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Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

1999

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Articles 1 - 26 of 26

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Reciprocal Transplantation Of The Desert Soil Crust: Can It Be Done?, Christina D. Cole Dec 1999

Reciprocal Transplantation Of The Desert Soil Crust: Can It Be Done?, Christina D. Cole

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

A 100 meter X 100 meter study site was chosen at White Rock Springs in Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, Nevada. To examine Syntrichia caninervis, a desert crustal moss, reciprocal transplantations (20 mm and 40 mm diameter cores) were performed between shaded to shaded, exposed to exposed, and shaded to exposed microsites to determine if it was possible to transplant the study organism with reasonable survivorship. Transplants were inspected following rain events for percent hydration, number of dead stems, and change in percent cover. Data indicated that there was a low mortality rate of S. caninervis stems, and few ...


Three-Dimensional Reconstructions Of Tadpole Chondrocrania From Histological Sections, Gary P. Radice, Mary Kate Boggiano, Mark Desantis, Peter M. Larson, Joseph Oppong, Matthew T. Smetanick, Todd M. Stevens, James Tripp, Rebecca A. Weber, Michael Kerckhove, Rafael O. De Sá Oct 1999

Three-Dimensional Reconstructions Of Tadpole Chondrocrania From Histological Sections, Gary P. Radice, Mary Kate Boggiano, Mark Desantis, Peter M. Larson, Joseph Oppong, Matthew T. Smetanick, Todd M. Stevens, James Tripp, Rebecca A. Weber, Michael Kerckhove, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Reconstructing three dimensional structures (3DR) from histological sections has always been difficult but is becoming more accessible with the assistance of digital imaging. We sought to assemble a low cost system using readily available hardware and software to generate 3DR for a study of tadpole chondrocrania. We found that a combination of RGB camera, stereomicroscope, and Apple Macintosh PowerPC computers running NIH Image, Object Image, Rotater. and SURFdriver software provided acceptable reconstructions. These are limited in quality primarily by the distortions arising from histological protocols rather than hardware or software.


Fall 1999, Nsu Oceanographic Center Oct 1999

Fall 1999, Nsu Oceanographic Center

Currents

No abstract provided.


Summer 1999, Nsu Oceanographic Center Aug 1999

Summer 1999, Nsu Oceanographic Center

Currents

No abstract provided.


The Translocation Of Barramundi. A Discussion Paper., Makaira Pty Ltd Jul 1999

The Translocation Of Barramundi. A Discussion Paper., Makaira Pty Ltd

Fisheries management papers

There is recognisable economic benefit to the translocation of barramundi, but there is also a need to ensure the translocation will not adversely impact upon the genetic diversity, introduce disease or impact on the natural environment and biodiversity. This discussion paper has been prepared to provide information to assist in the assessment of the possible impact of translocation of barramundi into and within Western Australia, for the purposed of recreational stock enhancement, aquaculture development and domestic stocking. In contemplating the translocation any aquatic species, signigicant economic and social benefits must be balanced with biological and environmental risks; that is, the ...


Phd Thesis (Doctorat De Spécialité): Université De Ouagadougou, 1999. Dr. Mamoudou H. Dicko. Purification Et Propriétés Physico-Chimiques Des Enzymes De Curculigo Pilosa, Gladiolus Klattianus Et Boscia Senegalensis Catalysant L'Hydrolyse Des Polysaccharides (Amidon Et Béta-Glucanes), Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof. Jun 1999

Phd Thesis (Doctorat De Spécialité): Université De Ouagadougou, 1999. Dr. Mamoudou H. Dicko. Purification Et Propriétés Physico-Chimiques Des Enzymes De Curculigo Pilosa, Gladiolus Klattianus Et Boscia Senegalensis Catalysant L'Hydrolyse Des Polysaccharides (Amidon Et Béta-Glucanes), Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof.

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

The objective of this study was the research of novel and inexpensive sources of polysaccharides degrading enzymes such as amylases and glucanases from local plants in order to justify their biotechnological applications. The isolation of two l3-amylases and an endo-1,3-ß-D-glucanase was reached using common protein purification methods such as buffer extraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation, ionexchange and gel filtration chromatographies. The methods used were simple and easily reproducible, suggesting the possibilfty of large-scale production. ln the crude extract of Curculigo pilosa tuber, only ß-amylase was detected as starch degrading enzyme and its activity was approximately 282 Uig of fresh material ...


Scale-Dependent Habitat Use In Three Species Of Prairie Wetland Birds, David E. Naugle, Kenneth E. Higgins, Sarah M. Nusser, W. Carter Johnson Jun 1999

Scale-Dependent Habitat Use In Three Species Of Prairie Wetland Birds, David E. Naugle, Kenneth E. Higgins, Sarah M. Nusser, W. Carter Johnson

Statistics Publications

We evaluated the influence of scale on habitat use for three wetland-obligate bird species with divergent life history characteristics and possible scale-dependent criteria for nesting and foraging in South Dakota, USA. A stratified, two-stage cluster sample was used to randomly select survey wetlands within strata defined by region, wetland density, and wetland surface area. We used 18-m (0.1 ha) fixed radius circular-plots to survey birds in 412 semipermanent wetlands during the summers of 1995 and 1996. Variation in habitat use by pied-billed grebes (Podilymbus podiceps) and yellow-headed blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), two sedentary species that rarely exploit resources outside the ...


Ultraviolet-B Radiation: Effects On Pollen Of 34 Taxa, And Inheritance Patterns And Carryover Of Radiation Response In Arabidopsis, Javad Torabinejad May 1999

Ultraviolet-B Radiation: Effects On Pollen Of 34 Taxa, And Inheritance Patterns And Carryover Of Radiation Response In Arabidopsis, Javad Torabinejad

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although considerable research has addressed effects of elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-8) radiation on vegetative plant structures and processes, the reproductive biology and patterns of inheritance of UV-B tolerance have received much less attention. I examined the effects of UV-B radiation on pollen of 34 taxa. I also addressed questions concerning the patterns of inheritance of UV-B tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana and examined potential cumulative carryover effects of UV-B exposure through multiple generations of this species.

In the first study, a significant reduction in pollen germination occurred in only five species, but pollen tube growth in more than half of the species ...


Spring 1999, Nsu Oceanographic Center Apr 1999

Spring 1999, Nsu Oceanographic Center

Currents

No abstract provided.


Benthic Community Analysis Of Hog Island Bay, Virginia, David James Lewis Apr 1999

Benthic Community Analysis Of Hog Island Bay, Virginia, David James Lewis

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The benthic infaunal macroinvertebrate communities of Hog Island Bay of the Virginia Eastern Shore were quantitatively sampled at 30 locations on August 31 and September 1, 1995. The primary objectives of this study were: (1) to characterize the subtidal macroinfaunal benthic communities of Hog Island Bay, (2) to examine relationships between abiotic factors and the macroinfaunal communities and (3) to characterize the environmental condition of the system using the Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (B-IBI) (Weisburg et al. 1997) and the EMAP Benthic Index for the Virginian Province (Strobel et al. 1995).

The ecological condition of Hog Island Bay appears ...


Internal Temperature Of Douglas-Fir Buds Is Altered At Elevated Temperature, Martha E. Apple, Melissa S. Lucash, David M. Olszyk, David T. Tingey, Donald L. Phillips Feb 1999

Internal Temperature Of Douglas-Fir Buds Is Altered At Elevated Temperature, Martha E. Apple, Melissa S. Lucash, David M. Olszyk, David T. Tingey, Donald L. Phillips

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) saplings were grown in sun-lit controlled environment chambers at ambient or elevated (4°C above ambient) temperature. We measured internal temperatures of vegetative buds with thermocouple probes and compared temperatures of normal buds and abnormal buds with loosened, rosetted outer scales in elevated temperature chambers. The abnormal buds had higher and earlier peak daily temperatures than normal buds. Elevated temperature may influence the internal temperature of buds and contribute to the development of abnormal, rosetted buds with loosened outer scales. Abnormal bud development may alter branching patterns and allometry of Douglas-fir trees subjected to climatic change.


Soil Amino Acid Utilization Among Species Of The Cyperaceae: Plant And Soil Processes, Ted K. Raab, David A. Lipson, Steven K. Scmidt, Russ K. Monson Jan 1999

Soil Amino Acid Utilization Among Species Of The Cyperaceae: Plant And Soil Processes, Ted K. Raab, David A. Lipson, Steven K. Scmidt, Russ K. Monson

Ted K. Raab

Amino acids are released during the decomposition of soil organic matter and have been shown to be utilized as a nitrogen source by some non-mycorrhizal species in the family Cyperaceae (the sedge family). Twelve out of 13 Cyperaceae species examined in the current study were capable of absorbing soil amino acids in the non-mycorrhizal state. With two exceptions (two species in the genus Kobresia), species from subalpine or alpine habitats exhibited lower rates of total nitrogen uptake compared to species from more temperate habitats, which is possibly explained by lower growth rates in the alpine and subalpine species and a ...


The Effect Of Water Level Management On The Soils And Vegetation Of Two Coastal Louisiana Marshes, Brian J. Wilsey, K. M. Flynn, I. A. Mendelssohn Jan 1999

The Effect Of Water Level Management On The Soils And Vegetation Of Two Coastal Louisiana Marshes, Brian J. Wilsey, K. M. Flynn, I. A. Mendelssohn

Brian J. Wilsey

Wetland degradation and loss is the result of a combination of natural causes and anthropogenic activities and is a serious problem in coastal Louisiana, where approximately 80% of the total US coastal wetland loss since the 1930’s has occurred. One method currently used to address this wetland loss problem is structural marsh management,which is the use of levees and water control structures to control hydroperiod. The effects of structural marsh management on two managed marshes in Southern Louisiana (Unit 4 of the Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge and the Fina LaTerre Mitigation Bank) were evaluated by comparing the soils and ...


Weeds/Weed Seedbank And Soil Fungi Responses To Tillage And Cropping Systems , Joel Felix Jan 1999

Weeds/Weed Seedbank And Soil Fungi Responses To Tillage And Cropping Systems , Joel Felix

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A four year field experiment was conducted from 1994 through 1997 to elucidate the effects of tillage, cropping systems, and weed management regimes on land previously under the conservation reserve program (CRP). A total of 13 weed species comprised the weed seedbank which was dominated by broadleaf weeds. The seedbank for common lambsquarters and Amaranthus species were 10,365 and 31,925 seeds M-2 in the first year out of CRP, respectively. The Amaranthus species seedbank continued to increase and climaxed at 51,670 seeds M-2 in 1996. The seedbank for Setaria species increased 19 fold between 1994 and 1997 ...


Statistical Methods For Count Data From Designs With Nested Structure , Ling-Ling Claire Tsao Jan 1999

Statistical Methods For Count Data From Designs With Nested Structure , Ling-Ling Claire Tsao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Count data from nested designs, split-plot experiments, and repeated measures studies are commonly encountered in agricultural and ecological research. Such data are often analyzed using analysis of variance methods based on distributional assumptions that may not be valid for count data, especially when expected counts are small. Furthermore, inferences for generalized linear models, such as log-linear and logistic regression models, are generally based on an assumption of independent Poisson or binomial counts that does not adequately account for correlations and heterogeneity arising in count data from nested designs. Recent developments for generalized linear mixed models, quasi-likelihood estimation and robust covariance ...


Effectiveness Of A Multi-Species Riparian Buffer System For Sediment And Nutrient Removal , Kye-Han Lee Jan 1999

Effectiveness Of A Multi-Species Riparian Buffer System For Sediment And Nutrient Removal , Kye-Han Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution from agricultural areas is one of the most critical problems threatening the nation's water resources. Surface runoff is a major carrier of NPS pollutants. Riparian buffers have been proposed as a means of reducing transport of NPS pollutants from agricultural areas to streams. Using rainfall simulation techniques and natural runoff monitoring, plot studies were conducted to evaluate the ability of an established multi-species riparian buffer system to reduce sediment and nutrient in agricultural runoff. The buffer system evaluated contained three types of vegetation: cool-season grasses, warm-season grasses, and woody plants. Results indicated that the effectiveness ...


The Relative Importance Of Patch Area And Perimeter–Area Ratio To Grassland Breeding Birds, Christopher J. Helzer, Dennis E. Jelinski Jan 1999

The Relative Importance Of Patch Area And Perimeter–Area Ratio To Grassland Breeding Birds, Christopher J. Helzer, Dennis E. Jelinski

Papers in Natural Resources

Habitat fragmentation has been implicated as a major cause of population decline in grassland birds. We tested the hypothesis that a combination of area and shape determines the use of grassland patches by breeding birds. We compared both species richness and individual species presence in 45 wet meadow grasslands in the floodplain of the central Platte River, Nebraska. Bird data were collected through the use of belt transects and supplemented by walking and listening outside transects. Our data supported our primary hypothesis that perimeter–area ratio, which reflects both the area and shape of a patch, is the strongest predictor ...


The Use Of Anuran Larvae To Determine Chronic And Acute Toxicological Effects From Exposure To Atrazine And Metolachlor , Linda Suzanne Gucciardo Jan 1999

The Use Of Anuran Larvae To Determine Chronic And Acute Toxicological Effects From Exposure To Atrazine And Metolachlor , Linda Suzanne Gucciardo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated the effects of chronic exposure of amphibian tadpoles and acute exposure of embryos to the agricultural chemical atrazine;Tadpoles were chronically exposed from the first feeding stage through metamorphosis to three levels of atrazine. Concentrations of 30, 300 and 600 mug/L reflect exposures likely to occur in streams, wetlands and temporary waters near croplands. Cricket frogs (Acris crepitans), wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) and northern leopard frogs (R. pipiens ) were evaluated on rate of growth, days to metamorphosis, metamorphic success, and juvenile weight and length. A repeated measures ANOVA evaluated the rate of growth (increase in SVL ...


Breeding Birds Of A Large-Scale Tallgrass Prairie Restoration In Iowa: Monitoring Abundance And Frequency Of Occurrence, Liessa Hyde Thomas Jan 1999

Breeding Birds Of A Large-Scale Tallgrass Prairie Restoration In Iowa: Monitoring Abundance And Frequency Of Occurrence, Liessa Hyde Thomas

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Little is known about avian response to habitat restoration, particularly for tallgrass prairies. Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge, established in 1990, is one of the largest tallgrass prairie restorations of its kind, with land acquisition approved at 3504 ha. Point count surveys were conducted at Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge from mid May through mid July, 1994-1998. Randomly selected points from four vegetation classes: cropland, herbaceous, riparian, and woodland, were surveyed over the five year study period. A total of 91 summer resident bird species were detected, including 8 grassland-specific species and 2 species from the Iowa threatened species list ...


Winter 1999, Nsu Oceanographic Center Jan 1999

Winter 1999, Nsu Oceanographic Center

Currents

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Predation On Two Species Of Stream-Dwelling Crayfish (Orconectes Marchandi And Cambarus Hubbsi) In Pool And Riffle Microhabitats, Heidi Dukat, Daniel D. Magoulick Jan 1999

Effects Of Predation On Two Species Of Stream-Dwelling Crayfish (Orconectes Marchandi And Cambarus Hubbsi) In Pool And Riffle Microhabitats, Heidi Dukat, Daniel D. Magoulick

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Community structure may be governed by many abiotic and biotic factors. Of the biotic factors, predation is often considered to be critical in structuring freshwater stream communities. In the Warm Fork of the Spring River, the crayfish Cambarus hubbsi is found mainly in riffles, whereas the crayfish Orconectes marchandi is found in high numbers in pools. We hypothesized that predation, mainly by fish, is a factor causing this segregation. Higher predation rates for C. hubbsi than 0. marchandi in the pools and higher predation rates for 0. marchandi than C. hubbsi in the riffles were expected. A transplant tethering experiment ...


Winter Survival And Population Dynamics Of Bean Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) , Wai-Ki Frankie Lam Jan 1999

Winter Survival And Population Dynamics Of Bean Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) , Wai-Ki Frankie Lam

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Ecological study of the population dynamics of bean leaf beetle adults, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), with special reference to the overwintering populations, was conducted in central Iowa. Ecological habits, spatial distribution, cold tolerance, and winter survival of overwintering beetle adults, were studied for 3-yr (1996 through 1999). Additionally, the population fluctuation of the adult beetles during the growing season was studied for 10-yr, from 1989 through 1998, inclusively. Overwintering beetle adults mostly hibernated in the crop residue of soybean fields ( ≈ 20%) and leaf litter of woodlands ( ≈ 80%). A few beetles (< 1%) overwintered in alfalfa fields, cornfields, and grasslands. The overwintering adults aggregated in the litter of soybean fields and woodlands. Residue in the habitats served as an insulating layer for the overwintering beetles. However, over 50% mortality of the overwintering beetles was observed in both soybean fields and woodlands during the 3-yr study. Laboratory study indicated that most of the overwintering beetles survived more than hundreds of hours when they were kept at --5°C or above, whereas most of the beetles died when they were kept at --10°C or below. This result indicated that cold temperature has a strong effect on the winter survival of the overwintering populations. A model for the estimation of the mortality of overwintering beetle adults, based on the accumulation of the air mean subfreezing winter temperature, was developed. Linear regression and multiple regression stepwise selection procedure analyses were used to relate environmental factors to population fluctuations of bean leaf beetle during the 10-yr study. The analyses showed a strong relationship between the environmental factors, including temperature and precipitation, and beetle population densities. A predictive model for F2 adults in the next late season was developed. The major factors affecting the survival of overwintering populations and population fluctuations of the beetles, estimation of winter survival, and the prediction of the population dynamics of bean leaf beetle during seasonal cycles are discussed.


Environmental Stress In Hard Coral: Evaluating Lipid As An Indicator Of Sublethal Stress On Short Time Scales, David Harold Niebuhr Jan 1999

Environmental Stress In Hard Coral: Evaluating Lipid As An Indicator Of Sublethal Stress On Short Time Scales, David Harold Niebuhr

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Lipid quality was evaluated in Montastrea spp. under sediment- and heat-stressed conditions to evaluate lipid ratio as an indicator of sub-lethal stress on short time scales. The ratio of storage lipid (wax ester + triacylglyceride) to structural lipid (sterol esters + phospholipid) decreased significantly (0.25 to 0.14, p < 0.01) after experimental sedimentation. FAME analysis of colonies exposed to experimental sedimentation showed a reduction of the algal, 18:3(n-6) and 18:4(n-3), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the polar lipid fraction. This loss of PUFA suggests a loss of algal membrane in sediment-stressed colonies. Lipid quality was similarly measured in M. faveolata over a 10-day period. Mean (n = 20) ratio of storage to structural lipid in M. faveolata dropped from 2.43 to a level of 0.98 immediately following a natural sedimentation event before recovering to levels of 1.4 and 2.9 on post-storm days 2 and 4, respectively. Colonies of M. annularis subject to heat-stress (35??C) exhibited no significant change in storage lipid ratio, while levels of Free Fatty Acids increased significantly from 0.012 (n = 22) to 0.156 mg lipid/g dry tissue (n = 22)(p < 0.05). FAME analysis of tissue lipids extracted from the heat-stressed colonies showed changes in the polar fraction, with significant decreases in the 18:3(n-6), 18:3(n-3), 18:4(n-3), 20:4(n-6) and 20:5(n-3) (p < 0.05) PUFA and subsequent significant increases in the saturated fatty acids, 16:0 and 18:0 (p < 0.05). These changes in lipid quantity and quality indicate possible oxidation and preferential digestion of zooxanthellar membranes. Stress experiments were repeated in M. annularis using VacutainerRTM blood collection tubes to collect micro-tissue samples without destroying skeleton of the sample colonies. A significant decrease in storage: structural lipid ratio after sedimentation was also detected using the micro-tissue technique. This study indicates that the relative abundance of lipid subclass components can indicate sub-lethal environmental stress, on short time scales, in M. annularis and M. faveolata. Furthermore, micro-tissue collection techniques permit repeated monitoring coral colonies to assess the manifestation of stress from first detection of impact at the cellular level to changes in community to changes in community structure detectable over longer time scales.


Sensory Development In Settlement-Stage Larvae Of Caribbean Labrids And Scarids: A Comparative Study With Implications For Ecomorphology And Life History Strategies, Monica R. Lara Jan 1999

Sensory Development In Settlement-Stage Larvae Of Caribbean Labrids And Scarids: A Comparative Study With Implications For Ecomorphology And Life History Strategies, Monica R. Lara

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The sensory capabilities of settlement-stage fishes are unknown but this information is necessary to studies of larval settlement and recruitment. The morphology of the cephalic lateral line, eye and external olfactory organ of thirteen species of settlement-stage Caribbean labroids was described. Scanning electron images of the cephalic lateral line neuromasts, lateral line canals and olfactory epithelia and histological studies of the retinae and morphological measurements of visual acuity were used to assess the level of sensory development attained at settlement. The sensory capabilities of settlement-stage fishes are discussed in relation to the possible cues settlement-stage fishes may be using to ...


The Impacts Of External Nutrient Sources On Marine Phytoplankton In An Eastern Shore Sea-Side Estuary, Claudette Lajoie Jenkins Jan 1999

The Impacts Of External Nutrient Sources On Marine Phytoplankton In An Eastern Shore Sea-Side Estuary, Claudette Lajoie Jenkins

OES Theses and Dissertations

The Eastern Shore of Virginia (Greens Creek) as well as a large portion of the North Atlantic coastline is characterized by estuarine systems not dominated by large river systems. Instead, small freshwater creeks influence many coastal systems yet little information has been documented on their ecological significance. The focus of this research is to identify the biogeochemical and physical interactions within an estuarine water-column and understand the importance of freshwater sources in governing phytoplankton production. The hypothesis of this research is that increases in external nutrient loading into Greens Creek will not result in an increase in primary production. The ...


Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration : A Synopsis And Synthesis Of Approaches; Proceedings From The Symposium, Williamsburg, Virginia, April 1995, Mark Luckenbach, Roger L. Mann, James A. Wesson Jan 1999

Oyster Reef Habitat Restoration : A Synopsis And Synthesis Of Approaches; Proceedings From The Symposium, Williamsburg, Virginia, April 1995, Mark Luckenbach, Roger L. Mann, James A. Wesson

Reports

This volume has its origin in a symposium held in Williamsburg, VA in April 1995, though most of the chapters have been significantly revised in the interim. The primary purpose of the symposium was to bring together state fisheries managers involved in fisheries-directed oyster enhancement and research scientists to refine approaches for enhancing oyster populations and to better develop the rationale for restoring reef habitats. We could hardly have anticipated the degree to which this been successful. In the interim between the symposium and the publication of this volume the notion that oyster reefs are valuable habitats, both for oysters ...