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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Exploring Social Dimensions Of Ecological Restoration In The Removal Of Two Dams On The Elwha River, Joseph Hinnant May 2022

Exploring Social Dimensions Of Ecological Restoration In The Removal Of Two Dams On The Elwha River, Joseph Hinnant

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The United States is approaching a critical juncture regarding aging dam infrastructure. One increasingly common decision has been to remove dams, recreating a free-flowing river. The attention of the literature on ecological restoration is shifting from an ecological focus towards the importance of participation and the social dimensions of restorations. Social situations surrounding a dam removal can lead to expedited success, delays, or abandoned efforts. This study seeks to connect selected social dimensions of dam removals with the broader literature of ecological restoration by exploring social dimensions expressed in public participation in a dam removal process.

A directed content analysis ...


Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings May 2022

Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is well documented that human activity influences the chemistry of surrounding waters. As such, it is possible that there is a link between land use within a watershed and the chemical composition of the stream. The objectives of this study are to determine if varied land use does affect the concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements present in the streams of Northwest Arkansas, and if so, to determine what extent urban and agricultural development are responsible for these changes. Water samples were collected across 19 streams in the Northwest Arkansas region between January and March of 2022. Water samples ...


Identifying Associations Between Human-Environmental Factors And Water Quality Trends Observed At Perennial Headwater Streams Of The San Bernardino National Forest, California, Anna Frey May 2022

Identifying Associations Between Human-Environmental Factors And Water Quality Trends Observed At Perennial Headwater Streams Of The San Bernardino National Forest, California, Anna Frey

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Anthropogenic factors related to landscape activities, infrastructure, and alterations, coupled with severe climatic fluctuations (i.e., droughts and extreme hydrological events) are increasingly impairing the quality of surface water resources across multiple geographic scales, warranting the need for comprehensive investigations of the cumulative effects of human-environmental stressors at multiple scales within a watershed. This study assessed three perennial headwater streams of the San Bernardino National Forest, California. The streams were tested for one year from October 2019 to September 2020 for conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, turbidity, temperature, ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), total coliform (TC), Escherichia coli (E ...


Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model For Classifying Marginal Cropland In Nebraska Using Historical Crop Yield And Biophysical Characteristics, Andrew Laws May 2022

Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model For Classifying Marginal Cropland In Nebraska Using Historical Crop Yield And Biophysical Characteristics, Andrew Laws

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Marginal cropland is suboptimal due to historically low and variable productivity and limiting biophysical characteristics. To support future agricultural management and policy decisions in Nebraska, U.S.A, it is important to understand where cropland is marginal for its two most economically important crops: corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max). As corn and soybean are frequently planted in a crop rotation, it is important to consider if there is a relationship with cropland marginality. Based on the current literature, there exists a need for a flexible yet robust methodology for identifying marginal land at different scales, which takes advantage ...


Identification And Analysis Of The Contribution Of Various Sources Of Total Dissolved Solids (Tds) In Lake Elsinore Potable Water And Wastewater, Lenai Hunter May 2022

Identification And Analysis Of The Contribution Of Various Sources Of Total Dissolved Solids (Tds) In Lake Elsinore Potable Water And Wastewater, Lenai Hunter

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) are primarily inorganic salts that can pass through a 2-micron (or smaller) filter and, when found in high concentrations, can cause adverse effects on aquatic organisms and the surrounding environment. The agency servicing Lake Elsinore and surrounding areas is the Elsinore Valley Municipal Water District (EVMWD). EVMWD’s wastewater treatment facilities are not equipped to remove TDS from the wastewater. Therefore, the influent TDS values are often similar to the final treated effluent recycled water TDS values. EVMWD has permit limits at the wastewater treatment plants relating to TDS, and due to the higher influent TDS ...


Using A Geospatial Analysis Tool To Visualize Water Impairments And Engage Stakeholders In The San Bernardino National Forest, Jovany Estrada May 2022

Using A Geospatial Analysis Tool To Visualize Water Impairments And Engage Stakeholders In The San Bernardino National Forest, Jovany Estrada

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

High quality water is an important resource that is integral to supporting environmental and human health. It is essential for economic, social and environmental purposes. Impairments to water resources can be attributed to anthropogenic sources that are associated with terrestrial activities including urban development and agricultural activities. Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is an approach that can be used to include community input to improve water management strategies. In the San Bernardino National Forest (SBNF) area in southern California, there are disadvantaged communities that can benefit from a CBPR study to increase water quality in the area. A geovisualization tool will ...


The Effectiveness Of Best Management Practices Implemented At Lake Gregory, Crestline, Ca, Devin Darrow May 2022

The Effectiveness Of Best Management Practices Implemented At Lake Gregory, Crestline, Ca, Devin Darrow

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Water quality deterioration of recreational surface waters from excess pollution inputs is a significant concern for the health of the public and aquatic ecosystem. This study will examine the effectiveness of Best Management Practices (BMPs) in reducing pollution inputs into Lake Gregory, Crestline, CA. The effectiveness of the BMPs was examined by testing for water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), total coliform, and Escherichia coli on weekly to bi-weekly basis for a period of 1 year. A statistical analysis involving descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation, the Efficient Ratios (ER) and Percent Removal ...


Changes In Western U.S. Streamflow Extremes Under Climate Change, Rama Bedri May 2022

Changes In Western U.S. Streamflow Extremes Under Climate Change, Rama Bedri

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

We are analyzing streamflow extremes in Western U.S. rivers due to climate change. Global warming causes natural disasters to reach extreme points and affects river volumes, snowfall, and precipitation amounts. We analyze the data for 17 stations in the Colorado River Basin, whose rivers provide Southern California’s drinking water supply. Disruptions in streamflow due to climate change affect the region’s water availability and make it difficult to predict future trends. We compared historical streamflow data to eight possible climate scenarios. The different scenarios are Warm Dry, Cool Wet, Average, and Other at emission levels of RCP 4 ...


Big Business, Small Plastic, Hannah Johnson May 2022

Big Business, Small Plastic, Hannah Johnson

Senior Honors Projects

No abstract provided.


It’S Art About Water Treatment! An Interview With Mallory Chaput, The Artist Inspiring Future Water Leaders-One Artwork At A Time, Swati Hegde Apr 2022

It’S Art About Water Treatment! An Interview With Mallory Chaput, The Artist Inspiring Future Water Leaders-One Artwork At A Time, Swati Hegde

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This article throws a spotlight on Mallory Chaput, an artist inspiring future water leaders to take up water careers. Through her coloring pages, paintings, and comics about the water treatment, Mallory is helping children re-imagine the water sector. Originally a landscaper, Mallory developed a profound interest in water and wastewater treatment and learned about it by visiting plants, talking to professionals, and studying engineering books. This article is a transcript of an interview with Mallory, featuring her background, her imaginative creations and her future goals.


Where There Are No Sewers: The Toilet Cleaners Of Lucknow, Sharada Prasad, Isha Ray Apr 2022

Where There Are No Sewers: The Toilet Cleaners Of Lucknow, Sharada Prasad, Isha Ray

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Enormous progress has been made in the global effort to provide safe and affordable toilets for the world’s poorest citizens since World Toilet Day was first declared in 2001. Significant strides have been made in “reinventing” toilet designs for low-income, water-short, un-sewered urban zones; celebrities such as Bill Gates and Matt Damon have brought this once-taboo topic into the open; and the Prime Minister of India – the country with the highest number of people still practicing open defecation – has publicly declared that his country needs toilets over temples.

Well over 2 billion people today lack access to basic sanitation ...


El Agua Es Oro: A Human Centered Solution For The City Of Cochabamba, Bolivia, Natalia Mendoza, Camilia Olmedo Apr 2022

El Agua Es Oro: A Human Centered Solution For The City Of Cochabamba, Bolivia, Natalia Mendoza, Camilia Olmedo

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The purpose of El Agua Es Oro (The Water is Gold) is to satisfy social needs, specifically for women living in peri-urban areas, with a more advanced efficiency. El Agua Es Oro creates an added value for people’s well-being by maximizing socio-environmental context and not just focusing on for-profit economics. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy to generate economic resources to sustain the impact that the organization seeks to achieve. El Agua Es Oro is a social enterprise based on the application of social innovation with the methodology and tools of a people-centered design, focusing on teenage girls and women. The ...


Climate Change, Differential Impacts On Women And Gender Mainstreaming: A Case Study Of East Rapti Watershed, Nepal, Anupama Ray Apr 2022

Climate Change, Differential Impacts On Women And Gender Mainstreaming: A Case Study Of East Rapti Watershed, Nepal, Anupama Ray

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Women and water share a great deal of nexus in several ways. However, women have still minimal control over the management of water resources, making them more vulnerable to climate change. This paper assesses how climate change impacts differently across different women groups using an intersectionality lens, thereby exploring the situation of gender mainstreaming in water sector in three communities, namely, Karaiya, Basauli, and Dadagaun in Khairahani Municipality located in the East Rapti watershed, Nepal. In this perception- based study, we conducted three key informant interviews and household interviews with 45 women of different castes, ages, communities, education levels, and ...


Gender In The Water Industry One Man Of Transgender Experience’S Story, Ari Copeland Apr 2022

Gender In The Water Industry One Man Of Transgender Experience’S Story, Ari Copeland

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

is a complex topic Most people often confuse gender and sex; Most folks don’t realize that there are at least 57 genders and gender is a spectrum Some people within our workplace and the water industry don’t identify as a man or a woman, and/or their gender is more fluid (gender-expansive. In our day-to-day interactions with others, we often assume someone’s gender based on their appearance, mannerisms, and other social cues that vary depending on the culture Additionally, assuming everyone fits into the gender binary (just men and women is often-times a barrier to being inclusive ...


Exploring Sustainable Degrowth-Based Adaptation To Climate Change-Aggravated Water Insecurity In Parts Of Rural India: A Gender Relations Approach, Nairita Roy Chaudhuri Apr 2022

Exploring Sustainable Degrowth-Based Adaptation To Climate Change-Aggravated Water Insecurity In Parts Of Rural India: A Gender Relations Approach, Nairita Roy Chaudhuri

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This article reviews the theoretical concept of ‘sustainable adaptation’ to climate change and water scarcity using a gender-relations approach by answering the following questions: i) What is a sustainable adaptation to climate change? ii) Based on a literature review, how does gender interact with climate change adaptation to water scarcity and droughts in rural India? (iii) How do the concepts of sustainable adaptation, degrowth, and gender relations interact on the ground, pertaining to water justice?

The paper argues that climate change adaptation and development goals can harmonize only if they rectify root causes of vulnerabilities. For adaptation actions to yield ...


Land Use Effects On Fish Assemblages In Mississippi River Tributaries In Scott County, Ia And Rock Island County, Il, Benjamin Ford, Kevin Geedey Apr 2022

Land Use Effects On Fish Assemblages In Mississippi River Tributaries In Scott County, Ia And Rock Island County, Il, Benjamin Ford, Kevin Geedey

Urban Watershed Project

Fish assemblages are viable indicators of stream quality because they respond predictably to changes in abiotic and biotic factors, such as habitat and water quality, and human exploitation and species additions. In this a study we examined the relationship between fish abundance, diversity, and IBI (Index of Biotic Integrity), and urban and agricultural land use in Scott County, IA and Rock Island County, IL. Fish were sampled during the summer of 2021 within 12 local watersheds, which contain a variety of land use types. We followed a standardized sampling method of a single pass with a backpack electrofishing unit through ...


Mapping The Impact Of A Trailway System On The Amount Of Trash Present Within Two Watersheds Of Lynchburg City, Virginia, Lillian Smith Apr 2022

Mapping The Impact Of A Trailway System On The Amount Of Trash Present Within Two Watersheds Of Lynchburg City, Virginia, Lillian Smith

Student Scholar Showcase

Transportation of trash debris within water systems is a prominent occurrence which has been linked to natural and artificial processes such as wind, rain, and littering. Recreational areas, such as activities along greenway trails, have been determined to be a source of debris found in waterways. This study examines whether the presence of an established recreational trail system limits trash accumulation in the entirety of a watershed. Trash data collected at Blackwater Creek, which contains an established trail system, was compared to trash data collected at Fishing Creek, containing a non-established trail system, to answer this hypothesis. A distance of ...


Pack It Out Utah: Usu Water Quality Extension Leads Utah’S Statewide Trails And Waterways Cleanup, Lauren Houskeeper, Hope Braithwaite Apr 2022

Pack It Out Utah: Usu Water Quality Extension Leads Utah’S Statewide Trails And Waterways Cleanup, Lauren Houskeeper, Hope Braithwaite

Outcomes and Impact Quarterly

Utah’s public lands have experienced a surge in outdoor recreation which has led to an increase in garbage on trails, parks, neighborhoods, and eventually, in our waterways. In response, Utah State University Water Quality Extension initiated an annual statewide cleanup to raise awareness and facilitate the proper disposal of litter. During the cleanup events in 2020 and 2021, over 11,000 pounds of trash were removed from our public lands and waterways.


Safe Water For All: A Multi-Modal Approach To North Alabama's Water Resources, Elijah Walker Apr 2022

Safe Water For All: A Multi-Modal Approach To North Alabama's Water Resources, Elijah Walker

Theses

Environmental degradation is a destructive force produced by the human disturbance of pollution. It is a phenomenon that gradually evolves landscapes over time resulting in irreversible outcomes. Environmental degradation physically affects spaces’ resources, objects, and inhabiting humans. This study observes the impacts of pollution beyond physical boundaries and how it affects human identity/sense of place through the utilization of geographic information systems. Specifically, it examines cultural identity developed through human experiences and connections to landscapes containing water resources. Following, pollution contaminates water resources disrupting experiences and connections thus causing the cultural identity to disappear. The case study applied to ...


Using Field Scale Electrical Data To Understand Real-Time Agricultural Water Delivery, Bradley Dowell Apr 2022

Using Field Scale Electrical Data To Understand Real-Time Agricultural Water Delivery, Bradley Dowell

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Areas across the High Plains (Ogallala) Aquifer region are experiencing unsustainable groundwater level declines and impacts to streamflow due to increasing human influence, posing challenges for sustaining future agricultural economies and groundwater resources. State and local agencies manage water using groundwater models, which are not at the same temporal and spatial scale as water management on farms. Well-informed agricultural water usage cannot be achieved without reliable and cost-effective water use at farm scale. Water meters are expensive and rarely installed unless required by the state or other regulatory agency; however, most center pivots have their own power supply, which reports ...


A Mixed Methods Case Study: Effects Of Instructors’ Beliefs On Incorporation Of Sustainability Curriculum At A Midwestern University, Anna Oetting Apr 2022

A Mixed Methods Case Study: Effects Of Instructors’ Beliefs On Incorporation Of Sustainability Curriculum At A Midwestern University, Anna Oetting

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The degree to which sustainability is taught is often varied and inconsistent across colleges, departments, and higher education institutions. However, educating students and future generations regarding the different pillars of sustainability, including economic, social, and environmental topics, is increasing in importance and urgency. A mixed methods case study utilized surveys and interviews to investigate why instructors incorporate sustainability, what impacts course incorporation of sustainability, and barriers that instructors face. This study found that instructors’ beliefs regarding the importance of sustainability relate to the extent to which sustainability is incorporated into their curriculum. Topics of sustainability incorporated into a class are ...


Mass Capacity Analysis Of Stormwater Control Measures Using Synthetic Stormwater With Silica, Organic And Hydrocarbon Constituents, Craig Michael Fairbaugh Mar 2022

Mass Capacity Analysis Of Stormwater Control Measures Using Synthetic Stormwater With Silica, Organic And Hydrocarbon Constituents, Craig Michael Fairbaugh

Dissertations and Theses

Stormwater control measure (SCM) performance is well studied regarding solids removal; however, analysis of mass loading capacity, long-term performance, and maintenance demands are challenging due to the variability and multiple constituents inherent in urban stormwater. This research examines the long-term water quality performance and sediment mass capacity of two common SCMs: high rate biofiltration (HRBF) and conventional bioretention (BRT). Pollutant removal trials were conducted in a laboratory setting per the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) filtration protocol in two phases: the first using inorganic sediment per the NJDEP protocol, the second phase with the addition of organic sediment ...


Arsenic In Groundwater Sources From Selected Communities Surrounding Taal Volcano, Philippines: An Exploratory Study, Geminn Louis C. Apostol, Sary Valenzuela, Xerxes Seposo Mar 2022

Arsenic In Groundwater Sources From Selected Communities Surrounding Taal Volcano, Philippines: An Exploratory Study, Geminn Louis C. Apostol, Sary Valenzuela, Xerxes Seposo

Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health Faculty Publications

Arsenic (As) is a highly toxic, carcinogenic trace metal that can potentially contaminate groundwater sources in volcanic regions. This study provides the first comparative documentation of As concentrations in groundwater in a volcano-sedimentary region in the Philippines. Matched, repeated As measurements and physico-chemical analyses were performed in 26 individual wells from 11 municipalities and city in Batangas province from July 2020 to November 2021. Using the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric method, analysis of the wells revealed that in 2020, 23 out of 26 (88.46%) had As levels above the WHO limit of >10 ppb while 20 out of 26 ...


The Design Of An Agricultural Youth-Centered Rural Development Program In Rwanda, Laetitia Igiraneza Sinyigenga Mar 2022

The Design Of An Agricultural Youth-Centered Rural Development Program In Rwanda, Laetitia Igiraneza Sinyigenga

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Rwanda is primarily a rural, young, and agriculture-based country. The referred variables- agriculture, rural population, and youth- can be creatively merged to engage and empower youth for rural development. This paper indicates the utilization of cross-disciplinary knowledge to design an agricultural youth-centered rural development program in Rwanda. The program uses the interdependence of economic sectors (agriculture and education) with resources (environmental & natural resources and human resources) to boost rural community development. The program’s main activities- mentorship, agribusiness training, tutoring, exposure visits, and community work- highly reflect the requirement for advancing the selected main economic sectors and resources. There is ...


Irrigation’S Impact On A Precipitation Event During Grainex In Nebraska, Usa, Daniel Whitesel Mar 2022

Irrigation’S Impact On A Precipitation Event During Grainex In Nebraska, Usa, Daniel Whitesel

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Numerous precipitation events were observed during the Great Plains Irrigation Experiment (GRAINEX). However, the precipitation event that was observed the morning of 23 July 2018 is the focus of this thesis. Six experiments were conducted which involved increasing or decreasing soil moisture by 5% increments over the irrigated cropland. An additional experiment, which changed the irrigated land use to grassland, showed precipitation increases. It was found that regardless of strength of irrigation, average precipitation decreased. Average precipitation decreased by up to 72% when irrigation increased compared to the control simulation and decreased by up to 85% when irrigation decreased compared ...


Perceptions Of Drinking Water Access And Quality In Rural Indigenous Villages In Fiji, Sarah Nelson, Jacqueline Thomas, Aaron Jenkins, Kelera Naivalu, Timoci Naivalulevu, Vilisi Naivalulevu, Kinikoto Mailautoka, Shylett Anthony, Mereia Ravoka, Stacy D. Jupiter, Sangeeta Mangubhai, Pierre Horwitz, Seye Abimbola, Joel Negin Mar 2022

Perceptions Of Drinking Water Access And Quality In Rural Indigenous Villages In Fiji, Sarah Nelson, Jacqueline Thomas, Aaron Jenkins, Kelera Naivalu, Timoci Naivalulevu, Vilisi Naivalulevu, Kinikoto Mailautoka, Shylett Anthony, Mereia Ravoka, Stacy D. Jupiter, Sangeeta Mangubhai, Pierre Horwitz, Seye Abimbola, Joel Negin

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Poor rural water quality is a health challenge in Fiji. A mixed-methods study in six iTaukei (Indigenous Fijian) villages was conducted to understand local perceptions of drinking water access and quality, how this changes drinking water source choices, and impacts of age and gender. Seventy-two household surveys, 30 key informant interviews (KIIs) and 12 focus group discus-sions (FGDs) were conducted. Household surveys revealed 41.7% of community members perceived their water as dirty and 76.4% perceived their water as clean. Two-thirds of households reported that they always or usually had enough water. FGDs and KIIs revealed water access and ...


Does Restoration Of Urban Riparian Zones Impact Stream Water Quality In Portland, Oregon, Ash Ivanov Mar 2022

Does Restoration Of Urban Riparian Zones Impact Stream Water Quality In Portland, Oregon, Ash Ivanov

University Honors Theses

Riparian zones influence urban stream quality through factors such as shading the stream, adding nutrients through leaf litter, stabilizing the stream banks to reduce turbidity, and filtering toxins out of the water. Riparian restoration often involves changing plant assemblage to be more diverse and include primarily native species instead of non-native, improving connection to the stream through changing stream morphology, improving species habitat, and reducing pollution. The goal of this study was to determine if urban riparian restoration projects in the region were successful, and if not, why that may be the case. The study was performed in the Portland ...


Women And Water: Lessons Learned From A Humanitarian Intervention At Igusi Clinic, Matabeleland, Zimbabwe, Rachel C. Svetanoff, Ifeoma Ilobodo Feb 2022

Women And Water: Lessons Learned From A Humanitarian Intervention At Igusi Clinic, Matabeleland, Zimbabwe, Rachel C. Svetanoff, Ifeoma Ilobodo

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

This article highlights the disproportionate impact of water scarcity on women and girls in Matabeleland, Zimbabwe. We emphasize one Zimbabwean woman's efforts to implement a sustainable water solution for a community of 20,000 citizens. Lumbie Mlambo, Founder and President of the nonprofit JB Dondolo, Inc., took action following reports that people in the community her father was aiding were falling ill, mothers could not carry their pregnancy to full terms, and infant mortality rates were rising. Before Lumbie's intervention, the only water available was contaminated by polluted soil. Moreover, the climate change-induced droughts and floods made the ...


A Call For The Library Community To Deploy Best Practices Toward A Database For Biocultural Knowledge Relating To Climate Change, Martha B. Lerski Jan 2022

A Call For The Library Community To Deploy Best Practices Toward A Database For Biocultural Knowledge Relating To Climate Change, Martha B. Lerski

Publications and Research

Abstract

Purpose – In this paper, a call to the library and information science community to support documentation and conservation of cultural and biocultural heritage has been presented.

Design/methodology/approach – Based in existing Literature, this proposal is generative and descriptive— rather than prescriptive—regarding precisely how libraries should collaborate to employ technical and ethical best practices to provide access to vital data, research and cultural narratives relating to climate.

Findings – COVID-19 and climate destruction signal urgent global challenges. Library best practices are positioned to respond to climate change. Literature indicates how libraries preserve, share and cross-link cultural and scientific knowledge ...


Water Woes Worsen: Middle Rio Grande Reservoir Modeling Projects Declining Water Availability Under Climate Change Simulations, Robyn Holmes Jan 2022

Water Woes Worsen: Middle Rio Grande Reservoir Modeling Projects Declining Water Availability Under Climate Change Simulations, Robyn Holmes

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The Middle Rio Grande is a vital source of water for over 2M people. Climate change is impacting regional hydrology and is likely to put additional stress on a water supply that is already stretched thin. To gain insight on future water availability, a simple water balance model was used to simulate the Elephant Butte-Caballo reservoir system (Southern New Mexico, USA). The water balance model was run under 97 climate simulations derived from Global Climate Models (GCMs) developed under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) 5th generation Coupled Modeling Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Results suggest that the percentage ...