Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

2019

Institution
Keyword
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 304

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Using Radio Telemetry To Evaluate Post‐Stocking Survival And Behavior Of Large Fingerling Walleye In Three Iowa, Usa Lakes, Michael J. Weber, Robert E. Weber, Emily E. Ball, Jonathan R. Meerbeek Dec 2019

Using Radio Telemetry To Evaluate Post‐Stocking Survival And Behavior Of Large Fingerling Walleye In Three Iowa, Usa Lakes, Michael J. Weber, Robert E. Weber, Emily E. Ball, Jonathan R. Meerbeek

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Stocking Walleye Sander vitreus is a common management tool to augment populations where natural reproduction is limited. Some hatcheries have progressively raised larger fingerling Walleye to improve post-stocking survival; however, little is known about large fingerling Walleye poststocking survival and behavior. Our objectives were to evaluate large fingerling Walleye (>200 mm TL) post-stocking daily apparent survival, depth use, dispersal, and home range size in three Iowa, USA lakes. Walleye (209-265 mm, n=15 per lake, 45 fish total) were implanted with radio tags, stocked 26-30 October 2017, and tracked until 30 May 2018. Cormack-Jolly-Seber recapture models estimated Walleye apparent survival ...


A Model For The Prediction Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Escherichia Coli Based On A Comparative Evaluation Of Fatty Acid Profiles, Randal S. Stahl, Bledar Bisha, Sebabrata Mahapatra, Jeffrey C. Chandler Dec 2019

A Model For The Prediction Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Escherichia Coli Based On A Comparative Evaluation Of Fatty Acid Profiles, Randal S. Stahl, Bledar Bisha, Sebabrata Mahapatra, Jeffrey C. Chandler

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Antimicrobial resistance is a threat to agricultural production and public health. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated predicting antimicrobial sensitive/resistant (S/R) phenotypes and host sources of Escherichia coli (n = 128) based on differential fatty acid abundance. Myristic (14:0), pentadecanoic acid (15:0), palmitic (16:0), elaidic (18:19) and steric acid (18:0) were significantly different (α = 0.05) using a two-way ANOVA for predicting nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, cefatoxime, and ceftazidime S/R phenotypes. Additionally, analyses of palmitoleic (16:1), palmitic acid (16:0), methyl palmitate (i-17:0), and cis-9,10-methyleneoctadecanoic acid (19:0Δ) showed these ...


Mojave Desert Ecosystem Recovery: Potency Of Biotic And Abiotic Restoration Methods In Low Elevation Plant Communities, Mary Amanda Balogh Dec 2019

Mojave Desert Ecosystem Recovery: Potency Of Biotic And Abiotic Restoration Methods In Low Elevation Plant Communities, Mary Amanda Balogh

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The historic and current state of land in the Mojave Desert, including land managed by the National Park Service with fundamental goals of natural resource conservation and preservation, been severely degraded by a variety of anthropogenic disturbances. Due to increasingly sporadic and unpredictable precipitation patterns, land managers struggle to implement restoration projects with high success rates and are resource-limited for post-treatment monitoring. In this study, I examined success rates of biotic (outplanting, seeding) and abiotic (soil manipulation, vertical mulch) restoration treatments on various disturbance types in the creosote-bursage (Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia dumosa), blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), and Joshua tree woodland (Yucca brevifolia ...


Landscape Scale: Inter- And Intraspecific Variation In Plant Interactions Along A Stress Gradient In The Sheep Range Of Nevada, Jordan Dowell Dec 2019

Landscape Scale: Inter- And Intraspecific Variation In Plant Interactions Along A Stress Gradient In The Sheep Range Of Nevada, Jordan Dowell

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Impending threats to shrubland ecosystems, posed by climate change, necessitate niche modeling efforts to project vegetation range shifts. However, efforts often remain unguided by individual-scale interspecific plant interactions. The stress gradient hypothesis posits that facilitation should increase in areas of high abiotic stress, only if the individuals are able to ameliorate the surrounding area via functional traits. The Sheep Range of Nevada was used to assess the role of functional traits as predictors of plant association. Larrea tridentata, Coleogyne ramosissima, and Artemisia nova were selected as shrubs with variable life history strategies and ranges in order to identify general patterns ...


Mojave Desert Plant Community Long-Term Response To Disturbance, Dominic M. Gentilcore Dec 2019

Mojave Desert Plant Community Long-Term Response To Disturbance, Dominic M. Gentilcore

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

All vegetation communities have been shaped by disturbances. This dissertation consists of three separate chapters: Blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) natural regeneration in the Great Basin-Mojave Desert Transition Zone on two fires, Long-term Response to Fire in Eastern Mojave Desert semi-arid shrubland communities, and an Annotated Checklist of Gold Butte National Monument in the Mojave-Colorado Plateau Transition Zone. The section on blackbrush natural regeneration was a long-term dataset from two fires in Basin and Range National Monument that burned in 2008 with monitoring events in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2018 and 2019. The monitoring documented some of the strongest post-fire regeneration for the ...


Pre-Juvenile Naked Goby (Gobiosoma Bosc) Age And Growth, Annamaria Deitz, Juliana Harding Dec 2019

Pre-Juvenile Naked Goby (Gobiosoma Bosc) Age And Growth, Annamaria Deitz, Juliana Harding

Honors Theses

Due to the abundance of larval naked gobies, Gobiosoma bosc, within the estuarine ichthyoplankton, it is important to understand their age and growth. Naked gobies are a largely distributed, both geographically and within an estuary, small, benthic fish species. There are 3 pairs of otoliths, calcium carbonate structures within the ear canal, that detect vibrations and record the age of the fish, both daily and annually. Using laboratory-reared gobies of a known age (Tremont et al. 2015), daily signatures on the sagittal otoliths were first validated to be daily, then a growth curve for the wild caught larvae was calculated ...


California Stream Condition Index (Csci) Score Analysis Of Streams Sampled From 1998 To 2017 In The San Francisco Bay Region, Jenna Rais Dec 2019

California Stream Condition Index (Csci) Score Analysis Of Streams Sampled From 1998 To 2017 In The San Francisco Bay Region, Jenna Rais

Master's Projects and Capstones

Human impacts to California’s streams have altered the state’s riparian and hydrological landscape. This is a critical issue with regard to natural resources, including ecosystem services such as water availability and water quality. Regulations have a limited amount of impact on the improvement of this landscape and can also become complicated by politics. Scientific advances have developed ways to quantify and describe the quality of streams, this includes the development of the California Stream Condition Index (CSCI) which is based on benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) population numbers and functions. This index allows scientists to not only score the quality ...


Reconstructing Energy Flow Through Modern And Historical Marine Communities: Insights From Amino Acid Isotope Analysis, Emma A. Elliott Smith Dec 2019

Reconstructing Energy Flow Through Modern And Historical Marine Communities: Insights From Amino Acid Isotope Analysis, Emma A. Elliott Smith

Biology ETDs

The fundamental currency of life is energy. Organisms need energy to grow, to survive and to reproduce. Understanding the acquisition of energy by consumers is thus a foundational aspect of biological research. This is especially important in the modern era, as impacts of ongoing anthropogenic effects will be mediated or amplified through food webs. Here, I explore how isotopic analysis of individual amino acids – a technique new to ecological studies – can be used to trace energy flow through animal communities in modern and ancient time periods. In particular, I focus on kelp forest food webs, which are nearshore marine ecosystems ...


Individual Based Model To Simulate The Evolution Of Insecticide Resistance, William B. Jamieson Dec 2019

Individual Based Model To Simulate The Evolution Of Insecticide Resistance, William B. Jamieson

Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research Papers in Mathematics

Insecticides play a critical role in agricultural productivity. However, insecticides impose selective pressures on insect populations, so the Darwinian principles of natural selection predict that resistance to the insecticide is likely to form in the insect populations. Insecticide resistance, in turn, severely reduces the utility of the insecticides being used. Thus there is a strong economic incentive to reduce the rate of resistance evolution. Moreover, resistance evolution represents an example of evolution under novel selective pressures, so its study contributes to the fundamental understanding of evolutionary theory.

Insecticide resistance often represents a complex interplay of multiple fitness trade-offs for individual ...


Seasonal Offshore/Inshore Migration Of Round Gobies, Erik Carlson Dec 2019

Seasonal Offshore/Inshore Migration Of Round Gobies, Erik Carlson

Theses and Dissertations

Since the invasion of round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) in Lake Michigan, they have become integrated into both the nearshore and offshore food webs. Round gobies can be found in shallower water (<20 m) during the summer, but they disappear from these depths in early fall. They have been collected, occasionally, offshore in depths greater than 70 m during fall and early spring. These observations and other anecdotal evidence indicate that round goby migrate offshore during the fall and return in the spring. To study this, a large remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was used to conduct video transects offshore at various depths. The offshore sampling showed that round gobies migrated away from nearshore habitat in early October and were almost exclusively found deeper than 20 m by November. The round gobies remained offshore (>30 m) until mid-May, when they began the return to nearshore habitat. The cues to start the offshore and return migrations were not the focus of this project, but the fall offshore migrations coincided with decreasing temperatures nearshore in the fall, and in spring, the offshore movement of the thermal bar. The offshore migration in fall provide an increase in forage opportunity for deep, cold-water predators such as lake ...


Mammal Species Inventory Using Various Trapping Methods In Zone 4 Of Billy Barquedier National Park, Belize During Rainy Season, Mersady Redding Dec 2019

Mammal Species Inventory Using Various Trapping Methods In Zone 4 Of Billy Barquedier National Park, Belize During Rainy Season, Mersady Redding

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Belize is a small country, but it is extremely ecologically diverse. Based on the few studies conducted in Belize, the abundance of mammals is low but diversity is high. Particular findings note the number and identity of species differed between four sites in the Maya Mountains of Belize, indicating that a data set from a single site is not representative of the Neotropical region. Insufficient data is available to estimate current species richness of many areas in Belize, including Billy Barquedier National Park (BBNP). The objective of this study was to explore trapping and documentation methods of terrestrial mammals in ...


Final Thoughts As Editor-In-Chief, Christopher N. Jacques Dec 2019

Final Thoughts As Editor-In-Chief, Christopher N. Jacques

The Prairie Naturalist

Greetings GPNSS members! I write this editorial during a time of reflection as Editor-in-Chief of The Prairie Naturalist (TPN), and during unprecedented times as the global COVID-19 pandemic continues. In full disclosure, I do not have a particular topic for this editorial, other than to offer a few final thoughts as my time serving the Great Plains Natural Science Society and TPN.


Bats Of The Loess Hills Ecoregion Of Southeast Nebraska, Virgil Brack Jr, Dale W. Sparks, Darwin C. Brack Dec 2019

Bats Of The Loess Hills Ecoregion Of Southeast Nebraska, Virgil Brack Jr, Dale W. Sparks, Darwin C. Brack

The Prairie Naturalist

We surveyed bats at 49 sites in the Loess Hills Ecoregion of southeastern Nebraska, along the western edge of the eastern forest biome in eastern Richardson, Nemaha, and Otoe counties. We completed this study shortly before the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) was listed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service under the Endangered Species Act. The expectation of listing, along with potential presence of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), motivated the study. We captured 183 bats of five species: eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) (n = 103; 56 %), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) (n = 47; 26 %), evening bat ...


Review Of Sky Dance Of The Woodcock: The Habits And Habitats Of A Strange Little Bird, By Greg Hoch, David E. Andersen Dec 2019

Review Of Sky Dance Of The Woodcock: The Habits And Habitats Of A Strange Little Bird, By Greg Hoch, David E. Andersen

The Prairie Naturalist

American Woodcock (Scolopax minor) have enthralled conservationists (including Aldo Leopold), bird watchers, wildlife enthusiasts, hunters, and others interested in the natural world for centuries. No doubt, woodcock also have enthralled humans in North America for millennia prior to written descriptions of the woodcock’s courtship displays, habitat preferences, and curious behavior and anatomy. As perhaps the most extensively studied species of shorebird in the world, there is a rich and extensive literature, both scientific and popular, focused on woodcock ecology, behavior, and hunting. To that extensive body of literature, Sky Dance of the Woodcock provides an updated summary of their ...


Serological Survey And Pathogen Exposure Of Adult Female White-Tailed Deer In The Western Dakotas, Katherine L. Moratz, Bailey S. Gullikson, Eric S. Michel, Daniel M. Grove, Jonathan A. Jenks, William Jensen Dec 2019

Serological Survey And Pathogen Exposure Of Adult Female White-Tailed Deer In The Western Dakotas, Katherine L. Moratz, Bailey S. Gullikson, Eric S. Michel, Daniel M. Grove, Jonathan A. Jenks, William Jensen

The Prairie Naturalist

Establishing baseline values for pathogen exposure and nutritional indices is necessary to monitor population health. However, little is known about white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) pathogen exposure and nutritional condition in the Northern Great Plains. Our objective was to assess pathogen exposure and establish nutritional indices for female white-tailed deer in Dunn and Grant counties, North Dakota and Perkins County, South Dakota. During 2014, we collected blood serum from 150 adult female white-tailed deer. Pathogens with the highest antibody prevalence included West Nile Virus (WNV; 85%), epizootic hemorrhagic disease (48%), and malignant catarrhal fever (32%). Serum values for creatine kinase, globulin ...


Factors Limiting Reintroduced Plains Topminnow, Fundulus Sciadicus, Populations In Central Great Plains Streams, Joseph Thiessen, Keith D. Koupal, Casey W. Schoenebeck Dec 2019

Factors Limiting Reintroduced Plains Topminnow, Fundulus Sciadicus, Populations In Central Great Plains Streams, Joseph Thiessen, Keith D. Koupal, Casey W. Schoenebeck

The Prairie Naturalist

The plains topminnow (Fundulus sciadicus) is an endemic Great Plains stream fish that has experienced declines in geographic range and local abundance. Due to these declines, the species has been considered for federal protection and designated with conservation status in states throughout its historic range. The reasons for declines are likely similar to hypothesized factors for other endemic stream fish declines in the Great Plains. To investigate potential limiting factors a suite of 17 historic sites with reintroduced plains topminnow populations across Nebraska were evaluated for current populations and if plains topminnow were absent, additional fish were introduced. These sites ...


Recent Observations Of Water Shrews In Northeastern South Dakota, Dennis Skadsen, Robert M. Timm Dec 2019

Recent Observations Of Water Shrews In Northeastern South Dakota, Dennis Skadsen, Robert M. Timm

The Prairie Naturalist

North American water shrews in the genus Sorex are a complex of at least five species, three of which were recognized historically, Sorex alasksans, S. bendirii, and S. palustris (Hall 1981). Within what was previously considered the single, widespread northern species, S. palustris, two additional species are now recognized, S. albibarbis in the eastern US and Canada and S. navigator in the western United States and Canada (Hope et al. 2014; Nagorsen et al. 2017; Woodman 2018). The American water shrew (Sorex palustris) originally was documented in South Dakota by three females, two were collected 1876 and one in 1878 ...


Review Of Grasslands And Climate Change By David J. Gibson And Jonathan A. Newman, Neal D. Noemuth Dec 2019

Review Of Grasslands And Climate Change By David J. Gibson And Jonathan A. Newman, Neal D. Noemuth

The Prairie Naturalist

The last decade has seen an explosion of information about climate change, some of which is contradictory, much of which is confusing, and the entirety of which is too much for the typical biologist or scientist to assemble and comprehend. This is why reviews such as Grasslands and Climate Change, edited by David Gibson and Jonathan Newman, are so valuable. To produce this review of climate change issues and influences relative to grasslands, Gibson and Newman recruited 30 scientists—predominantly from Europe and North America—who wrote 19 chapters dealing with various aspects of grasslands and climate change. The chapters ...


The Prairie Naturalist, Vol. 51, Issue 2, December 2019 Dec 2019

The Prairie Naturalist, Vol. 51, Issue 2, December 2019

The Prairie Naturalist

45 EDITOR’S NOTE: Final Thoughts as Editor-in-Chief, by Christopher N. Jacques

RESEARCH ARTICLES

47 Bats of the Loess Hills Ecoregion of Southeast Nebraska, by Virgil Brack, Jr., Dale W. Sparks, and Darwin C. Brack

58 Serological Survey and Pathogen Exposure of Adult Female White-tailed Deer in the Western Dakotas, by Katherine L. Moratz, Bailey S. Gullikson, Eric S. Michel, Daniel M. Grove, Jonathan A. Jenks, and William F. Jensen

68 Factors Limting Reintroduced Plains Topminnow, Fundulus sciadicus, Populations in Central Great Plains Streams, by Joseph D. Thiessen, Keith D. Koupal, and Casey W. Schoenebeck

NOTES

77 Recent Observations of ...


Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus Collaris) Population Declines In Ozark Landscapes: An Assessment Of Environmental Constraints., Casey L. Brewster Dec 2019

Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus Collaris) Population Declines In Ozark Landscapes: An Assessment Of Environmental Constraints., Casey L. Brewster

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus collaris) has experienced extensive population declines over the past half century in the Ozark Mountains. Previous research suggests that glade habitat degradation through woody vegetation encroachment is an important factor resulting in population declines. In this dissertation I used information on time-energy budgets to investigate the link between habitat degradation and shifts in life history traits likely resulting in population declines of Eastern Collared Lizards (Crotaphytus collaris) in the Ozarks. In chapter one, I addressed the influence of dense woody vegetation encroachment on age-specific growth, body size, body condition and reproduction of C. collaris in ...


Observable Persistent Effects Of Habitat Management Efforts In The Ozark Highlands After 10 Years, Maxwell Carnes-Mason Dec 2019

Observable Persistent Effects Of Habitat Management Efforts In The Ozark Highlands After 10 Years, Maxwell Carnes-Mason

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

I investigated the lasting impacts of a management plan designed to improve oak regeneration and benefit wildlife in the Ozark Highlands in Madison, Co., AR. To assess the efficacy of the management plan, I used variables relevant to the success and establishment of oak trees. Controlled burns and selective logging were used to thin the canopy, increase ground level productivity, and increase the abundance of small mammals. I used measurements of overstory and understory densities, light availability, and the density of mice in the genus Peromyscus across time to look at the lasting impacts of management. Different treatment plots were ...


Use Of Uav Imagery And Nutrient Analyses For Estimation Of The Spatial And Temporal Contributions Of Cattle Dung To Nutrient Cycling In Grazed Ecosystems, Amanda Shine Dec 2019

Use Of Uav Imagery And Nutrient Analyses For Estimation Of The Spatial And Temporal Contributions Of Cattle Dung To Nutrient Cycling In Grazed Ecosystems, Amanda Shine

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Nutrient inputs from cattle dung are crucial drivers of nutrient cycling processes in grazed ecosystems. These inputs are important both spatially and temporally and are affected by variables such as grazing strategy, water location, and the nutritional profile of forage being grazed. Past research has attempted to map dung deposition patterns in order to more accurately estimate nutrient input, but the large spatial extent of a typical pasture and the tedious nature of identifying and mapping individual dung pats has prohibited the development of a time- and cost-effective methodology. The first objective of this research was to develop and validate ...


Effects Of Water Table Depth And Edaphic Characteristics On Plant Diversity In A Southern Mississippi Pitcher Plant Bog, Patrick Kirby Dec 2019

Effects Of Water Table Depth And Edaphic Characteristics On Plant Diversity In A Southern Mississippi Pitcher Plant Bog, Patrick Kirby

Master's Theses

This study examined the effects that water table depth and soil characteristics have on plant species richness and species composition within pitcher plant bogs across seasons. Eight piezometers were installed at random distances to monitor long-term water table depth and pressure fluctuations along a ~710-meter line transect traversing upland and bog habitats. Vegetation sampling quadrats (n=128) were set up near each piezometer. Cover data and water table depths were collected in spring and late summer. Soil samples collected from each treatment group were used to obtain soil texture and nutrient data. The summer collection period yielded a total gdiversity ...


Long-Term Data Suggest Potential Interactions Of Introduced Walleye And Smallmouth Bass On Native Sauger In Four Missouri River Impoundments, Mark J. Fincel, Nicholas B. Kludt, Hilary A. Meyer, Michael Weber, Christopher M. Longhenry Dec 2019

Long-Term Data Suggest Potential Interactions Of Introduced Walleye And Smallmouth Bass On Native Sauger In Four Missouri River Impoundments, Mark J. Fincel, Nicholas B. Kludt, Hilary A. Meyer, Michael Weber, Christopher M. Longhenry

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Sauger Sander canadensis, Walleye Sander vitreus, and Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu, are important sportfish in the four main stem Missouri River reservoirs in South Dakota: Lakes Oahe, Sharpe, Francis Case, and Lewis and Clark. However, native Sauger populations, once assumed to be stable, may be in decline. To identify temporal trends and potential interspecific mechanisms affecting Sauger populations, we examined their long-term abundance trends in standard gillnet surveys and angler catch and harvest trends in long-term creel surveys. We also used a robust design occupancy model to examine changes in within-lake distribution of this species. There are concerns regarding the ...


A Conservation Palaeobiological Perspective On Chesapeake Bay Oysters, Rowan Lockwood, Roger L. Mann Dec 2019

A Conservation Palaeobiological Perspective On Chesapeake Bay Oysters, Rowan Lockwood, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

The eastern oyster plays a vital role in estuarine habitats, acting as an ecosystem engineer and improving water quality. Populations of Chesapeake Bay oysters have declined precipitously in recent decades. The fossil record, which preserves 500 000 years of once-thriving reefs, provides a unique opportunity to study pristine reefs to establish a possible baseline for mitigation. For this study, over 900 fossil oysters were examined from three Pleistocene localities in the Chesapeake region. Data on oyster shell lengths, lifespans and population density were assessed. Comparisons to modern Crassostrea virginica, sampled from monitoring surveys of similar environments, reveal that fossil oysters ...


Assessing & Protecting Dark Night Skies In El Morro National Monument, Leslie Kobinsky Dec 2019

Assessing & Protecting Dark Night Skies In El Morro National Monument, Leslie Kobinsky

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Light pollution is causing the disappearance of dark night skies around the world. In the United States alone, 1/3 of people are unable to see the Milky Way where they live (Ramlagan, 2016). National Park Service sites contain some of the darkest skies in the country. Here at El Morro National Monument, these dark skies are a beautiful and healthy benefit to people in the local community and visitors traveling from afar. El Morro’s current park legislation does not include specific measures of protection for the night sky. This capstone project will create a baseline data set of ...


Male Burmese Pythons Follow Female Scent Trails And Show Sex-Specific Behaviors, Shannon A. Richard, Eric A. Tillman, John S. Humphrey, Michael L. Avery, M. Rockwell Parker Nov 2019

Male Burmese Pythons Follow Female Scent Trails And Show Sex-Specific Behaviors, Shannon A. Richard, Eric A. Tillman, John S. Humphrey, Michael L. Avery, M. Rockwell Parker

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Animals communicate with potential mates using species-specific signals, and pheromones are powerful sexual signals that modify conspecific behavior to facilitate mate location. Among the vertebrates, snakes are especially adept in mate searching via chemical trailing, which is particularly relevant given that many snake species are invasive outside their native ranges. Chemical signals used in mate choice are, thus, potentially valuable tools for management of invasive snake species. The Burmese python (Python bivittatus) is an invasive snake in the Florida Everglades where it is negatively impacting native fauna. In this study, we sought to: (i) determine if males can follow conspecific ...


Multipurpose Oxbows As A Nitrate Export Reduction Practice In The Agricultural Midwest, Keith E. Schilling, Karen Wilke, Clay L. Pierce, Keegan Kult, Aleshia Kenny Nov 2019

Multipurpose Oxbows As A Nitrate Export Reduction Practice In The Agricultural Midwest, Keith E. Schilling, Karen Wilke, Clay L. Pierce, Keegan Kult, Aleshia Kenny

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Nutrient export from the agricultural US Midwest influences streams and rivers and contributes to the development of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Oxbows are natural waterbodies formed when a river cuts off a meander loop as it migrates within its floodplain. Creation of multipurpose oxbows by restoration of former oxbows can potentially reduce export of nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) from agricultural land as well as provide important habitat for many species, including the endangered Topeka shiner. Recent studies of nitrate export reduction by oxbows in Iowa are encouraging, demonstrating a 45% reduction in nitrate export of water entering oxbows from subsurface ...


Variation In Host Home Range Size Decreases Rabies Vaccination Effectiveness By Increasing The Spatial Spread Of Rabies Virus, Katherine M. Mcclure, Amy T. Gilbert, Richard B. Chipman, Erin E. Rees, Kim M. Pepin Nov 2019

Variation In Host Home Range Size Decreases Rabies Vaccination Effectiveness By Increasing The Spatial Spread Of Rabies Virus, Katherine M. Mcclure, Amy T. Gilbert, Richard B. Chipman, Erin E. Rees, Kim M. Pepin

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

  1. Animal movement influences the spatial spread of directly transmitted wildlife disease through host-host contact structure. Wildlife disease hosts vary in home range- associated foraging and social behaviours, which may increase the spread and intensity of disease outbreaks. The consequences of variation in host home range movement and space use on wildlife disease dynamics are poorly understood, but could help to predict disease spread and determine more effective disease management strategies.
  2. We developed a spatially explicit individual-based model to examine the effect of spatiotemporal variation in host home range size on the spatial spread rate, persistence and incidence of rabies virus ...


Influence Of Largemouth Bass Behaviors, Angler Behaviors, And Environmental Conditions On Fishing Tournament Capture Success, Andrea Sylvia, Brandon Maahs, Michael J. Weber Nov 2019

Influence Of Largemouth Bass Behaviors, Angler Behaviors, And Environmental Conditions On Fishing Tournament Capture Success, Andrea Sylvia, Brandon Maahs, Michael J. Weber

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Tournament anglers typically possess extensive knowledge of the habitat and seasonal movement of their targeted species. While fish‐angler behavioral relationships are critical to understand fish catchability, few studies have assessed how fish behavior influences their vulnerability to capture by tournament anglers. Our objectives were to determine if Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides behavior, angler behavior, and environmental conditions affect tournament angler catch rate (CPUE) and bass capture probability at fishing tournaments. Forty‐nine bass were tracked weekly using radio telemetry during a four‐month period. Five tournament anglers were also selected at weekly tournament events and tracked continuously using a ...