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Animal Sciences

2019

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Articles 1 - 30 of 203

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

The Vezo Communities And Fisheries Of The Coral Reef Ecosystem In The Bay Of Ranobe, Madagascar, Shane Abeare Dec 2019

The Vezo Communities And Fisheries Of The Coral Reef Ecosystem In The Bay Of Ranobe, Madagascar, Shane Abeare

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Madagascar, a country whose extraordinary levels of endemism and biodiversity are celebrated globally by scientists and laymen alike, yet historically has received surprisingly little research attention, is the setting of the present dissertation. Here, I contribute to the need for applied research by: 1) focusing on the most intensely fished section of the Toliara Barrier Reef, the Bay of Ranobe; 2) characterizing the marine environment, the human population, and the fisheries; and 3) collecting the longest known time-series of data on fisheries of Madagascar, thereby providing a useful baseline for future analyses. In Chapter 1, the bathymetry of the Bay ...


The Effects Of Sediment Acidification And Temperature On The Immune Capacity Of The Atlantic Jackknife (Razor) Clam (Ensis Leei M. Huber, 2015), Brian Preziosi Dec 2019

The Effects Of Sediment Acidification And Temperature On The Immune Capacity Of The Atlantic Jackknife (Razor) Clam (Ensis Leei M. Huber, 2015), Brian Preziosi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sediment acidification has been shown to negatively impact clams of economic importance such as the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria Linnaeus, 1758, and hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Effects of sediment acidification on razor clams, including the Atlantic jackknife clam Ensis leei M. Huber, 2015, are unknown. E. leei has been identified as a species with potential for aquaculture operations on the New England coast. E. leei may be resilient to acidification and thus persist in acidified sediments where other clams cannot. To this end, the impact of acidified surface sediment on the internal immune capacity of adult (mean shell ...


Using Radio Telemetry To Evaluate Post‐Stocking Survival And Behavior Of Large Fingerling Walleye In Three Iowa, Usa Lakes, Michael J. Weber, Robert E. Weber, Emily E. Ball, Jonathan R. Meerbeek Dec 2019

Using Radio Telemetry To Evaluate Post‐Stocking Survival And Behavior Of Large Fingerling Walleye In Three Iowa, Usa Lakes, Michael J. Weber, Robert E. Weber, Emily E. Ball, Jonathan R. Meerbeek

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Stocking Walleye Sander vitreus is a common management tool to augment populations where natural reproduction is limited. Some hatcheries have progressively raised larger fingerling Walleye to improve post-stocking survival; however, little is known about large fingerling Walleye poststocking survival and behavior. Our objectives were to evaluate large fingerling Walleye (>200 mm TL) post-stocking daily apparent survival, depth use, dispersal, and home range size in three Iowa, USA lakes. Walleye (209-265 mm, n=15 per lake, 45 fish total) were implanted with radio tags, stocked 26-30 October 2017, and tracked until 30 May 2018. Cormack-Jolly-Seber recapture models estimated Walleye apparent survival ...


A Model For The Prediction Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Escherichia Coli Based On A Comparative Evaluation Of Fatty Acid Profiles, Randal S. Stahl, Bledar Bisha, Sebabrata Mahapatra, Jeffrey C. Chandler Dec 2019

A Model For The Prediction Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Escherichia Coli Based On A Comparative Evaluation Of Fatty Acid Profiles, Randal S. Stahl, Bledar Bisha, Sebabrata Mahapatra, Jeffrey C. Chandler

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Antimicrobial resistance is a threat to agricultural production and public health. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated predicting antimicrobial sensitive/resistant (S/R) phenotypes and host sources of Escherichia coli (n = 128) based on differential fatty acid abundance. Myristic (14:0), pentadecanoic acid (15:0), palmitic (16:0), elaidic (18:19) and steric acid (18:0) were significantly different (α = 0.05) using a two-way ANOVA for predicting nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, aztreonam, cefatoxime, and ceftazidime S/R phenotypes. Additionally, analyses of palmitoleic (16:1), palmitic acid (16:0), methyl palmitate (i-17:0), and cis-9,10-methyleneoctadecanoic acid (19:0Δ) showed these ...


Mammal Species Inventory Using Various Trapping Methods In Zone 4 Of Billy Barquedier National Park, Belize During Rainy Season, Mersady Redding Dec 2019

Mammal Species Inventory Using Various Trapping Methods In Zone 4 Of Billy Barquedier National Park, Belize During Rainy Season, Mersady Redding

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Belize is a small country, but it is extremely ecologically diverse. Based on the few studies conducted in Belize, the abundance of mammals is low but diversity is high. Particular findings note the number and identity of species differed between four sites in the Maya Mountains of Belize, indicating that a data set from a single site is not representative of the Neotropical region. Insufficient data is available to estimate current species richness of many areas in Belize, including Billy Barquedier National Park (BBNP). The objective of this study was to explore trapping and documentation methods of terrestrial mammals in ...


Hunters And Their Perceptions Of Public Access: A View From Afield, Joseph J. Fontaine, Alexis D. Fedele, Lyndsie S. Wszola, Lindsey N. Messinger, Christopher J. Chizinski, Jeffery J. Lusk, Karie L. Decker, J. Scott Taylor, Erica F. Stuber Dec 2019

Hunters And Their Perceptions Of Public Access: A View From Afield, Joseph J. Fontaine, Alexis D. Fedele, Lyndsie S. Wszola, Lindsey N. Messinger, Christopher J. Chizinski, Jeffery J. Lusk, Karie L. Decker, J. Scott Taylor, Erica F. Stuber

Nebraska Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit -- Staff Publications

Declining hunter participation threatens cultural traditions and public support for conservation, warranting examination of the forces behind the downward trajectory. Access to lands for hunting, an often-cited reason for non participation, may play a critical role in the retention and recruitment of hunters. Meeting the access needs of a diverse hunting constituency requires understanding how hunters use and perceive access opportunities, particularly public-access sites. Given that perceptions of access are entirely place based and degrade with time, traditional postseason survey methods may fail to adequately quantify the value of public access to the hunting constituency. To overcome the potential limitations ...


Tree Cover In The Surrounding Landscape Reduces Burrowing Owl (Athene Cunicularia) Occupancy Of Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Colonies In South Dakota, Jason P. Thiele, Kristel K. Bakker, Charles D. Dieter Dec 2019

Tree Cover In The Surrounding Landscape Reduces Burrowing Owl (Athene Cunicularia) Occupancy Of Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Colonies In South Dakota, Jason P. Thiele, Kristel K. Bakker, Charles D. Dieter

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) population declines have led to the owl’s designation as a species of conservation concern in South Dakota. Burrowing Owls nest primarily in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies, but a significant proportion of colonies in South Dakota are not occupied by owls. We studied the influence of landscape-level habitat variables on colony selection by Burrowing Owls. We used call-playback surveys to document presence or absence of Burrowing Owls at 613 prairie dog colonies throughout western and central South Dakota. We used a geographic information system to calculate the percent cover of prairie dog colonies, grassland ...


Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus Collaris) Population Declines In Ozark Landscapes: An Assessment Of Environmental Constraints., Casey L. Brewster Dec 2019

Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus Collaris) Population Declines In Ozark Landscapes: An Assessment Of Environmental Constraints., Casey L. Brewster

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Eastern Collared Lizard (Crotaphytus collaris) has experienced extensive population declines over the past half century in the Ozark Mountains. Previous research suggests that glade habitat degradation through woody vegetation encroachment is an important factor resulting in population declines. In this dissertation I used information on time-energy budgets to investigate the link between habitat degradation and shifts in life history traits likely resulting in population declines of Eastern Collared Lizards (Crotaphytus collaris) in the Ozarks. In chapter one, I addressed the influence of dense woody vegetation encroachment on age-specific growth, body size, body condition and reproduction of C. collaris in ...


Use Of Uav Imagery And Nutrient Analyses For Estimation Of The Spatial And Temporal Contributions Of Cattle Dung To Nutrient Cycling In Grazed Ecosystems, Amanda Shine Dec 2019

Use Of Uav Imagery And Nutrient Analyses For Estimation Of The Spatial And Temporal Contributions Of Cattle Dung To Nutrient Cycling In Grazed Ecosystems, Amanda Shine

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Nutrient inputs from cattle dung are crucial drivers of nutrient cycling processes in grazed ecosystems. These inputs are important both spatially and temporally and are affected by variables such as grazing strategy, water location, and the nutritional profile of forage being grazed. Past research has attempted to map dung deposition patterns in order to more accurately estimate nutrient input, but the large spatial extent of a typical pasture and the tedious nature of identifying and mapping individual dung pats has prohibited the development of a time- and cost-effective methodology. The first objective of this research was to develop and validate ...


Long-Term Data Suggest Potential Interactions Of Introduced Walleye And Smallmouth Bass On Native Sauger In Four Missouri River Impoundments, Mark J. Fincel, Nicholas B. Kludt, Hilary A. Meyer, Michael Weber, Christopher M. Longhenry Dec 2019

Long-Term Data Suggest Potential Interactions Of Introduced Walleye And Smallmouth Bass On Native Sauger In Four Missouri River Impoundments, Mark J. Fincel, Nicholas B. Kludt, Hilary A. Meyer, Michael Weber, Christopher M. Longhenry

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Sauger Sander canadensis, Walleye Sander vitreus, and Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu, are important sportfish in the four main stem Missouri River reservoirs in South Dakota: Lakes Oahe, Sharpe, Francis Case, and Lewis and Clark. However, native Sauger populations, once assumed to be stable, may be in decline. To identify temporal trends and potential interspecific mechanisms affecting Sauger populations, we examined their long-term abundance trends in standard gillnet surveys and angler catch and harvest trends in long-term creel surveys. We also used a robust design occupancy model to examine changes in within-lake distribution of this species. There are concerns regarding the ...


Morphological Identification Of Bighead Carp, Silver Carp, And Grass Carp Eggs Using Random Forests Machine Learning Classification, Carlos A. Camacho, Christopher J. Sullivan, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce Dec 2019

Morphological Identification Of Bighead Carp, Silver Carp, And Grass Carp Eggs Using Random Forests Machine Learning Classification, Carlos A. Camacho, Christopher J. Sullivan, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Visual identification of fish eggs is difficult and unreliable due to a lack of information on the morphological egg characteristics of many species. We used random forests machine learning to predict the identity of genetically identified Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, and Silver Carp H. molitrix eggs based on egg morphometric and environmental characteristics. Family, genus, and species taxonomic-level random forests models were explored to assess the performance and accuracy of the predictor variables. The egg characteristics of Bighead Carp, Grass Carp, and Silver Carp were similar, and they were difficult to distinguish from one another. When ...


Strategies To Improve Forage Utilization By Sheep Offered Forage Mixtures, Valens Niyigena Dec 2019

Strategies To Improve Forage Utilization By Sheep Offered Forage Mixtures, Valens Niyigena

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the first experiment, alfalfa and novel endophyte-infected tall fescue (NE+) forages were harvested after a killing frost, then mixed to formulate 4 different treatments; alfalfa alone, 67% alfalfa +33% fescue, 33% alfalfa + 67% fescue, or 100% fescue. After 3 months of storage as silage, Dorper ewe lambs (n = 20; mean BW = 34.7 ± 6.65 kg) were fed silage for ad libitum consumption, using 5 animals per treatment. Increasing the proportion of NE+ tall fescue improved (P < 0.05) silage total acids and lactic acid concentrations and decreased silage ammonia concentration. Digestible dry matter and organic matter intake and nitrogen utilization parameters decreased with increasing inclusion of NE+ in diet. In the second experiment, 16 Dorper ewe lambs (41.8 ± 4.61 kg BW) were assigned to 4 different treatments; alfalfa silage alone (0 g/kg; CONT) or alfalfa silage mixed with chopped sericea lespedeza (SL) hay to provide 90 (LOW), 180 (MED), or 270 g/kg SL (HIGH) on a dry matter basis in a randomized complete block design experiment with 2 period to provide 4 observations per treatment for each experimental period. Increasing the proportion of sericea lespedeza in the diet decreased dry matter and organic matter digestibility but did not affect feed intake. Fecal nitrogen (g/kg N intake) increased linearly (P < 0.01) while urinary N (g/ day and g/ kg of N intake) tended to decreased linearly and quadratically (P ≤ 0.1) with increasing the proportion of SL in diet. In the third experiments, 16 gestating Dorper ewe lambs (49.1 ± 4.61 kg BW) were allocated to 4 treatments; alfalfa silage alone (0% g/kg; CONT) or alfalfa silage mixed with lablab purpureus(LP) hay to provide 90 (LOW), 180 (MED), or 270 g/kg LP (HIGH) on a dry matter (DM) basis, in a randomized complete block design experiment with a total 8 replication per treatment. Supplementation of LP in diet increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.04) forage dry matter, organic matter intake, digestible dry matter and digestible organic matter intake (P < 0.05). Nitrogen apparently absorbed and urinary N both decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with adding more LP hay in diet. Harvesting and mixing alfalfa and fescue after a killing frost improved silage fermentation characteristics and supplementation of tannins from SL and polyphenol from LP altered N excretion.

Key words: lablab, sericea lespedeza, alfalfa silage, nitrogen, sheep.


A Conservation Palaeobiological Perspective On Chesapeake Bay Oysters, Rowan Lockwood, Roger L. Mann Dec 2019

A Conservation Palaeobiological Perspective On Chesapeake Bay Oysters, Rowan Lockwood, Roger L. Mann

VIMS Articles

The eastern oyster plays a vital role in estuarine habitats, acting as an ecosystem engineer and improving water quality. Populations of Chesapeake Bay oysters have declined precipitously in recent decades. The fossil record, which preserves 500 000 years of once-thriving reefs, provides a unique opportunity to study pristine reefs to establish a possible baseline for mitigation. For this study, over 900 fossil oysters were examined from three Pleistocene localities in the Chesapeake region. Data on oyster shell lengths, lifespans and population density were assessed. Comparisons to modern Crassostrea virginica, sampled from monitoring surveys of similar environments, reveal that fossil oysters ...


Getting Over The Dam: Overcoming Institutional Barriers To The Recovery Of Atlantic Salmon By Navigating The Social-Science/Policy Interface, Melissa E. Flye Dec 2019

Getting Over The Dam: Overcoming Institutional Barriers To The Recovery Of Atlantic Salmon By Navigating The Social-Science/Policy Interface, Melissa E. Flye

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The term governance has undergone somewhat of an evolution since its inception, originally describing the act of governing, it has come to represent a more collaborative form of governing which is distinct from hierarchical control models (Marin and Mayntz, 1991). Collaborative governance refers to the systems associated with public policy decision making and resource management which span the jurisdictional boundaries of public agencies, levels of government, and/or public and private spheres in order to pursue a public policy goal or outcome (Emerson et al., 2012). Environmental management is often considered an inherently collaborative effort, as ecological systems and species ...


Male Burmese Pythons Follow Female Scent Trails And Show Sex-Specific Behaviors, Shannon A. Richard, Eric A. Tillman, John S. Humphrey, Michael L. Avery, M. Rockwell Parker Nov 2019

Male Burmese Pythons Follow Female Scent Trails And Show Sex-Specific Behaviors, Shannon A. Richard, Eric A. Tillman, John S. Humphrey, Michael L. Avery, M. Rockwell Parker

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Animals communicate with potential mates using species-specific signals, and pheromones are powerful sexual signals that modify conspecific behavior to facilitate mate location. Among the vertebrates, snakes are especially adept in mate searching via chemical trailing, which is particularly relevant given that many snake species are invasive outside their native ranges. Chemical signals used in mate choice are, thus, potentially valuable tools for management of invasive snake species. The Burmese python (Python bivittatus) is an invasive snake in the Florida Everglades where it is negatively impacting native fauna. In this study, we sought to: (i) determine if males can follow conspecific ...


Variation In Host Home Range Size Decreases Rabies Vaccination Effectiveness By Increasing The Spatial Spread Of Rabies Virus, Katherine M. Mcclure, Amy T. Gilbert, Richard B. Chipman, Erin E. Rees, Kim M. Pepin Nov 2019

Variation In Host Home Range Size Decreases Rabies Vaccination Effectiveness By Increasing The Spatial Spread Of Rabies Virus, Katherine M. Mcclure, Amy T. Gilbert, Richard B. Chipman, Erin E. Rees, Kim M. Pepin

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

  1. Animal movement influences the spatial spread of directly transmitted wildlife disease through host-host contact structure. Wildlife disease hosts vary in home range- associated foraging and social behaviours, which may increase the spread and intensity of disease outbreaks. The consequences of variation in host home range movement and space use on wildlife disease dynamics are poorly understood, but could help to predict disease spread and determine more effective disease management strategies.
  2. We developed a spatially explicit individual-based model to examine the effect of spatiotemporal variation in host home range size on the spatial spread rate, persistence and incidence of rabies virus ...


Influence Of Largemouth Bass Behaviors, Angler Behaviors, And Environmental Conditions On Fishing Tournament Capture Success, Andrea Sylvia, Brandon Maahs, Michael J. Weber Nov 2019

Influence Of Largemouth Bass Behaviors, Angler Behaviors, And Environmental Conditions On Fishing Tournament Capture Success, Andrea Sylvia, Brandon Maahs, Michael J. Weber

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Tournament anglers typically possess extensive knowledge of the habitat and seasonal movement of their targeted species. While fish‐angler behavioral relationships are critical to understand fish catchability, few studies have assessed how fish behavior influences their vulnerability to capture by tournament anglers. Our objectives were to determine if Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides behavior, angler behavior, and environmental conditions affect tournament angler catch rate (CPUE) and bass capture probability at fishing tournaments. Forty‐nine bass were tracked weekly using radio telemetry during a four‐month period. Five tournament anglers were also selected at weekly tournament events and tracked continuously using a ...


Food Habits Of Coyotes (Canis Latrans) In The Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico, Suzanne J. Gifford, Eric M. Gese, Robert R. Parmenter Nov 2019

Food Habits Of Coyotes (Canis Latrans) In The Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico, Suzanne J. Gifford, Eric M. Gese, Robert R. Parmenter

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Wildlife managers needed to understand coyote (Canis latrans) ecology in order to develop management plans on the nascent Valles Caldera National Preserve in northern New Mexico. Managers concerned about low elk (Cervus elaphus) recruitment had observed an increase in sightings of coyotes and observations of coyote predation on elk calves. Our objective was to identify and quantify coyote diet, and assess the temporal variation in coyote diet on the Valles Caldera National Preserve, particularly as related to elk calf consumption. We examined coyote food habits using 1,385 scats analyzed monthly from May 2005 to November 2008. The most frequent ...


Impact Of The Human Footprint On Anthropogenic Mortality Of North American Reptiles, Jacob E. Hill, Travis L. Devault, Jerrold L. Belant Nov 2019

Impact Of The Human Footprint On Anthropogenic Mortality Of North American Reptiles, Jacob E. Hill, Travis L. Devault, Jerrold L. Belant

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Human activities frequently result in reptile mortality, but how direct anthropogenic mortality compares to natural morality has not been thoroughly investigated. There has also been a limited examination of how anthropogenic reptile mortality changes as a function of the human footprint. We conducted a synthesis of causespecific North American reptile mortality studies based on telemetry, documenting 550 mortalities of known cause among 2461 monitored individuals in 57 studies. Overall 78% of mortality was the result of direct natural causes, whereas 22% was directly caused by humans. The single largest source of mortality was predation, accounting for 62% of mortality overall ...


An Impact Assessment Of Illegal Unreported Unregulated (Iuu) Fishing In Central Africa As A Step Towards Sustainability In Africa’S Fishing Industry: Case Study : Cameroon, Noella Njeuyap Mbotiji Nov 2019

An Impact Assessment Of Illegal Unreported Unregulated (Iuu) Fishing In Central Africa As A Step Towards Sustainability In Africa’S Fishing Industry: Case Study : Cameroon, Noella Njeuyap Mbotiji

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Coastal Monitor Fall 2019, John Tanacredi Ph.D. Nov 2019

The Coastal Monitor Fall 2019, John Tanacredi Ph.D.

The Coastal Monitor

In 2013 I had the distinct pleasure to be offered the opportunity to become a part of the Molloy College family. President Dr. Drew Bogner believed that CERCOM would be an important part of building an exciting program for students in Earth and Environmental Science at Molloy. Dr. Bogner was able to envision how the CERCOM Field Station, would enrich Molloy College science students, given its decades of earth, environmental, and marine sciences research. He had the foresight to understand that the experiences at CERCOM would help foster a vast array of international academic collaborations which now include 14 countries ...


Use Of A Mark-Recapture Model To Evaluate Largemouth Bass Delayed Tournament Mortality, Andrea Sylvia, Michael J. Weber Nov 2019

Use Of A Mark-Recapture Model To Evaluate Largemouth Bass Delayed Tournament Mortality, Andrea Sylvia, Michael J. Weber

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Estimating fishing mortality, including initial and delayed mortality, is necessary to assess potential effects of catch and release tournament fishing events. Previous studies retaining angler-caught fish are useful in understanding delayed mortality but have associated limitations. As an alternative to tournament mortality studies, we estimated daily apparent survival rates of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoidesusing a modified Cormack-Jolly-Seber model in Program MARK to test for the duration of delayed tournament mortality and to identify important covariates affecting survival. Multiple monotonic trends were evaluated to test acute (2, 3, 4, or 7 d) and chronic (15 or 30 d) delayed mortality ...


Rabies Surveillance Identifies Potential Risk Corridors And Enables Management Evaluation, Amy J. Davis, Kathleen M. Nelson, Jordana D. Kirby, Ryan M. Wallace, Xiaoyue Ma, Kim M. Pepin, Richard B. Chipman, Amy Gilbert Oct 2019

Rabies Surveillance Identifies Potential Risk Corridors And Enables Management Evaluation, Amy J. Davis, Kathleen M. Nelson, Jordana D. Kirby, Ryan M. Wallace, Xiaoyue Ma, Kim M. Pepin, Richard B. Chipman, Amy Gilbert

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Intensive efforts are being made to eliminate the raccoon variant of rabies virus (RABV) from the eastern United States and Canada. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Wildlife Services National Rabies Management Program has implemented enhanced rabies surveillance (ERS) to improve case detection across the extent of the raccoon oral rabies vaccination (ORV) management area. We evaluated ERS and public health surveillance data from 2006 to 2017 in three northeastern USA states using a dynamic occupancy modeling approach. Our objectives were to examine potential risk corridors for RABV incursion from the U.S. into Canada, evaluate the effectiveness of ...


Data Of Soil, Vegetation And Bird Species Found On Double-Crested Cormorant Colonies In The Southeastern United States, Leah Moran Veum, Brian S. Dorr, Katie Hanson-Dorr, R. J. Moore, Scott A. Rush Oct 2019

Data Of Soil, Vegetation And Bird Species Found On Double-Crested Cormorant Colonies In The Southeastern United States, Leah Moran Veum, Brian S. Dorr, Katie Hanson-Dorr, R. J. Moore, Scott A. Rush

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

This data article provides the methods and procedures followed to collect and analyse soil, vegetation and bird data on three different treatment islands in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. Samples were collected from randomly selected plot points from islands that were placed into three different treatment types: Colony (currently occupied by Double-crested Cormorants) (Phalacrocorax auritus; n 1⁄4 5), Historic (historically occupied by cormorants and currently abandoned; n 1⁄4 3) and Reference (never occupied by cormorants; n 1⁄4 4). We compared vegetation and tree metrics such as structure and diversity, as well as soil chemistry and bird diversity and communities ...


The Economic Impacts Of Blackbird (Icteridae) Damage To Sunflower In The Usa, Karina Ernst, Julie Elser, George Linz, Hans Kandel, Jason Holderieath, Samantha Degroot, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff Oct 2019

The Economic Impacts Of Blackbird (Icteridae) Damage To Sunflower In The Usa, Karina Ernst, Julie Elser, George Linz, Hans Kandel, Jason Holderieath, Samantha Degroot, Steven Shwiff, Stephanie Shwiff

Jason Holderieath

BACKGROUND: Blackbird (Icteridae) damage to ripening sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been a persistent economic issue in the USA for the last five decades. To quantify losses, we surveyed blackbird damage from 2001 to 2013 (excluding 2004) to physiologically mature sunflower in eight states: North Dakota, South Dakota, Texas, Nebraska, Minnesota, Colorado, Kansas, and Vermont.

RESULTS:We pooled data gathered during the most recent 5 years (2009 to 2013) of the survey and found losses averaged $US2.5 million and $US11.3 million for confectionery and oilseed hybrids, respectively. Three states, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska, had sufficient acreage ...


The Tail Wagging The Dog: Positive Attitude Towards Livestock Guarding Dogs Do Not Mitigate Pastoralists’ Opinions Of Wolves Or Grizzly Bears, Daniel Kinka, Julie K. Young Oct 2019

The Tail Wagging The Dog: Positive Attitude Towards Livestock Guarding Dogs Do Not Mitigate Pastoralists’ Opinions Of Wolves Or Grizzly Bears, Daniel Kinka, Julie K. Young

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

While the re-establishment of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) in the American West marks a success for conservation, it has been contentious among pastoralists. Coincidentally, livestock guarding dogs (LGDs; Canis familiaris) have been widely adopted by producers of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the United States to mitigate livestock depredation by wild carnivores. We surveyed pastoralists to measure how experience with and attitudes towards LGDs related to attitudes towards livestock predators, and found positive responses regarding LGDs and negative responses regarding wolves and grizzly bears. The more respondents agreed that LGDs reduce the need for lethal management ...


Dental And Mandibular Anomalies In White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) From Central Georgia, Patrick M. Powers, Alfred J. Mead Oct 2019

Dental And Mandibular Anomalies In White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) From Central Georgia, Patrick M. Powers, Alfred J. Mead

Georgia Journal of Science

The frequency of dental and mandibular anomalies in free-ranging white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States is not well documented. Characteristic irregularities include supernumerary and missing teeth, malocclusion, root abscesses due to bacterial infections, and tooth or bone damage due to trauma. In the present study, we examined 778 white-tailed deer dentaries collected from the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia. All dentaries were inspected for lesions, tooth irregularities, developmental anomalies, and other pathologies. Thirty-two dentaries (4.1%) displayed signs of dental or bone abnormalities. More abnormalities were associated with infection or injury (22/778, 2.8%) compared to ...


An Agent-Based Modeling Approach For Predicting The Behavior Of Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Nobilis) Under The Influence Of Acoustic Deterrence, Joey Gaudy, Craig Garzella Oct 2019

An Agent-Based Modeling Approach For Predicting The Behavior Of Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Nobilis) Under The Influence Of Acoustic Deterrence, Joey Gaudy, Craig Garzella

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Future Importance Of Healthy Oceans: Ecosystem Functions And Biodiversity, Marine Pollution, Carbon Sequestration, Ecosystem Goods And Services, Mohammad Mosharraf Hossain Oct 2019

Future Importance Of Healthy Oceans: Ecosystem Functions And Biodiversity, Marine Pollution, Carbon Sequestration, Ecosystem Goods And Services, Mohammad Mosharraf Hossain

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

The paper provides a review the current status of ecosystem and resource extraction to provide a series of thoughts related to the future challenges in maintaining the health of the Marine and coastal ecosystems at the Bay of Bengal. The chapter highlighted the challenges current efforts and future interventions necessary to keep the Bay of Bengal large marine ecosystem healthy. They are mainly linked to climate change, environmental pollution from different sources, biodiversity conservation, sediment movement. marine spatial planning and adoption of protected area concept to design marine reserve, fish sanctuary and ecological critical areas in the coastal zone were ...


36 Years After The Species' Mass-Mortality: Diadema Antillarum Test Sizes, Population Densities, And Substrate Preferences In Three Guna Yala Reefs Near Wichub Wala Island, Bimini Horstmann Oct 2019

36 Years After The Species' Mass-Mortality: Diadema Antillarum Test Sizes, Population Densities, And Substrate Preferences In Three Guna Yala Reefs Near Wichub Wala Island, Bimini Horstmann

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

In January 1983, a waterborne pathogen beginning near the Atlantic Panama Canal entrance caused history's largest recorded marine animal die-off, wiping out 95-99% of Diadema antillarum populations throughout the Caribbean. D. antillarum, the long-spined sea urchin, is a keystone herbivore in coral reefs and its decreased densities have caused many reefs to suffer macroalgal phase shifts. Modest recovery of this species has been documented in some Caribbean locations, but reefs in Guna Yala, Panama continued to experience population decline. This study investigates density, test size, and substrate preferences of D. antillarum in three shallow coral reef areas to update ...