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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

2003

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Articles 1 - 30 of 47

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Translocation Of Golden Perch, Murray Cod And Australian Bass, Into And Within Western Australia, For The Purposes Of Recreational Stocking, Domestic Stocking And Commercial And Non-Commercial Aquaculture. A Discussion Paper., Department Of Fisheries Dec 2003

The Translocation Of Golden Perch, Murray Cod And Australian Bass, Into And Within Western Australia, For The Purposes Of Recreational Stocking, Domestic Stocking And Commercial And Non-Commercial Aquaculture. A Discussion Paper., Department Of Fisheries

Fisheries management papers

This discussion paper has been prepared to provide information to assist in assessment of the possible impact of the translocation of golden perch (Macquaria ambigua), Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii) and Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) into and within Western Australia, for the purposes of recreational stocking, domestic stocking, commercial and non-commercial aquaculture. In assessing the translocation of any aquatic species, economic and social benefits must be balanced with biological and environmental risks.


Body Mass Of Late Quaternary Mammals (Data Set), Felisa A. Smith, S. Kathleen Lyons, S.K. Morgan Ernest, Kate E. Jones, Kansas State University, Tamar Dayan, Pablo A. Marquet, James H. Brown, John P. Haskell Dec 2003

Body Mass Of Late Quaternary Mammals (Data Set), Felisa A. Smith, S. Kathleen Lyons, S.K. Morgan Ernest, Kate E. Jones, Kansas State University, Tamar Dayan, Pablo A. Marquet, James H. Brown, John P. Haskell

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

The purpose of this data set was to compile body mass information for all mammals on Earth so that we could investigate the patterns of body mass seen across geographic and taxonomic space and evolutionary time. We were interested in the heritability of body size across taxonomic groups (How conserved is body mass within a genus, family, and order?), in the overall pattern of body mass across continents (Do the moments and other descriptive statistics remain the same across geographic space?), and over evolutionary time (How quickly did body mass patterns iterate on the patterns seen today? Were the Pleistocene ...


An Investigation Of The Cumulative Impacts Of Shrimp Trawling On Mud Bottom Fishing Grounds In The Gulf Of Maine: Effects On Habitat And Macrofaunal Community Structure, Anne W. Simpson Dec 2003

An Investigation Of The Cumulative Impacts Of Shrimp Trawling On Mud Bottom Fishing Grounds In The Gulf Of Maine: Effects On Habitat And Macrofaunal Community Structure, Anne W. Simpson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Despite the widespread occurrence of trawl fisheries on mud-bottoms, there is limited knowledge concerning the effects of trawling induced disturbance on these habitats and their resident macrofaunal communities. I investigated the cumulative impacts of seasonal commercial shrimp trawling on infaunal habitat and macrofaunal community structure on two mud-bottom fishing grounds in the Gulf of Maine from June 2000 - December 2001. One fishing ground located near the Outer Pumpkin Ledges (Pumpkin) experienced trawling activity during the 2000-2001 fishing season. In contrast, the other fishing ground near Monhegan Island was not trawled during the same period because shrimp abundances were low. Consequently ...


Chemical And Toxicological Characterization Of The Lower Mobjack Bay, York River, Virginia Segment Of The Chesapeake Bay, Morris H. Roberts Jr., Mark A. Richards, Peter F. Delisle Dec 2003

Chemical And Toxicological Characterization Of The Lower Mobjack Bay, York River, Virginia Segment Of The Chesapeake Bay, Morris H. Roberts Jr., Mark A. Richards, Peter F. Delisle

Reports

The Chesapeake Bay segment called Lower Mobjack Bay Lower York River Virginia was found to have insufficient data to characterize in 1999. Therefore this area was selected for a chemical, toxicological, benthic community characterization study of the sediments in 2002. The segment was divided into 3 strata: the lower York River, the Poquoson River, and Back River, each with 4 randomly selected stations. Samples were collected in October 2002 for evaluation of conditions.

There were few significant chemical exceedances of the ER-L or ER-M in the three strata and no toxicologically effects from exposure to sediment samples from any stratum ...


Habitat Use Of Sympatrically Nesting Fish Crows And American Crows, John Tanacredi Ph.D., Brook Lauro Nov 2003

Habitat Use Of Sympatrically Nesting Fish Crows And American Crows, John Tanacredi Ph.D., Brook Lauro

Faculty Works: CERCOM

We examined habitat use of sympatric Fish Crows (Corvus ossifragus) and American Crows (C. brachyrhynchos) nesting in the vicinity of waterbird breeding locations at the Rockaway Peninsula, New York City. Fish Crows nested significantly more often at natural habitats, including coastal dunes and salt marsh islands; American Crows nested significantly more often at residential and recreational areas. In regard to potential foraging areas, Fish Crows nested closer to waterbird colonies and to the water's edge while American Crows nested closer to a garbage source and to lawns. Fish Crows nested significantly more often in deciduous trees that were native ...


University Of Nebraska-Lincoln School Of Natural Resources Review: Final Report, December 2003, Michael O'Neill, Phaedra Budy, Stephen Degloria, Ed Kanemasu, Jamie Robertson, Derrel Martin, Anne K. Vidaver, Tylr Naprstek, Donna Woudenberg Nov 2003

University Of Nebraska-Lincoln School Of Natural Resources Review: Final Report, December 2003, Michael O'Neill, Phaedra Budy, Stephen Degloria, Ed Kanemasu, Jamie Robertson, Derrel Martin, Anne K. Vidaver, Tylr Naprstek, Donna Woudenberg

School of Natural Resources: Documents and Reviews

In July 2003, the School of Natural Resource Sciences was merged with the Conservation and Survey Division and the Water Center Nebraska State Survey. This merger produced the School of Natural Resources (hereafter referred to as the "School") in its current form. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln requested a ten-year review of the School's programs and activities. The review was administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES) in cooperation with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, the College of Agriculture, and the School.

The review document is divided into nine sections ...


Fall 2003, Nsu Oceanographic Center Oct 2003

Fall 2003, Nsu Oceanographic Center

Currents

No abstract provided.


Inventory Of The Land Conservation Values Of The Houtman Abrolhos Islands., Department Of Fisheries. Western Australia Oct 2003

Inventory Of The Land Conservation Values Of The Houtman Abrolhos Islands., Department Of Fisheries. Western Australia

Fisheries management papers

There is growing pressure for increased development on the Houtman Abrolhos Islands (Abrolhos Islands). Much work on the natural, historical and cultural values of the islands has been undertaken. This document is a review of this work, which provides an overview of the conservation values of the islands, and should prove useful in considering the selection, design and evaluation of proposed developments at the Abrolhos Islands. Based on existing information, the purpose of the Review of the Land Conservation Values of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands is to: • identify and map areas of conservation value (natural, historical and cultural); and • assess ...


Integrated Weed Management Plan For The Lower Las Vegas Wash, Elizabeth Bickmore Sep 2003

Integrated Weed Management Plan For The Lower Las Vegas Wash, Elizabeth Bickmore

Publications (WR)

The Las Vegas Wash (Wash) is the primary drainage for the metropolitan Las Vegas Valley, eventually finding its way into the Colorado River watershed system. Pursuant to the recommendations of the Water Quality Citizens Advisory Committee, the Las Vegas Wash Coordination Committee (LVWCC) was formed in 1998 to develop a comprehensive plan for the long-term stabilization and management of the Wash. Consisting of representatives from 28 government agencies, businesses, environmental groups and citizens, the LVWCC formulated the Las Vegas Wash Comprehensive Adaptive Management Plan (CAMP) and designated the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) as the lead agency for the implementation ...


Csrees School Of Natural Resources Comprehensive Five-Year Review Sep 2003

Csrees School Of Natural Resources Comprehensive Five-Year Review

School of Natural Resources: Documents and Reviews

No abstract provided.


Survey Methods For Assessing Land Cover Map Accuracy, Sarah M. Nusser, Erwin E. Klaas Sep 2003

Survey Methods For Assessing Land Cover Map Accuracy, Sarah M. Nusser, Erwin E. Klaas

Statistics Publications

The increasing availability of digital photographic materials has fueled efforts by agencies and organizations to generate land cover maps for states, regions, and the United States as a whole. Regardless of the information sources and classification methods used, land cover maps are subject to numerous sources of error. In order to understand the quality of the information contained in these maps, it is desirable to generate statistically valid estimates of accuracy rates describing misclassification errors. We explored a full sample survey framework for creating accuracy assessment study designs that balance statistical and operational considerations in relation to study objectives for ...


How Rapidly Can Maternal Behavior Affecting Primary Sex Ratio Evolve In A Reptile With Environmental Sex Determination?, Carrie L. Morjan Aug 2003

How Rapidly Can Maternal Behavior Affecting Primary Sex Ratio Evolve In A Reptile With Environmental Sex Determination?, Carrie L. Morjan

Zoology and Genetics Publications

Theoretical models identify maternal behavior as critical for the maintenance and evolution of sex ratios in organisms with environmental sex determination (ESD). Maternal choice of nest site is generally thought to respond more rapidly to sex ratio selection than environmental sensitivity of offspring sex (threshold temperatures) in reptiles with temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD, a form of ESD). However, knowledge of the evolutionary potential for either of these traits in a field setting is limited. I developed a simulation model using local climate data and observed levels of phenotypic variation for nest‐site choice and threshold temperatures in painted turtles ...


Summer 2003, Nsu Oceanographic Center Aug 2003

Summer 2003, Nsu Oceanographic Center

Currents

No abstract provided.


Draft Plan Of Management For The Proposed Point Quobba Fish Habitat Protection Area., Department Of Fisheries Aug 2003

Draft Plan Of Management For The Proposed Point Quobba Fish Habitat Protection Area., Department Of Fisheries

Fisheries management papers

Point Quobba is a popular site for locals and tourists for beach activities, fishing and snorkelling, and as a place for children to learn to swim and gain an awareness of the marine environment. The marine life and habitats of the area are of considerable scientific and recreational interest and are highly valued in the local community. However, they are at risk from their high level of use and from conflict between users due to their proximity to popular tourism, boat ramp, camping and settlement areas on-shore.


Hydroperiod Of Wetlands And Reproduction In Wood Frogs (Rana Sylvatica) And Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum), Mary Beth Kolozsvary Aug 2003

Hydroperiod Of Wetlands And Reproduction In Wood Frogs (Rana Sylvatica) And Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Maculatum), Mary Beth Kolozsvary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many amphibians rely on wetlands for reproduction and the differential distribution of amphibian species along a gradient of wetland permanence is striking, yet not absolute. Wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) are thought to rely on seasonal wetlands for greatest breeding success, but there is little documentation of their reliance on these or other habitats. In my first chapter, I studied these species in wetlands across a hydrologic gradient from seasonal wetlands of short flood duration to permanently flooded sites. My results indicate that wood frogs have greatest reproductive effort and success in seasonal wetlands of short ...


Resilience Of Green Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus Droebachiensis) Populations Following Fishing Mortality: Marine Protected Areas, Alternate Stable States, And Larval Ecology, John Vavrinec Iii Aug 2003

Resilience Of Green Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus Droebachiensis) Populations Following Fishing Mortality: Marine Protected Areas, Alternate Stable States, And Larval Ecology, John Vavrinec Iii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis has been aggressively fished in Maine since 1986 resulting in severe population declines throughout portions of the state. This research used Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to evaluate the potential for recovery in depleted sea urchin populations. It was necessary to not only look at the direct impacts of the MPAs, but also at larval transport / supply and community interactions to gain a better understanding of the system. We found that MPAs in the Gulf of ~a!ne were of varied utility to restoring depleted sea urchin populations depending on location and community structure. MPAs ...


Geographic Variation In The Morphology Of Crotalus Horridus (Serpentes: Viperidae), John Robert Allsteadt Jul 2003

Geographic Variation In The Morphology Of Crotalus Horridus (Serpentes: Viperidae), John Robert Allsteadt

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) occurs in discontinuous populations throughout the eastern and central United States. The species exhibits high levels of polymorphism in morphological traits, especially in coloration and pattern. Previous studies recognized either distinct northern and southern subspecies or three regional morphs (northern, southern, and western), but conflicting data sets and limited geographic sampling of previous studies have left the relationships among those regional variants unclear. In this study, univariate and multivariate statistics, together with a geographic information system, were used to analyze geographic variation in 36 morphological characters recorded from 2,420 specimens of C. horridus across ...


Travel Time Study At The Wetlands Park National Preserve, Brandon Bair May 2003

Travel Time Study At The Wetlands Park National Preserve, Brandon Bair

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This thesis reports on a study of the residence time of water in the Wetlands Park Nature Preserve in Henderson, Nevada. Rhodamine WT was used in order to test for the travel time of the water from the Monson Channel inflow to the Nature Preserve outflow to the Las Vegas Wash. The initial hypothesis was that the water would stay in the system for approximately 8 days. Residence time was tested using an ISCO sampling machine along with a Sequoia-Turner model 450 fluorimeter to test for the fluoresce of the dye in the water. All samples collected were taken immediately ...


The 100th Meridian Initiative In Nevada: Assessing The Westward Movement Of The Zebra Mussel To The Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Megan Mccoy May 2003

The 100th Meridian Initiative In Nevada: Assessing The Westward Movement Of The Zebra Mussel To The Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Megan Mccoy

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, are a concern for all bodies of water in North America. East of the 100th Meridian, zebra mussels have infested the waters and dramatically changed the natural ecosystems. The US Fish and Wildlife Services set up the 100th Meridian Initiative project to monitor the boat traffic to and from infested and non-infested waters of the United States and Canada. Surveys were conducted from October 19, 2002 through March 31, 2003, focusing specifically on the Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) for the scope of this thesis. This study addresses the movement of trailers, boats, and other ...


Determining The Factors That Control Respiration And Carbon Use Efficiency In Crop Plants, Jonathan M. Frantz May 2003

Determining The Factors That Control Respiration And Carbon Use Efficiency In Crop Plants, Jonathan M. Frantz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the literature on plant respiration, there are two viewpoints concerning the source of respiratory control: supply (photosynthate availability) or demand (temperature dependent) limitations. While different studies indicate the primary dependency for respiration is either the supply or demand side, the two paradigms cannot both be true. The relative importance of each paradigm may depend on a number of factors including period of time during which respiration is measured, phase of plant development, environmental conditions, and species.

Studies were performed using continuous CO2 gas-exchange instrumentation to monitor short- and long-term changes in whole canopies of lettuce, tomato, soybean, and ...


Breeding Bird Communities Of Major Mainland Rivers Of Southeastern Alaska, Jim A. Johnson May 2003

Breeding Bird Communities Of Major Mainland Rivers Of Southeastern Alaska, Jim A. Johnson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Because of the scarcity of information for bird communities at the major mainland rivers of southeastern Alaska, the main objective of this study was to provide baseline information including distribution, status, and habitat associations of breeding birds.

I conducted a meta-analysis of all known reports (including the current study) conducted at major mainland rivers during the breeding season. I described bird species composition, distribution, abundance estimates, status, habitat associations, and guild membership for all birds recorded at 11 major mainland rivers. Based on incidental observations, 170 species were recorded by all studies. Of these, 134 species were known or suspected ...


Spring 2003, Nsu Oceanographic Center Apr 2003

Spring 2003, Nsu Oceanographic Center

Currents

No abstract provided.


An Analysis Of Materials Suitable For Use As A Pitfall Trap In A Desert Environment, R. Renee Brown Apr 2003

An Analysis Of Materials Suitable For Use As A Pitfall Trap In A Desert Environment, R. Renee Brown

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study is to identify a type of pitfall trap container that can withstand the temperature extremes of the Mojave Desert in which the terrestrial, or above ground, drift fence with pitfall traps will be utilized for trapping reptiles. A pitfall trap is a container, such as a plastic bucket with a plastic lid, that is buried in the ground up to the lip of the bucket and used to catch small ground dwelling fauna that fall into the trap. Many different pitfall trap materials have been utilized in the trapping of small ground-dwelling fauna. Plastic has ...


A Watershed Analysis Of Threemile Pond: Implications For Water Quality And Land Use Management, Colby Environmental Assessment Team, Colby College, Problems In Environmental Science Course (Biology 493), Colby College Jan 2003

A Watershed Analysis Of Threemile Pond: Implications For Water Quality And Land Use Management, Colby Environmental Assessment Team, Colby College, Problems In Environmental Science Course (Biology 493), Colby College

Colby College Watershed Study: Threemile Pond (2003)

The 2003 Colby Environmental Assessment Team chose to study the Threemile Pond watershed. The Threemile Pond watershed is located in Vassalboro, China., Windsor, and Augusta, Maine. Threemile Pond is a popular site for recreation and is home to a wide range of flora and fauna. Like all other lakes in Maine, it is a young lake. However, intensive human activity in the watershed contributes a substantial amount of nutrients and the lake has algal blooms annually in the summer months. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of land use and development on the water quality of ...


Water Quality Characterization And Mathematical Modeling Of Dissolved Oxygen In The East And West Ponds, Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, John Tanacredi Ph.D., D Roy, Krishnanand Maillacheruvu Jan 2003

Water Quality Characterization And Mathematical Modeling Of Dissolved Oxygen In The East And West Ponds, Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge, John Tanacredi Ph.D., D Roy, Krishnanand Maillacheruvu

Faculty Works: CERCOM

The current study was undertaken to characterize the East and West Ponds and develop a mathematical model of the effects of nutrient and BOD loading on dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in these ponds. The model predicted that both ponds will recover adequately given the average expected range of nutrient and BOD loading due to waste from surface runoff and migratory birds. The predicted dissolved oxygen levels in both ponds were greater than 5.0 mg/L, and were supported by DO levels in the field which were typically above 5.0 mg/L during the period of this study. The ...


Linear And Nonlinear Effects Of Habitat Structure On Composition And Abundance In The Macroinvertebrate Community Of A Large River, Timothy W. Stewart, Tammy L. Shumaker, Thomas A. Radzio Jan 2003

Linear And Nonlinear Effects Of Habitat Structure On Composition And Abundance In The Macroinvertebrate Community Of A Large River, Timothy W. Stewart, Tammy L. Shumaker, Thomas A. Radzio

Timothy W. Stewart

We used an experiment and regression analyses to quantify effects of spatial variation in habitat structure abundance on a riverine macroinvertebrate community under winter conditions. Concrete slabs (0.21 m2; n 5 24) with different numbers of stones (mean individual stone surface area 5 6.44 cm2) attached to upper faces were placed in the James River and retrieved after 28 d. Macroinvertebrate abundance and taxonomic richness on slabs were significantly positively related to stone abundance. Total macroinvertebrate abundance and abundance of oligochaetes (Nais spp.), Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea), caddisflies (Leptoceridae), riffle beetles (Elmidae) and stoneflies (Strophopteryx sp.) were linearly ...


The Breathing Of The Biosphere, James W. Raich Jan 2003

The Breathing Of The Biosphere, James W. Raich

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Proceedings, Presentations and Posters

Life, all life, from single-celled bacteria to entire ecosystems, shares common features, the most fundamental of which is metabolism. Most life is driven by the energy of the sun, captured by photosynthesis within the chemical bonds of organic materials. Organisms, including you, consume these organic materials with oxygen, producing CO2 . Just as you breathe, so does the biosphere.


Bio-Optical Properties Of The Labrador Sea, Glenn F. Cota, W. Glen Harrison, Trevor Platt, Shubha Sathyendranath, Venetia Stuart Jan 2003

Bio-Optical Properties Of The Labrador Sea, Glenn F. Cota, W. Glen Harrison, Trevor Platt, Shubha Sathyendranath, Venetia Stuart

CCPO Publications

Three cruises were conducted during fall and spring in the Labrador Sea to investigate the effects of bio-optical properties on satellite retrievals of phytoplankton chlorophyll in this important high-latitude ecosystem. Taxon-specific and regional differences were found. Diatoms had similar to 1.5 lower chlorophyll-specific absorption but significantly higher reflectance ratios than prymnesiophytes. Particulate absorption at 443 nm for total, phytoplankton, and "detrital'' fractions was related to chlorophyll, but values were lower than reported for lower latitudes. Decreased particulate absorption is attributed primarily to pigment packaging, while low backscattering to scattering ratios result from a lower relative abundance of bacteria and ...


Spatial And Temporal Scales Of Distribution And Demography In Breeding Songbirds: Implications Of Habitat Fragmentation And Restoration , Robert J. Fletcher Jr. Jan 2003

Spatial And Temporal Scales Of Distribution And Demography In Breeding Songbirds: Implications Of Habitat Fragmentation And Restoration , Robert J. Fletcher Jr.

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Tallgrass prairie has declined throughout the midwestern United States during the past two centuries, and migratory birds breeding in these habitats have also experienced precipitous population declines. One conservation strategy used to mitigate the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation is habitat restoration. I studied how both habitat fragmentation and restoration affect songbird populations breeding in grassland and wetland habitats in northern Iowa, 1999--2002. Most grassland birds tended to be less abundant near edges, yet birds avoided woodland edges more so than other types of edges. Edge avoidance could not be explained by changes in habitat structure. For Bobolinks (Dolichonyx ...


A Creation Perspective On Economics, Ecology And Environment, Howard J. Fisher Jan 2003

A Creation Perspective On Economics, Ecology And Environment, Howard J. Fisher

Science and Mathematics Conference Papers

This paper discusses the creation perspective on economics, ecology and the environment and looks at the problems of species extinction, habitat destruction, land degradation, and pollution of the waters and the atmosphere.