Amruthalakshmi Vijayakumar, Caiyun Wang, Douglas R. Macfarlane, Yusuke Yamauchi, Chong Yong Lee, Gordon G. Wallace Jan 2020

Hierarchical Architectures Of Mesoporous Pd On Highly Ordered Tio2 Nanotube Arrays For Electrochemical Co2 Reduction, Jinshuo Zou, Muhammad Iqbal, Amruthalakshmi Vijayakumar, Caiyun Wang, Douglas R. Macfarlane, Yusuke Yamauchi, Chong Yong Lee, Gordon G. Wallace

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

The understanding of the influence of hierarchically nanostructured architectures as support materials for catalysts loading, is critical towards development of efficient electrocatalytic interfaces. The knowledge on mass transport limitation of reactants within such catalyst-support structures remains elusive. Herein, we performed systematic investigation through a novel hierarchical 1D-3D structure by loading mesoporous Pd with an average pore size of ∼10 nm and wall thickness of ∼4 nm onto highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays via pulse electrodeposition. Electrochemical CO2 reductions achieved a CO2-to-formate faradaic conversion efficiency of 88 ± 2% under optimal conditions. Importantly, the product selectivity is found to depend significantly …


Hydrogen Terminated Germanene For A Robust Self-Powered Flexible Photoelectrochemical Photodetector, Nana Liu, Hui Qiao, Kang Xu, Yilian Xi, Long Ren, Ningyan Cheng, Dandan Cui, Xiang Qi, Xun Xu, Weichang Hao, Shi Xue Dou, Yi Du Jan 2020

Hydrogen Terminated Germanene For A Robust Self-Powered Flexible Photoelectrochemical Photodetector, Nana Liu, Hui Qiao, Kang Xu, Yilian Xi, Long Ren, Ningyan Cheng, Dandan Cui, Xiang Qi, Xun Xu, Weichang Hao, Shi Xue Dou, Yi Du

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim As a rising star in the family of graphene analogues, germanene shows great potential for electronic and optical device applications due to its unique structure and electronic properties. It is revealed that the hydrogen terminated germanene not only maintains a high carrier mobility similar to that of germanene, but also exhibits strong light–matter interaction with a direct band gap, exhibiting great potential for photoelectronics. In this work, few-layer germanane (GeH) nanosheets with controllable thickness are successfully synthesized by a solution-based exfoliation–centrifugation route. Instead of complicated microfabrication techniques, a robust photoelectrochemical (PEC)-type …


Interplay Between Cold Densification And Malic Acid Addition (C4h6o5) For The Fabrication Of Near-Isotropic Mgb2 Conductors For Magnet Application, Md. Shahriar Al Hossain, Carmine Senatore, Yusuke Yamauchi, Mislav Mustapic, Daniel Gajda, Dipak Patel, Aslam Khan, Jung Ho Kim, Andrzej Morawski, Rene Flukiger Jan 2020

Interplay Between Cold Densification And Malic Acid Addition (C4h6o5) For The Fabrication Of Near-Isotropic Mgb2 Conductors For Magnet Application, Md. Shahriar Al Hossain, Carmine Senatore, Yusuke Yamauchi, Mislav Mustapic, Daniel Gajda, Dipak Patel, Aslam Khan, Jung Ho Kim, Andrzej Morawski, Rene Flukiger

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020 The effect of cold high pressure densification (CHPD) on anisotropy of the critical current density (Jc) in « in situ » single core binary and alloyed MgB2 tapes has been determined as a function of temperatures at 4.2 K, 20 K and 25 K as well as at applied magnetic fields up to 19 T. The study includes binary and C4H6O5 (malic acid) doped MgB2 tapes before and after CHPD. It is remarkable that the CHPD process not only improved the Jc values, in particular at the higher magnetic fields, but also decreased the anisotropy ratio, Γ = …


Strategies Of Engineering 2d Nanomaterial-Based Electrocatalysts Toward Hydrogen Evolution Reaction, Yaping Chen, Guoqiang Zhao, Wenping Sun Jan 2020

Strategies Of Engineering 2d Nanomaterial-Based Electrocatalysts Toward Hydrogen Evolution Reaction, Yaping Chen, Guoqiang Zhao, Wenping Sun

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020, The Author(s). Electrochemical water splitting driven by renewable energy-derived electricity is considered as the most promising pathway for delivering clean and sustainable hydrogen production. The key to achieving an efficient water splitting process is developing highly active electrocatalysts. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials hold great promise in the electrocatalysis field due to their unique physicochemical properties. Some of them are not active enough because of the poor intrinsic activity, low density of active sites or low electrical conductivity. Some are inert for electrocatalytic reactions, but are able to work as the functional substrates for hybrid electrocatalysts. Thus, tremendous strategies have …


Uncovering The Mechanism Of Dislocation Interaction With Nanoscale (<4 Nm) Interphase Precipitates In Microalloyed Ferritic Steels, Elena V. Pereloma, David L. Cortie, Navjeet Singh, Gilberto Casillas, Frank Niessen Jan 2020

Uncovering The Mechanism Of Dislocation Interaction With Nanoscale (<4 Nm) Interphase Precipitates In Microalloyed Ferritic Steels, Elena V. Pereloma, David L. Cortie, Navjeet Singh, Gilberto Casillas, Frank Niessen

Australian Institute for Innovative Materials - Papers

© 2020, © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Nanoscale interphase precipitation in microalloyed ferritic steels provides a remarkable (200–400 MPa) strengthening increment, however its origin is unclear. Scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed step formation at the matrix/precipitate interface after both macroscopic uniaxial tension and nanopillar compression testing. Supported by Density Functional Theory modelling, dislocation shearing of nano-sized (<4 >nm) VC precipitates was identified as a strengthening mechanism. The findings suggest the operation of an unusual {001} slip–system in the VC nanoparticles. IMPACT STATEMENT: Shearing of VC nanoparticles by dislocations on a …