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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Single Night Surveys Of Moth Communities Can Serve As Ultra-Rapid Biodiversity Assessments, Daniel P. Duran, Matthew Timar, Blaine Rothauser Dec 2023

Single Night Surveys Of Moth Communities Can Serve As Ultra-Rapid Biodiversity Assessments, Daniel P. Duran, Matthew Timar, Blaine Rothauser

School of Earth & Environment Faculty Scholarship

Biodiversity conservation decisions are typically based on limited data and resources. For this reason, there is great interest in surveying taxa that may allow for a rapid assessment of the biodiversity at a site. Numerous taxa have been proposed and utilized for rapid assessments that allow for such a survey in a matter of weeks or less. Herein, we test the idea that nocturnal moths have many of the characteristics that make them ideal for such surveys, such as relative ease of identification, strong ecological association with specific plant species and habitats, high alpha diversity, extended seasonal activity, and ease …


Impacts On Malaria Transmission Of Altered Biogenic Amine Levels In {\It Anopheles} Mosquitoes: Insights From A Mathematical Model, Michael Robert Nov 2023

Impacts On Malaria Transmission Of Altered Biogenic Amine Levels In {\It Anopheles} Mosquitoes: Insights From A Mathematical Model, Michael Robert

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Gaff-Msis-Ledder: Agent-Based Modeling Of Tick Population Genetics, Holly Gaff Nov 2023

Gaff-Msis-Ledder: Agent-Based Modeling Of Tick Population Genetics, Holly Gaff

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Geometry Of Competition And Stability For One-Host, Two-Parasitoid Systems With Application To Biocontrol, Michael Kerckhove Nov 2023

Geometry Of Competition And Stability For One-Host, Two-Parasitoid Systems With Application To Biocontrol, Michael Kerckhove

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Gaff-Msis-Robertson: Assessing Lyme Disease Dynamics With Lymesim 2.0, Holly Gaff Nov 2023

Gaff-Msis-Robertson: Assessing Lyme Disease Dynamics With Lymesim 2.0, Holly Gaff

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Community Complexity Of A Pollination Network: Analysis Of Plant-Pollinator Interactions In The Eastern Ecuadorian Cloud Forest, Anisa López-Ruiz Oct 2023

Community Complexity Of A Pollination Network: Analysis Of Plant-Pollinator Interactions In The Eastern Ecuadorian Cloud Forest, Anisa López-Ruiz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Global declines in pollinators and temporal/spatial mismatches between plants and pollinators threaten the integrity of plant-pollinator networks. Ecological network analysis provides a powerful framework for understanding the dynamics of plant-pollinator networks and measures of community complexity that can help inform areas of priority in conservation. This study observed a plant-pollinator network in a secondary forest close to the Río Zuñac Reserve in the eastern Ecuadorian cloud forest to identify assemblages of plants and pollinators and evaluate measures of community complexity, including specialization and nestedness. Flowering plants were identified and observed along a 1.2 km transect, and floral visitors to these …


Mathematics Of Population-Genetics Model For Assessing The Impacts Of Insecticide Resistance And Temperature On Population Abundance Of Malaria Mosquitoes, Jemal Mohammed-Awel May 2023

Mathematics Of Population-Genetics Model For Assessing The Impacts Of Insecticide Resistance And Temperature On Population Abundance Of Malaria Mosquitoes, Jemal Mohammed-Awel

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Determining The Impact Of Post-Harvest Water Management On Chironomid Abundance, Agrochemical Biomass And Potential Trophic Biomagnification, Mason Thomas May 2023

Determining The Impact Of Post-Harvest Water Management On Chironomid Abundance, Agrochemical Biomass And Potential Trophic Biomagnification, Mason Thomas

Theses and Dissertations

Agriculture has diminished shorebirds’ natural habitat in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Remaining natural stopover sites are supplemented with agricultural fields during the fall and winter. This study evaluates the impact of 4 different post-harvest water management strategies on shorebird food abundance and potential agrochemical biomagnification. Chironomid samples estimated abundance, biomass, and chironomid agrochemical concentration in each field. A risk assessment of agrochemical biomagnification to shorebirds was made across all treatments. Of treatments represented on all study sites, winter treatment had greatest chironomid abundance and biomass. Models indicated that days since flood initiation, start date, and temperature are significant predictors of …


The Effects Of Habitat Isolation On Fine-Scale Genetic And Geographic Structure Of Populations Of Two Threatened Endemic Insects In Southern Nevada, Pseudocotalpa Giulianii And Icaricia Shasta Charlestonensis, Kristen Tovar May 2023

The Effects Of Habitat Isolation On Fine-Scale Genetic And Geographic Structure Of Populations Of Two Threatened Endemic Insects In Southern Nevada, Pseudocotalpa Giulianii And Icaricia Shasta Charlestonensis, Kristen Tovar

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Assessing the role geographic isolation and ecological specialization have on phylogeographic patterns contributes to our understanding of the evolutionary history of a species and the processes that erode genetic diversity. I used mitochondrial and nuclear genomic sequences to assess whether habitat isolation has shaped the fine-scale patterns of present-day genetic structure and diversity in two threatened insect species endemic to southern Nevada. Pseudocotalpa giulianii (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) is a dune obligate scarab beetle endemic to only two small, isolated sand dunes in Nye County, Nevada, with a usable habitat of less than 4.2 km sq that is impacted by on-going degradation. …


The Bellarmine Bee Bed: Organizing A Native Plant Garden Using Feedback From The Local Community, Kate Moran Apr 2023

The Bellarmine Bee Bed: Organizing A Native Plant Garden Using Feedback From The Local Community, Kate Moran

Undergraduate Theses

Animal pollinators are the cornerstone of healthy ecosystems. Their survival is essential for the persistence of entire food chains: from the flowers they cross-pollinate directly, to the animals who depend on those plants for nutrition. The establishment of pollinator gardens—particularly ones that consist of native plants—is an effective way to enhance their biodiversity, abundance, and well-being.

The main goal of this thesis is to construct a pollinator garden that maximizes the benefits for animal pollinators using feedback from local gardeners. A survey was used to gather information about the popularity and preferences of 40 flowering plants, and after analyzing the …


Lethal And Sublethal Effects Of Beauveria Bassiana On Maine Ticks Across Soil Ph, Alexander Mahar Apr 2023

Lethal And Sublethal Effects Of Beauveria Bassiana On Maine Ticks Across Soil Ph, Alexander Mahar

Honors College

Ticks are obligate parasite arthropods that are becoming increasingly common in northern regions of the United States. Ticks such as the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) are vectors for pathogens that cause a wide range of diseases, and as these ticks increase their exposure to humans, the diseases they transmit become more prevalent. This upward trend in cases of tick-borne illnesses has necessitated the pursuit of tick control methods that can be used across the diverse environments that are present in tick habitat ranges. One such control method is the fungal biological control, Beauveria …


Assessing Functional Biodiversity For The Future Of Plants, Planet, And People, Ali Loker Mar 2023

Assessing Functional Biodiversity For The Future Of Plants, Planet, And People, Ali Loker

Doctor of Plant Health Program: Dissertations and Student Research

Biodiversity plays a critical role in supporting life in global ecosystems and its links to ecosystem services and sustainability are recognized by scientific and non-scientific communities. Growing awareness of the importance of biodiversity is accelerated by discussions of its loss, and how to design interventions to conserve and mitigate a biodiversity crisis. Stakeholders are funding and implementing assessment strategies at various scales to help direct conservation efforts. There is also growing interest in measuring and communicating biodiversity outcomes.

Functional biodiversity characterizes the multiplicity of life forms into groups based on their diverse contributions to natural and agro-ecosystems. Assessing functional biodiversity …


Rainbow Beach Sediment Grain Size Analysis, Northampton, Massachusetts, Brian Yellen Jan 2023

Rainbow Beach Sediment Grain Size Analysis, Northampton, Massachusetts, Brian Yellen

Data and Datasets

This dataset was prepared by Brian Yellen, a research assistant professor in the Department of Earth, Geographic, and Climate Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Dr. Yellen worked in conjunction with Melissa Grader of the USFWS and colleagues to conduct the associated field sampling.

This report provides information related to the substrate grain size at surveyed locations on Rainbow Beach on the Connecticut River in Northampton, MA (42.322125, -72.584928). This location is a known breeding site of the endangered puritan tiger beetle (PTB), Ellipsoptera puritana.


Evaluating Benthic Macroinvertebrate Populations In Response To Scouring Events In The Trinity River, Ca, Liam Hay, Michael W. O'Neil, Chloe Pieper-Wasem Jan 2023

Evaluating Benthic Macroinvertebrate Populations In Response To Scouring Events In The Trinity River, Ca, Liam Hay, Michael W. O'Neil, Chloe Pieper-Wasem

Environmental Science & Management Senior Capstones

River systems across California have been impacted by appurtenant structures such as dams and diversions. These structures have had an adverse impact on Benthic invertebrate (BMI) communities by regulating river systems and changing the natural hydraulic pulses that follow seasonal precipitation. Benthic invertebrates are a critical food resource for salmonids and serve as an indicator of ecosystem health. Our study was interested in seeing the effects of scouring events on BMI in the Trinity River of Trinity County, C.A. Following a large precipitation event that occurred in the region in December 2022, an influx of water entered the river through …


Photonic Monitoring Of Atmospheric Fauna, Adrien P. Genoud Dec 2022

Photonic Monitoring Of Atmospheric Fauna, Adrien P. Genoud

Dissertations

Insects play a quintessential role in the Earth’s ecosystems and their recent decline in abundance and diversity is alarming. Monitoring their population is paramount to understand the causes of their decline, as well as to guide and evaluate the efficiency of conservation policies. Monitoring populations of flying insects is generally done using physical traps, but this method requires long and expensive laboratory analysis where each insect must be identified by qualified personnel. Lack of reliable data on insect populations is now considered a significant issue in the field of entomology, often referred to as a “data crisis” in the field. …


Incorporating Native Plants In Insectary Strips To Promote Insect Diversity And Below-Ground Beneficial Microbes In South Texas, Lindsey N. Richards Dec 2022

Incorporating Native Plants In Insectary Strips To Promote Insect Diversity And Below-Ground Beneficial Microbes In South Texas, Lindsey N. Richards

Theses and Dissertations

Farm edges are generally the most undisturbed areas in a farm with diverse vegetation and can enhance agrobiodiversity and provide crucial food and shelter for wildlife, insects, and soil biota. Planting native wildflowers with the ability to reseed and withstand local climatic conditions for semi-permanent vegetation around farm edges or in between crops has potential to biologically control pests. To test this, we ran a two-year study and installed three different flowering insectary strips on a certified organic vegetable farm in South Texas during the winter season. The treatments were: 1) a commercially sourced 17-species native wildflower seed mix; 2) …


Review Of Structural Color In The Genus Chrysochroa Dejean, 1833 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), Able Chow Nov 2022

Review Of Structural Color In The Genus Chrysochroa Dejean, 1833 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), Able Chow

LSU Master's Theses

The jewel beetles, (Coleoptera: Buprestidae Leach, 1815), is the eighth most speciose coleopteran family, with the majority of its members possessing diverse bright, saturated structural coloration of multilayer origin. This study focuses on the genus Chrysochroa Dejean, 1833, which includes some of the most brilliantly and charismatically colored buprestid species. While members of Chrysochroa are prised by entomologists amateurs and professional and are well-represented in museum collections, the evolution and ecology of their structural color remain underexplored. Twenty-eight select taxa including exemplars from all 13 subgenera of Chrysochroa were investigated to provide an overview of the objective optical properties and …


Trophish: Building A Global Database Of Freshwater Trophic Interactions, Jacob M. Ridgway May 2022

Trophish: Building A Global Database Of Freshwater Trophic Interactions, Jacob M. Ridgway

Honors Thesis

Freshwater management and research frequently use the trophic data of freshwater fishes. Despite this fact, it is difficult to perform a simple search of dietary information for any one fish species. FishBase represents, to our knowledge, the largest compilation of freshwater dietary information to date. However, it excludes a large portion of the ecological literature due to its development taking place prior to the creation of most modern scientific search engines. Our project (TroPhish) is building upon FishBase by digitizing approximately 130 years of data from the fish predation literature. Data from the primary and grey (e.g. theses, dissertations, reports) …


Topological Data Analysis And Ant Interaction Networks, Adam Banatwala, Esther Rønn Apr 2022

Topological Data Analysis And Ant Interaction Networks, Adam Banatwala, Esther Rønn

Mathematics & Computer Science Student Scholarship

Adam Banatwala ’22, Majors: Mathematics and Finance
Esther Rønn ’23, Majors: Physics and Mathematics
Faculty Mentor: Dr. Laura Murray, Mathematics and Computer Science

Our research group used topological data analysis (TDA) to quantify the movement and behavior of ants in a colony.

We extracted higher dimensional networks from point cloud data collected from Dr. James Waters’ lab. Varying the proximity parameter in this construction gives a sequence of networks. We analyzed the enduring topological features of these networks, and how these features evolve over time as the ants move in the colony. Both the experimental and null model simulation data …


Population Ecology Of A Caribbean Epiphyte Trichocentrum Undulatum (Orchidaceae): Defining Habitat And The Effects Of Herbivory And Hurricanes At Its Peripheral And Core Range, Haydee Borrero Jan 2022

Population Ecology Of A Caribbean Epiphyte Trichocentrum Undulatum (Orchidaceae): Defining Habitat And The Effects Of Herbivory And Hurricanes At Its Peripheral And Core Range, Haydee Borrero

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Population ecology studies are central to species conservation. My dissertation focused on the Florida state-listed endangered orchid, Trichocentrum undulatum at its northern-most range in the Everglades National Park (ENP), Florida and multiple populations throughout its core range in Cuba. Through surveying populations of T. undulatum across this range from 2013-2021, I made a new reporting on the occurrence of a specialized insect herbivore, Melanagromyza miamensis in Cuba (Chapter 1). This flower-crippling herbivore was previously known only in the ENP. With this discovery I assess the intensity and impacts of this herbivore, as well as others on T. undulatum across the …


Gene Silencing Provides Insights Into Bark Beetle Biology And Creates Potential For Broad Scale Forest Protection, Beth R. Kyre Jan 2022

Gene Silencing Provides Insights Into Bark Beetle Biology And Creates Potential For Broad Scale Forest Protection, Beth R. Kyre

Theses and Dissertations--Entomology

Dendroctonus bark beetles are among the most economically and ecologically significant forest pests in North America and play a critical role in the overall health of conifer forest ecosystems. Dendroctonus bark beetles influence ecosystem benefits and biodiversity and drive forest succession, and adversely affect timber production, forest management, and recreation. As temperatures surge and climatic fluctuations become more extreme, catastrophic bark beetle outbreaks are increasing in frequency, escalating pressures on highly vulnerable conifer forests already compromised by heat and drought. Eruptive outbreaks of Dendroctonus beetles are largely unhindered by traditional silvicultural management; these practices further disrupt forest ecosystem services, including …


Decomposition And Macroinvertebrate Shredder Colonization Of Autumnal Shed Sycamore Leaves In Mining-Contaminated Streams, Leslie Marie Hatch Jan 2022

Decomposition And Macroinvertebrate Shredder Colonization Of Autumnal Shed Sycamore Leaves In Mining-Contaminated Streams, Leslie Marie Hatch

MSU Graduate Theses

Leaf decomposition in streams is an important ecological function facilitated by bacteria, fungi, and macroinvertebrates. Metal contamination can decrease leaf decomposition rates and reduce macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity. In the current study, I focused on mining-contamination in well-buffered streams in two different Missouri mining districts with varying extents of mining contamination, Big River and Pierson Creek. I measured decomposition rates of sycamore leaves, and abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrate shredders in leaf pack experiments with a full-factorial design to determine the effects of metal contamination of leaves and stream substrates. Comparisons were made between leaf packs upstream and downstream of …


Artificial Intelligence System For Automatic Imaging, Quantification, And Identification Of Arthropods In Leaf Litter And Pitfall Samples, Pierce Helton, Khoa Luu, Ashley Dowling Jan 2022

Artificial Intelligence System For Automatic Imaging, Quantification, And Identification Of Arthropods In Leaf Litter And Pitfall Samples, Pierce Helton, Khoa Luu, Ashley Dowling

Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal

It is well known that arthropods are the most diverse and abundant eukaryotic organisms on the planet. Museum and research collections have huge insect accumulations from expeditions conducted over history that contain specimens of both temporal and spatial value, including hundreds of thousands of species. This biodiversity data is inaccessible to the research community, resulting in a vast amount of “dark data”. The primary objective of this study is to develop an artificial intelligence-driven system for specimen identification that greatly minimizes the time and expertise required to identify specimens in atypical environments. Successful development will have profound impacts on both …


Regenerative Agriculture Effects On Invertebrate And Bird Communities And Insect-Provided Ecosystem Services, Alex Michels Jan 2022

Regenerative Agriculture Effects On Invertebrate And Bird Communities And Insect-Provided Ecosystem Services, Alex Michels

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Conventional agricultural practices can have unintended consequences on the environment and wildlife. Insects and birds are declining at rapid rates around the world, and the current conventional agricultural paradigm is a major driver through habitat loss and the intensification of production. Invertebrates in agroecosystems provide services to both farmers and the rest of society. Regenerative systems may promote the functioning of an agroecosystem by influencing invertebrate abundance, diversity, and ecosystem services and mitigate bird and insect declines through conservation practices that increase soil health, reduce disturbances, and increase biological diversity. Here I address knowledge gaps of the effects of regenerative …


American Burying Beetle, Plant Richness, And Soil Property Responses To Collapse Of Juniperus Virginiana Woodlands With Fire, Alison Ludwig Dec 2021

American Burying Beetle, Plant Richness, And Soil Property Responses To Collapse Of Juniperus Virginiana Woodlands With Fire, Alison Ludwig

Department of Agronomy and Horticulture: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Grasslands are declining in the Great Plains due to land use changes, woody plant encroachment, and loss of historic fire cycles. Prescribed burn associations have utilized prescribed fire to collapse invading woodlands and allow the restoration of grasslands. This fire is considered “extreme” because it is capable of changing the structure and function of an ecosystem. Our study site is the Loess Canyons Experimental Landscape, a long-term, ecoregion-scale experiment to apply prescribed fire across the region to restore grasslands. The Nebraska Natural Legacy Project established the Loess Canyons ecoregion as a Biologically-Unique Landscape in 2005 with the state’s wildlife action …


Biocontrol Of The Emerald Ash Borer: An Adapted Nicholson-Bailey Model, Michael Kerckhove, Shuheng Chen Nov 2021

Biocontrol Of The Emerald Ash Borer: An Adapted Nicholson-Bailey Model, Michael Kerckhove, Shuheng Chen

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Regional Expansion And Evaluation Of Potential Chemical Control For Invasive Apple Snails (Pomacea Maculata) In Southwest Louisiana, Julian M. Lucero Nov 2021

Regional Expansion And Evaluation Of Potential Chemical Control For Invasive Apple Snails (Pomacea Maculata) In Southwest Louisiana, Julian M. Lucero

LSU Master's Theses

The integration of monitoring and chemical control is an efficient strategy for managing invasive apple snails, Pomacea maculata, in the rice (Oryza sativa L.) and crawfish systems of southwest Louisiana. However, their current distribution, expansion rates, and susceptibility to chemical control methods in this area are not well known. This study evaluated the expansion of P. maculata in southwest Louisiana and assessed potential chemical control for P. maculata among toxicity assays using various application rates. The effects of potential chemical control were also assessed on a non-target species, the red swamp crawfish (Procambarus clarkii). P. maculata …


Getting Out Of A Sticky Situation: Differential Escape Of Spotted Lanternfly From Two Commonly-Used Trapping Techniques, Jennifer L. Chandler Nov 2021

Getting Out Of A Sticky Situation: Differential Escape Of Spotted Lanternfly From Two Commonly-Used Trapping Techniques, Jennifer L. Chandler

Sustainability Research & Practice Seminar Presentations

Professor Jen Chandler, Biology - Getting out of a Sticky Situation: Differential Escape of Spotted Lanternfly from Two Commonly-Used Trapping Techniques


Wildflower Pollen Quality In Roadside Habitats, With Particular Emphasis On Hedera Helix, Aoife Mcmullin, Paul Hamilton Sep 2021

Wildflower Pollen Quality In Roadside Habitats, With Particular Emphasis On Hedera Helix, Aoife Mcmullin, Paul Hamilton

SURE Journal: Science Undergraduate Research Experience Journal

The quality of air is of more significance today than ever before. Human population growth and pollutants emitted through fossil fuel consumption put pressures on air quality. It is widely acknowledged that atmospheric pollutants negatively impact human health; the same is also true for the health of wildlife and plants exposed to these pollutants (Brunekreef & Holgate, 2002; EEA, 2019; Schiavoni, et al., 2017). Pollen and seed formation of flowering plants have been affected when grown in areas of poor air quality (Azzazy, 2016; Sénéchal, et al., 2015). The purpose of this research was to assess pollen of …


Barcoding Us Ants: Ozarks Region - Research Highlight, Megan Woltz Aug 2021

Barcoding Us Ants: Ozarks Region - Research Highlight, Megan Woltz

The Confluence

Ants are species diverse, widespread, and critically important to their environments. For many ant species, we do not have clear data on their ranges. Barcoding US Ants is a citizen science project run by the DNA Learning Center at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory to collect and sequence DNA from ants from around the country (CSHL, 2020). The sequences are submitted to GenBank, the DNA sequence database (NIH 2020). We formed one of the Ozarks Region teams for the Barcoding US Ants project, contributing ants from riparian forests and grassy meadows in the St. Charles, MO area. We collected 8 ant …