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Life Sciences

1981

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Articles 1 - 30 of 110

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Optimum Yield And The Fcma: Uneven Distribution Of Management Burden, Herrick J. Johnson Dec 1981

Optimum Yield And The Fcma: Uneven Distribution Of Management Burden, Herrick J. Johnson

Theses and Major Papers

Until the establishment of the Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 (FCMA), fish outside the United States' twelve mile fishery zone were, according to international law, common property and belonged to the nation or individual that caught them. This common property law was based on the concept that fish resources were so large that no amount of fishing would interfere with the right of others to catch fish. Modern technology, however, has created equipment that enabled foreign and domestic fishermen to over-fish the resource. A reduced domestic catch led coastal fishermen to support a bill that unilaterally extended the ...


Mid‐Level Intrusions At The Continental Shelf Edge, Christopher S. Welch Nov 1981

Mid‐Level Intrusions At The Continental Shelf Edge, Christopher S. Welch

VIMS Articles

Observations across the continental shelf offshore from New Jersey in late summer 1976 show an intrusion of saline water at the mid level of the water column across the shelf edge front, which appears in density only as an offshore thickening of the pycnocline. This internal density field produces horizontal pressure gradient forces within the pycnocline in the onshore direction. These forces, in the linearized equation of motion with a constant eddy viscosity, drive a circulation which resembles a double Ekman spiral for internal pressure vertical distributions which are thin with respect to the Ekman depth. For thick pressure distributions ...


The Ecology Of Maine's Intertidal Habitats : A Report Prepared For The Maine State Planning Office, Peter F. Larsen, Lee F. Doggett Oct 1981

The Ecology Of Maine's Intertidal Habitats : A Report Prepared For The Maine State Planning Office, Peter F. Larsen, Lee F. Doggett

Maine Collection

The Ecology of Maine's Intertidal Habitats : A Report Prepared for the Maine State Planning Office

by Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences (Authors: Peter F. Larsen and Lee F. Doggett) , 1981.

Contents: Acknowledgements / List of Tables / List of Figures / Chapter 1 - Introduction / Chapter 2 - Human Impact on Intertidal Fauna / Chapter 3 - A Primer of Intertidal Ecology / Chapter 4 - A Sampler of Intertidal Species / Chapter 5 - Methodology / Chapter 6 - Results of Faunal Studies / Appendix 1 - Habitats With Date Sampled / Appendix 2 - List of All Taxa / Appendix 3 - Lists of Taxa at Each Habitat Type / Bibliography / Glossary


Feasibility Study For A Beaver Reservoir Agricultural Water Supply Volume I, James Ferguson, Robert Shulstad, William Bateman Oct 1981

Feasibility Study For A Beaver Reservoir Agricultural Water Supply Volume I, James Ferguson, Robert Shulstad, William Bateman

Technical Reports

An irrigation district of approximately 30,000 acres has been proposed to be located in Washington and Benton Counties in Northwest Arkansas utilizing water from Beaver Reservior. This report on the economic benefits of such a district is done under contract No. DACW03-81-C for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers by the Water Resources Research Center at the University of Arkansas.


Feasibility Study For A Beaver Reservoir Agricultural Water Supply Volume Ii, James Ferguson, Robert Shulstad, William Bateman Oct 1981

Feasibility Study For A Beaver Reservoir Agricultural Water Supply Volume Ii, James Ferguson, Robert Shulstad, William Bateman

Technical Reports

An irrigation district of approximately 30,000 acres has been proposed to be located in Washington and Benton Counties in Northwest Arkansas utilizing water from Beaver Reservior. This report on the economic benefits of such a district is done under contr


Connquest, Sandra Cookson, D.W. Allinson, G.S. Speer, R.W. Taylor, R.P. Prince, J.W. Bartok, D.W. Protheroe, D.R. Miller Aug 1981

Connquest, Sandra Cookson, D.W. Allinson, G.S. Speer, R.W. Taylor, R.P. Prince, J.W. Bartok, D.W. Protheroe, D.R. Miller

Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station

No abstract provided.


Organic Compounds In Surface Sediments And Oyster Tissues From The Chesapeake Bay, R. H. Bieri, P. O. Dufur, R. J. Huggett, W. Macintyre, P. Shou, C. L. Smith, C. W. Su Jul 1981

Organic Compounds In Surface Sediments And Oyster Tissues From The Chesapeake Bay, R. H. Bieri, P. O. Dufur, R. J. Huggett, W. Macintyre, P. Shou, C. L. Smith, C. W. Su

Reports

This report contains three parts. In Part I, the methodology to extract and analyze sediment and oyster tissue samples from the Chesapeake Bay is described in detail. Remaining problems are clearly identified. Part II contains the results and their discussion. Part III contains a number of appendices with detailed data. For those readers interested in still more detail, the complete bank of processed data is on computer tapes at this institute and at the Environmental Protection Agency-Chesapeake Bay Program office at Annapolis, Maryland. Also included in Part III we give the results of volatile halogenated organic compounds determined in water ...


Diagenesis Of Organic Matter In Las Vegas Bay And Bonelli Bay, Lake Mead, James W. Murray, Carolyn J. Jones, Kathy Kuivila, Jeff Sawlan Jul 1981

Diagenesis Of Organic Matter In Las Vegas Bay And Bonelli Bay, Lake Mead, James W. Murray, Carolyn J. Jones, Kathy Kuivila, Jeff Sawlan

Publications (WR)

The interstitial water chemistry of the sediments of Las Vegas Bay and Bonelli Bay in Lake Mead has been studied as part of a comprehensive water quality study of those locations. Pore water and solid phase analyses were completed from four stations in Las Vegas Bay and two stations in Bonelli Bay. At both locations the pore water compositions and organic matter diagenesis in the sediments are dominated by sulfate reduction. This major role of sulfate reduction is unusual for lake sediments and reflects the fact that SO4 is the major anion in the lake water. In addition, gypsum ...


Notes On Recent Changes In Tanaidacean Terminology, Charles G. Messing Jul 1981

Notes On Recent Changes In Tanaidacean Terminology, Charles G. Messing

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

no abstract available


Effects Of Three Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Sweetgum Seedlings From Nine Mother Trees, Richard C. Schultz, Paul P. Kormanik, William C. Bryan Jun 1981

Effects Of Three Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Sweetgum Seedlings From Nine Mother Trees, Richard C. Schultz, Paul P. Kormanik, William C. Bryan

Richard C. Schultz

Soil in microplots was infested with three vesicular-arbuscular (VA) symbionts then sown with seed of half-sib progeny from nine sweetgum mother trees. The VA treatments were Glomus fasciculatus, Glomus spp. (a mixture containing both Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatus), or a VA mixture of several fungi from the genera Glomus and Gigaspora. Before the seed was sown, all plots had calcium standardized and received an application of commercial fertilizer. During the growing season, NH4NO3 was applied to all plots in equal portions. Mycorrhizal seedlings with G. fasciculatus were slightly but not significantly larger in both height and root-collar diameter than ...


Response Of Vesicular-Arbuscular Endomycorrhizal Sweetgum Seedlings To Three Nitrogen Fertilizers, R. W. Brown, Richard C. Schultz, Paul P. Kormanik Jun 1981

Response Of Vesicular-Arbuscular Endomycorrhizal Sweetgum Seedlings To Three Nitrogen Fertilizers, R. W. Brown, Richard C. Schultz, Paul P. Kormanik

Forestry Publications

Sweetgum seedlings were grown outdoors in pots filled with fumigated soil, were inoculated with the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus etunicatus, and were treated with fertilizers to determine growth response to different sources and levels of nitrogen. Ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and potassium nitrate were applied eight times during the growing season, at seasonal rates equivalent to 0, 140, 280, 560, 1,120, or 2,240 kg N/hectare. Application of 560 kg N/ha as ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate produced seedlings with greatest mean heights, diameters, and top weights. The 280 and 560 kg N/ha treatments of each N ...


Chemical And Biological Structure Of Lake Mead Sediments, Richard T. Prentki, Larry J. Paulson, John R. Baker Jun 1981

Chemical And Biological Structure Of Lake Mead Sediments, Richard T. Prentki, Larry J. Paulson, John R. Baker

Publications (WR)

Lake Mead has undergone a serious decline since Glen Canyon Dam was constructed 450 km upstream in 1963.

State fisheries management agencies are concerned that the decline was caused by water level fluctuations and more severe drawdowns during the bass spawning season, when the operation of Hoover Dam was altered during the post-Lake Powell period.

The construction of Glen Canyon Dam and formation of Lake Powell in 1963 drastically altered the natural discharge and temperature cycles and decreased suspended sediment and nutrient loading in the Colorado River inflow to Lake Mead. Recent studies indicate that these changes in nutrient loading ...


The Present State Of Organic Xenobiotics In The Chesapeake Bay - A Synthesis Paper, R. J. Huggett, R. H. Bieri, P. O. Defur, W. G. Macintyre, P. Shou, C. L. Smith, C. W. Su Jun 1981

The Present State Of Organic Xenobiotics In The Chesapeake Bay - A Synthesis Paper, R. J. Huggett, R. H. Bieri, P. O. Defur, W. G. Macintyre, P. Shou, C. L. Smith, C. W. Su

Reports

This manuscript discusses the results of the first two and one half years of a three-year study designed to determine the present state of xenobiotic compounds in the Chesapeake Bay. It shows that polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons are the most frequently encountered compounds and are the most abundant. Concentrations are highest in the Northern Bay with several sources implicated. During this study an apparent dumping of the pesticide, DDT, occurred. Either the quantity disposed of was small enough or the assimulation capacity was large enough that no adverse effects were noted. The detection by us of 6-phenyldodecane in bottom sediments of ...


Where Have All The Stripers Gone?: An Analysis Of The Decline In The East Coast Striped Bass Fishery, Anthony P. Chatowsky May 1981

Where Have All The Stripers Gone?: An Analysis Of The Decline In The East Coast Striped Bass Fishery, Anthony P. Chatowsky

Theses and Major Papers

Beginning in 1975 striped bass sports fishermen noticed a decrease in fish around. This decline was cause for alarm in 1977 when few striped bass were caught from shore. Commercial catch statistics showed that in 1973, 13,504,000 pounds of bass were landed. In 1979 the poundage was 3,492,000, a significant drop of 74%. This led to the development of state and regional striped bass advisory committees, an N.M.F.S. and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Emergency Action Plan and Congressional appropriation of 4.7 million dollars in 1979 to study the problem. The problem ...


Toward The Marketing Of Seafood Harvested In New England, Daniel R. Kilty Ph.D May 1981

Toward The Marketing Of Seafood Harvested In New England, Daniel R. Kilty Ph.D

Theses and Major Papers

In this study the author will concentrate on the marketing activitiesof the U.S. commercial fishing industry. The study will use examples from New England to illustrate various points covered in the study. Particular reference will be made to the geographic area of Southern New England and move specifically to Point Judith, Rhode Island and New Bedford, Massachusetts. The study is divided into two parts. Part I reviews the situation in the industry prior to 1976, the Fishery Conservation Management Act, theU.S./Canadian East Coast Fisheries Agreement and the American Fisheries Promotion Act. Part II applies the marketing mix ...


Optimal Groundwater Mining In The Ogallala Aquifer: Estimation Of Economic Losses And Excessive Depletion Due To Commonality, Kun C. Lee, Cameron Short, Earl O. Heady May 1981

Optimal Groundwater Mining In The Ogallala Aquifer: Estimation Of Economic Losses And Excessive Depletion Due To Commonality, Kun C. Lee, Cameron Short, Earl O. Heady

CARD Working Papers

The optimal rates of Intertemporal and within-group groundwater mining in the Ogallala Aquifer are estimated for the year 1985 to 2005. The gains realized by the optimal policy are measured and compared with gains from the free market policy and life of the aquifer is estimated.


Some Morphological And Chemical Responses Of Blackbrush (Coleogyne Ramosissima) To Goat Browsing: Influences On Dietary Blackbrush Selection By Goats And Cattle, Frederick D. Provenza May 1981

Some Morphological And Chemical Responses Of Blackbrush (Coleogyne Ramosissima) To Goat Browsing: Influences On Dietary Blackbrush Selection By Goats And Cattle, Frederick D. Provenza

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Domestic goats were used to modify the growth form of blackbrush, a spinescent shrub occurring in nearly monospecific stands on several million hectares of rangeland in the southwestern United States. The objective of this research was to evaluate goat browsing as a means of improving these rangelands for cattle. Winter goat browsing stimulated spring twig growth from basal and axillary buds which resulted in increased production.

Twig production by heavily browsed plants (>95 percent removal of current season's twigs) was a function of precipitation, soil depth, branch location on the plant, and period of rest after browsing. As precipitation ...


Natural Pastures Of The Macquarie Region Of New South Wales: Their Origin, Composition And Management, David Leslie Michaelk May 1981

Natural Pastures Of The Macquarie Region Of New South Wales: Their Origin, Composition And Management, David Leslie Michaelk

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Two experiments were conducted in the semi-arid (400 millimeter annual rainfall) Macquarie region of New South Wales, Australia, at the Trangie Agricultural Research Station (31° 59'S; 147° S7'E), to examine (a) the way botanical parameters can be used to separate grazing and climatic impacts on range vegetation, and (b) how this delineation affects application of range science tenets (site, condition and trend) to different pasture types.

Two range sites were studied: Site 1, a light soil type, was dominated by annual grasses, legumes and forbs, whereas perennial grasses (mainly Chloris acieularis and Chloris truncata) dominated the heavy soils ...


Fall Regrowth Of Crested Wheatgrass And Fourwing Saltbush, Noor Mohammad May 1981

Fall Regrowth Of Crested Wheatgrass And Fourwing Saltbush, Noor Mohammad

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

During 1980-81, studies with crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) and fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) were conducted in controlled environment growth chambers as well as under field conditions to achieve the following objectives:

1. To determine the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the water use efficiency.

2. To determine the effects of various temperature, water stress and nitrogen treatments on the productivity, nitrogen content and carbohydrate reserves.

3. To determine the effects of N fertilization on fall and spring regrowth.

Crested wheatgrass and fourwing saltbush plants were maintained in three growth chambers for 60 days under three temperature regimes (11/7, 19 ...


Effect Of Mild Water Stress And Enhanced Ultraviolet-B Irradiation On Leaf Growth Of Rumex Obtusifolius L. And Rumex Patientia L. (Polygonaceae)., Steven R. Holman May 1981

Effect Of Mild Water Stress And Enhanced Ultraviolet-B Irradiation On Leaf Growth Of Rumex Obtusifolius L. And Rumex Patientia L. (Polygonaceae)., Steven R. Holman

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Leaves of Rumex obtusifolius L. and R. patientia L.were exposed to combinations of mild water stress and enhanced ultraviolet-B irradiation during their ontogeny. Two UV-B treatments (enhanced UV-B and control) and three water stress treatments (-0.0 MPa, -0.2 MPa and -0.4 MPa rooting medium matric potentials) were employed. The impact of the stress interaction was assessed on the basis of changes in leaf area, average adaxial epidermal cell size, and total number of adaxial epidermal cells per leaf. Although the level of UV-B irradiation applied was insufficient to significantly alter leaf growth at any given water ...


The Energy Expenditure Of Heifers Grazing Crested Wheatgrass Rangeland In West-Central Utah, Kris M. Havstad May 1981

The Energy Expenditure Of Heifers Grazing Crested Wheatgrass Rangeland In West-Central Utah, Kris M. Havstad

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The free-roaming ruminant requires energy for the demands of vii grazing, traveling and thermoregulation that are not required by its confined counterpart. Literature estimates of these additional costs range from 10 to 170 percent above maintenance. The uncertain magnitude of this increased demand and the factors that contribute to it impede the ability of the rangeland ruminant nutritionist to establish guidelines for the energy requirements of the free-roaming herbivore. This study was designed to estimate the energy expenditure of yearling Angus heifers while grazing a declining supply of available crested wheatgrass forage (Agropyron cristatum) on rangeland in west-central Utah.

Free-ranging ...


Seasonal Temperature Preference Of Adult Mountain Whitefish, Prosopium Williamsoni, Jean M. Ihnat May 1981

Seasonal Temperature Preference Of Adult Mountain Whitefish, Prosopium Williamsoni, Jean M. Ihnat

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Temperatures selected seasonally by adult mountain whitefish were measured in the laboratory in a horizontal gradient. Final preferendum estimates, based on acute (3-hour) preference tests conducted with fish acclimated to 5, 10, and 15 C each season, were 17.7 C (pre-spawning), 11.9 C (post-spawning), 9.9 C (winter), and 16.3 C (spring). Seasonal influence on temperature selection was evident on the basis of differences in final preferenda, covariance analysis of responses of laboratory-acclimated fish, and temperature selection by fish held at ambient river temperatures. Post-spawning and winter groups selected lower temperatures than did pre-spawning and spring groups ...


Higher Plant Acclimation To Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation, Ronald Robberecht May 1981

Higher Plant Acclimation To Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation, Ronald Robberecht

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plant acclimation to natural and intensified solar UV-B irradiance was investigated in three species, Oenothera stricta Ledeb., Rumex obtusifolius L., and R . patientia L. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the relationship between plant sensitivity and epidermal UV attenuation, (2) the effect of phenotypic changes in the leaf epidermis, resulting from UV-B exposure, on plant sensitivity to UV radiation, and (3) the plasticity of these changes in the epidermis leading to plant acclimation to UVB radiation.

Epidermal UV transmittance was found to differ in magnitude and spectral distribution among the three species examined in this study. Epidermal ...


The Transport And Intracellular Distribution Of Iron In The Basidiomycete, Ustilago Sphaerogena, Charles W. Passavant May 1981

The Transport And Intracellular Distribution Of Iron In The Basidiomycete, Ustilago Sphaerogena, Charles W. Passavant

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The transport and intracellular distribution of iron in Ustilago sphaerogena via the native siderochrome ferrichrome A has been examined. Evidence is presented which suggests the involvement of deferriferrichrome in iron transport when the metal is supplied to the cell as ferrichrome A. This process requires both oxygen and ATP synthesis and may require a transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Once inside the cell, iron derived from ferrichrome A is rapidly distributed, with a major fraction found in the mitochondria, presumably as heme.

The kinetics of ferrichrome and ferrichrome A uptake have also been investigated. The Km of transport of ferrichrome was determined ...


The Rhode Island Quahogger: Candidate For The List Of Endangered Species?, James M. Korney Apr 1981

The Rhode Island Quahogger: Candidate For The List Of Endangered Species?, James M. Korney

Theses and Major Papers

It is the hypothesis of this paper that today the livelihood of the independent Narragansett Bay quahogger is faced with two potentially dangerous threats; water pollution in upper Narragansett Bay and the prospect of an expanding aquaculture industry in the lower bay. Unless the state of Rhode Island properly interprets and enforces existing state legislation to protect the quahoggers interests, his very livelihood will be jeoprodized. This paper will examine the legal, political, economic, and environmental affects of water pollution in upper Narragansett Bay and an expanding aquaculture industry in the lower bay in their relation to the Rhode Island ...


Municipal Sewage Treatment: Problems And Considerations, George R. Johnson Apr 1981

Municipal Sewage Treatment: Problems And Considerations, George R. Johnson

Theses and Major Papers

The coastal areas are vital to the economic and physical well being of the United States. Virtually every facet of our way of life is related in some fashion to these coastal areas. Ocean borne transportation moves not only vast quantities of raw materials, but also many of the intermediate and final products that are then manufactured to their related market areas. Fisheries provide vast amounts of food and employment for many of our people. In addition, the coasts are a continuing source of enjoyment and recreation for millions of our citizens. Coastal waters provide much of the water necessary ...


Maine's Whitewater Rapids And Their Relevance To The Critical Areas Program, Janet Mcmahon Apr 1981

Maine's Whitewater Rapids And Their Relevance To The Critical Areas Program, Janet Mcmahon

Maine Collection

Maine's Whitewater Rapids and Their Relevance to the Critical Areas Program

by Janet McMahon

Planning Report No. 74, Critical Areas Program, 184 State St., Augusta, Maine,

April, 1981 (additions made in October, 1981). Reprinted July, 1983.

Contents: Introduction / Natural History of Whitewater Rapids / Methods / Criteria / Results / Conclusions / General Evaluation of Whitewater Rapids for Inclusion on the Register of Critical Areas / Bibliography / Action Plan


Regional Impacts Of Groundwater Mining From The Ogallala Aquifer With Increasing Energy Prices 1990 And 2000, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, Cameron C. Short, Anthony F. Turhollow Jr., Earl O. Heady, Kun C. Lee Apr 1981

Regional Impacts Of Groundwater Mining From The Ogallala Aquifer With Increasing Energy Prices 1990 And 2000, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development, Iowa State University, Cameron C. Short, Anthony F. Turhollow Jr., Earl O. Heady, Kun C. Lee

CARD Reports

The Ogallala is an unconfined fresh-water aquifer extending from just north of the Nebraska-South Dakota border to the southern edge of the Texas High Plains. The areal extent of the aquifer includes the eastern tier of counties in Colorado and New Mexico, the western third of Kansas, three counties in Oklahoma, the greater part of the state of Nebraska and the Texas "panhandle." The area assumed to overlie the aquifer adjusted to county lines is shown in Figure 1! Discontinuous segments of the Ogallala Aquifer have also been identified in other areas such as central Kansas and south-eastern Colorado and ...


Mouthpart Morphology And Feeding Strategies Of The Commensal Amphipod, Anamixis Hanseni Stebbing, James Darwin Thomas, George W. Taylor Apr 1981

Mouthpart Morphology And Feeding Strategies Of The Commensal Amphipod, Anamixis Hanseni Stebbing, James Darwin Thomas, George W. Taylor

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

The lack of the information on the biology of the commensal amphipod family Anamixidae prompted investigations into mouthpart ultrastructure, feeding biology, and host specificity of Anamixis hanseni Stebbing, 1897. Earlier investigators presented conflicting reports on the structural composition of the buccal region and feeding modes in anamixids. Scanning electron microscope analysis of A. hanseni showed a complete set of mouthparts to be present, although much modified and reduced, except for the well-developed maxilliped palps. Feeding is not parasitic (piercing and sucking host tissue) as previously believed but is accomplished while A. hanseni rests inside its host. Minute food particles are ...


Palynological Correlation Of The Kentucky No. 12 Coal, Gerald E. Vyhmeister Apr 1981

Palynological Correlation Of The Kentucky No. 12 Coal, Gerald E. Vyhmeister

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

In attempting to analyze the depositional environment for the Kentucky No. 12 Coal three columns were sampled from a 1 km area. The columns yielded 76 miospore species belonging to 33 genera, and representing in decreasing order of abundance, arborescent lycopods, tree ferns, calamites, small ferns, gymnospermous trees, seed ferns, herbaceous lycopods, and others from unknown origin.

The pattern of spore distribution in the columns did not appear to be affected by the presence of several partings, a feature which calls into question several mechanisms proposed for the origin of partings and also creates difficulties for an autochthonous origin for ...